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Sulphur Hill Mine (Sulfur Hill Mine), Andover Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, USAi
Regional Level Types
Sulphur Hill Mine (Sulfur Hill Mine)Mine
Andover TownshipTownship
Sussex CountyCounty
New JerseyState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 0' 26'' North , 74° 44' 0'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Andover581 (2017)2.5km
Newton7,979 (2017)5.9km
Lake Mohawk9,916 (2017)6.3km
Sparta19,722 (2018)8.5km
Hopatcong Hills16,267 (2017)8.8km


A former Fe mine in magnetite ore located approx. 1½ miles NNE of Andover. Operated 1855-1863 (?) and intermittently 1871-1880. Closed in 1883. Workings feature a pit 65 to 75 feet deep, 30 feet wide and 100 feet long. This mine is famous for its variety of minerals and as the "other" willemite locality in New Jersey (unrelated to the Franklin zinc orebodies).

The Sulphur Hill Mine is centered on a small lens of impure calcite-pyroxene marble and diopsidite. Within the Sulphur Hill pit the marble also contains large amounts of the vanadian garnet, goldmanite (Volkert and Puffer, 2001), plus magnetite and sulphide minerals, which made processing the ore difficult. Pyrrhotite was the most abundant sulphide along with lesser pyrite and chalcopyrite. Sphalerite and galena, mostly argentiferous, were locally abundant. Small amounts of molybdenite were also present. A rough assay, done in the mid 1970, using galena separated from the skarn, yielded an estimate of 35 oz. of Ag/ton of galena. Several pounds of galena yielded a silver bead about the size of a 00 buckshot pellet.

Willemite was first reported from Andover by Kitchell (1855). The original description of the material mentions an association with well crystallized garnet and states that the willemite was found in cavities “among the garnet crystals”. There is also mention of ocherous, black manganese oxides in some abundance. This description leaves no doubt that the Sulphur Hill Mine was the source of the willemite. The description was written in the year that the Sulphur Hill Mine reportedly began development so it can be safely assumed that it was found in a near surface concentration of sulphide that had been oxidized.

It should also be noted that another, entirely separate occurrence of willemite was discovered, approximately 113 years later, in the nearby Andover Iron Mine. This occurrence, in a quartz-calcite-sulphide vein, was also due to the oxidation of sphalerite

References:
Kitchel, w., 1855, Second annual report of the geological survey of the State of New Jersey, for the year 1855.

Volkert, R.A., and Puffer, J.H., 2001, Field trip day five. Road log for the Sulphur Hill and Andover Iron Mines, New Jersey, in Slack, J.F, ed., Part 1. Protorozoic iron and zinc deposits of the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the New Jersey highlands, Soc. of Econ. Geologists Guidebook Series, V. 35, pg. 99-101.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Dana 6: 1065.
Aragonite var. Flos Ferri
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Dana 6: 1065.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 133.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 93.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 133.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 133.
Goldmanite
Formula: Ca3V3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Volkert, R.A., and Puffer, J.H., 2001, Field trip day five. Road log for the Sulphur Hill and Andover Iron Mines, New Jersey, in Slack, J.F, ed., Part 1. Protorozoic iron and zinc deposits of the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the New Jersey highlands, Soc. of Econ. Geologists Guidebook Series, V. 35, pg. 99-101.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Dana 6: 1065.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221; Dunn, P.J. (1995), Pt 1: 89..
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Dana 6: 1065.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 133.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Dana 6: 1065.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Dana 6: 1065.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 133.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 221.
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Colour: Colorless
Fluorescence: Bright yellow (SW UV).
Description: Lines cavities in quartz-rich matrix.
Reference: The Iron Mines of NJ (1910), Bayley: 133 & 221.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
var. Flos Ferri5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 9 - Silicates
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Goldmanite9.AD.25Ca3V3+2(SiO4)3
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Riebeckite9.DE.25◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Goldmanite51.4.3b.4Ca3V3+2(SiO4)3
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
var. Flos Ferri-CaCO3
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Pyroxene Group'-
Riebeckite-◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C Aragonite var. Flos FerriCaCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
OOxygen
O HematiteFe2O3
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O QuartzSiO2
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Aragonite var. Flos FerriCaCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
O GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
O AragoniteCaCO3
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
SSulfur
S SphaleriteZnS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Aragonite var. Flos FerriCaCO3
Ca GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
VVanadium
V GoldmaniteCa3V23+(SiO4)3
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 1065.
Bayley, William Shirley (1910), The Iron Mines of New Jersey, MacCrellish & Quigley, state printers, 1910: 11, 220-223.
New Jersey State Geologist Annual Report (1855): 152.
New Jersey State Geologist Annual Report (1868): 642-647.
New Jersey State Geologist Annual Report (1873): 88.
New Jersey State Geologist Annual Report (1879): 86-87.
New Jersey State Geologist Annual Report (1880): 118-177.
New Jersey State Geologist Annual Report (1883): 145.
Dunn, P.J. (1995), Part 1: 89.
Pinger (1941, 1946).
Sims, P.K., and Leonard, B.F. (1952), Geology of the Andover mining district, Sussex County, New Jersey: New Jersey Department of Conservation and Economic Development Bulletin 62, 46 pages.
Pustay & Shea (1982).

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