登录注册
主页关于 MindatMindat手册Mindat的历史版权Who We Are联系我们于 Mindat.org刊登广告
捐赠给 MindatCorporate Sponsorship赞助板页已赞助的板页在 Mindat刊登 广告的广告商于 Mindat.org刊登广告
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe Elements书籍及杂志
搜索矿物的性质搜索矿物的化学Advanced Locality Search随意显示任何一 种矿物Random Locality使用minID搜索邻近产地Search Articles搜索词汇表更多搜索选项
搜索:
矿物名称:
地区产地名称:
关键字:
 
Mindat手册添加新照片Rate Photos产区编辑报告Coordinate Completion Report添加词汇表项目
Mining Companies统计会员列表Mineral Museums矿物展及活动The Mindat目录表设备设置
照片搜索Photo Galleries今天最新的照片昨天最新的照片用户照片相集过去每日精选照片相集Mineral Photography

Pyrolusite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About PyrolusiteHide

Formula:
Mn4+O2
Colour:
Black or very dark grey.
Lustre:
Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
2 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
5.04 - 5.08
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1827 from the Greek for "fire" and "to wash," because it was used to remove brown and green tints in the making of glass.
Rutile Group.

Usually found as matte-black powdery to fibrous crusts, sometimes in botryoidal aggregates or columnar, more rarely as druzes of small prismatic to tabular, dark grey metallic crystals.
May be confused with some manganese oxides such as todorokite (fibrous variants) and manganite (tabular crystals).

NOTE: No valid pyrolusite dendrites are known. Supposed specimens of pyrolusite in dendritic form turn out to be other Mn-oxide species (e.g., minerals of the cryptomelane group, birnessite, nsutite, todorokite, etc.) upon being examined in the proper laboratory setting for characterizing these difficult to identify minerals; see Potter and Rossman (1979).


Classification of PyrolusiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th ed.:
4.4.1.4
4.4.1.4

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.18.3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Pronounciation of PyrolusiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of PyrolusiteHide

Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Black or very dark grey.
Streak:
Black to bluish-black.
Hardness:
2 - 6½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Comment:
6 to 6.5 when crystalline, 2 when massive.
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
5.04 - 5.08 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.189 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PyrolusiteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong, in yellows
Colour in reflected light:
Cream-white
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Very weak. Yellow to yellow-gray.

Chemical Properties of PyrolusiteHide

Formula:
Mn4+O2
IMA Formula:
MnO2

Crystallography of PyrolusiteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P42/mnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.4041(1) Å, c = 2.8765(1) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.653
Unit Cell V:
55.79 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals are uncommon, either long or short prismatic parallel to [001] or equant; more typically found as earthy powder or fibrous aggregates as crusts on rocks; sometimes as botryoidal aggregates, more rarely as druses of microscopic crystals.
Never found as dendrites despite old literature. [The obsolete term "polianite" was once used to refer to crystalline pyrolusite, which was assumed to be a different species than earthy to crusty pyrolusite.]
Twinning:
Twinning rare. Repeated twins with twin planes {031} and {032}. Polysynthetic twinning observed in polished sections.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.11Å(100)
2.41Å(60)
2.11Å(20)
1.62Å(60)
1.56Å(10)
1.306Å(20)
1.304Å(20)
1.000Å(10)
Comments:
Data given are for synthetic material.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
A common Mn mineral, although difficult to distinguish from similar Mn minerals, pyrolusite forms under oxidizing conditions and high pH. Mainly a mineral of lacustrine, shallow marine, and bog deposits, it is also found in the oxidized zones of manganiferous ore deposits and as deposits formed by circulating meteoric water. Both colloidal processes and bacterial action are important in its formation.

Synonyms of PyrolusiteHide

Other Language Names for PyrolusiteHide

Varieties of PyrolusiteHide

Argentiferous PyrolusiteApparently a silver-bearing variety of pyrolusite. Seems doubtful.
PolianiteThis term using for description of Pyrolusite pseudomorphoses after pseudoorthorombic Manganite crystals (really manganite has monoclinic structure).

Relationship of Pyrolusite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
ParatelluriteTeO2Tet.
PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.
UM2000-35-O:FeNbScTaTi(Sc,Fe2+,Fe3+,Mn)(Ti,Sn,Zr)1.5(Nb,Ta,W)1.33O8

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
57 photos of Pyrolusite associated with Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
34 photos of Pyrolusite associated with CalciteCaCO3
24 photos of Pyrolusite associated with QuartzSiO2
15 photos of Pyrolusite associated with HematiteFe2O3
15 photos of Pyrolusite associated with BaryteBaSO4
10 photos of Pyrolusite associated with PsilomelaneMn, O
9 photos of Pyrolusite associated with ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
8 photos of Pyrolusite associated with Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
8 photos of Pyrolusite associated with RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
6 photos of Pyrolusite associated with GoldAu

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.05RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2Mon.
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb2O6Tet.
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.DB.15cNsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteV4+O2Orth.
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.20Scrutinyiteα-PbO2Orth.
4.DB.25IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8Orth.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,U,Th,Ca,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4Mon.
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4Mon. 2/m
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth.
4.DB.35Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10Orth.
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFe2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMn2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteV3+TiO3(OH)Mon.
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.60Biehlite((Sb,As)O)2[MoO4]Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.4.1.1RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.2IlmenorutileFex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2Tet.
4.4.1.3Strüverite(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
4.4.1.5CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.6PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.4.1.7ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.9StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.18.12AuroriteMn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Fluorescence of PyrolusiteHide

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PyrolusiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Haidinger, W. (1827) Description of pyrolusite, or prismatic manganese ore. The Edinburgh Journal of Science: 9: 304-309.
Turner, E. (1828) Chemical examination of the oxides of manganese. Part II. On the composition of the ores of manganese described by Mr. Haidinger. The Philosophical Magazine: 4: 96-104.
How, H. (1866) Contributions to the Mineralogy of Nova Scotia, Pt. I, Manganite, Pyrolusite, Wad. Philosophical Magazine, Series 4: 31(208): 165-170.
Dana, E.S., Penfield, S.L. (1888) On the crystalline form of polianite. American Journal of Science: 35: 243-247.
St. John, A. (1923) Crystal structure of manganese dioxide. Physical Reviews: 21: 389-389.
Thiel, G.A. (1924) The manganese minerals; their identification and paragenesis. Economic Geology: 19(2): 107-145.
Ferrari (1926) Acc. Linc., Att.: 3: 224.
Vaux, G., Bennett, M.H. (1937) X-Ray Studies on Pyrolusite (Including Polianite) and Psilomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 24(157): 521-526.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 562-566.
Nambu, M., Okada, K. Sakurai, K. (1960) Some pyrolusite pseudomorphs after crystals of manganite in Japan. Bulletin of the Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy, Tohoku University: 15(2): 77-86.
Davis, R.J. (1967) Some manganese oxide pseudomorphs. Mineralogical Magazine and Journal of the Mineralogical Society: 36(278): 274-279.
Champness, P.E. (1971) The transformation manganite → pyrolusite. Mineralogical Magazine: 38(294): 245-248.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1974) 8: 371-384.
Potter, R., Rossman, G. (1979) The Tetravalent Manganese Oxides: Identification, hydration and Structural Relationships by Infrared Spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 64: 1199-1218.
International Mineralogical Association (1982) International Mineralogical Association: Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 46: 513-514.
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, H.C.W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., King, V.T. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 238.
Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.

Internet Links for PyrolusiteHide

Localities for PyrolusiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

This section is currently hidden. Click the show button to view.