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Birnessite

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About BirnessiteHide

Formula:
(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Colour:
Black; dark brown in transmitted light
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1956 by Lloyd Hugh Parker Jones and Angela Alice Milne for the type locality at Birness, Scotland, UK. Earlier called "manganous manganite" by McMurdie (1944).
Isostructural with:
Generally massive, either earthy or as a resinous to dull fine-grained deposit. Sometime is a replacing material of manganese minerals, including silicates. Occurs in some manganese oxide dendrites. Rarely as dark brown needle crystals.
See also vernadite.

Many manganese oxides are better identified using infra-red spectroscopy than by x-ray diffraction because of issues of crystal size, disorder, etc. (Potter and Rossman, 1979).

Compare 'UM1979-06-O:CaHMn' (reported as the Ca analogue, but structurally different).

May mineralize fungal (Alternaria spp., Cladosporium spp.) hyphae, as known from a siderite boulder and from a soil (vide Burford et al., 2003).


Classification of BirnessiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FL.45

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
7.5.3.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
5 : (AB)2X3
7.18.11

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of BirnessiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Opaque
Comment:
Usually fine-grained massive
Colour:
Black; dark brown in transmitted light
Streak:
Dark brown to brown
Hardness:
1½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Density:
3 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.4 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Usually earthy

Optical Data of BirnessiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.730 nε = 1.690
Birefringence:
0.040
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.040
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
weak to moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel. Refractive indices not far from pyrochroite.
Comments:
The mineral is pseudo-uniaxial (-); an identification by optical properties is impossible.

Chemical Properties of BirnessiteHide

Formula:
(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
IMA Formula:
(Na,Ca,K)0.6(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Common Impurities:
Cl,Co,Cu,Fe,K,Ni,Mg,S,Si

Crystallography of BirnessiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.175 Å, b = 2.850 Å, c = 7.337 Å
β = 103.18°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.816 : 1 : 2.574
Unit Cell V:
105.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Rarely in platelets, to 50 µm; commonly extremely finely crystalline, spherulitic, cellular. Rarely as divergent sprays of acicular crystals.
Comment:
Z also given as 0.5

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.08 Å(100)
3.547 Å(28)
2.468 Å(17)
2.333 Å(43)
2.031 Å(24)
1.711 Å(29)
1.426 Å(17)
Comments:
Birnessite frequently yields only 2-4 x-ray diffraction peaks. Data above recorded on a marine nodule from the Caribbean Sea; all reflections are typically very broad. See extensive d-value set ICDD 23-1046 (synthetic): 7.09 (100), 5.60 (10), 3.56 (80), 2.74 (10), 2.58 (10), 2.56 (10), 2.51 (70), 2.47 (10), 2.42 (60), 2.31 (10), 2.26 (10), 2.25 (10), 2.21 (40) 2.15 (40), 2.14 (40), 2.09 (10), 1.97 (10), 1.94 (10), 1.86 (40), 1.82 (40), 1.81 (40), 1.77 (20), 1.75 (10), 1.66 (20), 1.63 (20), 1.55 (10), 1.53 (10), 1.52 (10), 1.47 (60), 1.43 (50), 1.41 (40) 1.37 (20). Data from ICDD 13-105 and 18-802 have been superceded.

Type Occurrence of BirnessiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Black coating or cement on pebbles
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Concretion in an unconsolidated glacial sedimentary deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of BirnessiteHide

Other Language Names for BirnessiteHide

German:Birnessit
Simplified Chinese:水钠锰矿
钠水锰矿
Spanish:Birnessita

Relationship of Birnessite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2OHex.

Common AssociatesHide

Manganese OxidesA review on these minerals has been published by Post (1999).
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
51 photos of Birnessite associated with Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
49 photos of Birnessite associated with Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
20 photos of Birnessite associated with Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
10 photos of Birnessite associated with CalciteCaCO3
9 photos of Birnessite associated with AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
8 photos of Birnessite associated with SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
8 photos of Birnessite associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
4 photos of Birnessite associated with KingsmountiteCa3MnFeAl4(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O
4 photos of Birnessite associated with Eudialyte Group
4 photos of Birnessite associated with LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6F

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FL.TrébeurdeniteFe2+2Fe3+4O2(OH)10CO3·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05IowaiteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05JamboriteNi2+1-xCo3+x(OH)2-x(SO4)x · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.05MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FL.05FougèriteFe2+4Fe3+2(OH)12[CO3]·3H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FL.10HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
4.FL.15KuzeliteCa4Al2(OH)12[SO4] · 6H2OTrig.
4.FL.20AuroriteMn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20ChalcophaniteZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20ErnienickeliteNiMn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.20Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn,Ca)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
4.FL.25WoodruffiteZn2+x/2(Mn4+1-xMn3+x)O2·yH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.30Asbolane(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2OHex.
4.FL.35BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
4.FL.40Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.40Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2OHex.
4.FL.55CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
4.FL.60JenseniteCu3[TeO6] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FL.65LeisingiteCu2MgTe6+O6 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
4.FL.70Akdalaite5Al2O3 · H2OHex.
4.FL.75CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
4.FL.80MouriteUMo5O12(OH)10Mon.
4.FL.85DeloryiteCu4(UO2)(MoO4)2(OH)6Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.3PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.18.12AuroriteMn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Fluorescence of BirnessiteHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BirnessiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
McMurdie, H.F. (1944) Microscopic and diffraction studies on dry cells and their raw materials. Transactions of the Electrochemical Society: 86: 313. [M.A. 9-227.]
McMurdie, H.F., Golovato, E. (1948) Study of the modifications of manganese dioxide. Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards: 41: 589-600.
Feitknecht, W., Marti, W. (1945) Uber die oxydation von Mn(OH)2 mit molekularem sauerstoff. Helvetica Chimica Acta: 28: 129-148. (in German)
Jones, L.H.P., Milne, A.A. (1956) Birnessite, a new manganese oxide mineral from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 283-288.
Fleischer, M. (1957) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 42: 440-444.
Frondel, C., Marvin, U.B. and Ito, J. (1960) New data on birnessite and hollandite. American Mineralogist, 45, 871-875.
Brown, F.H., Pabst, A., Sawyer, D.L. (1971) Birnessite on colemanite at Boron, California. American Mineralogist: 56: 1057-1064.
Glover, E.D. (1977) Characterization of a marine birnessite. American Mineralogist: 62: 278-285.
Potter, R.M. and Rossman, G.R. (1979) The tetravalent manganese oxides: identification, hydration, and structural relationships by infrared spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 64: 1199-1218.
Chukhrov, F.V., Gorshkov, A.I., Rudnitskaya, E.S., Beresovskaya, V.V., and Sivtsov, A.V. (1980) Manganese minerals in clay: a review. Clays and Clay Minerals: 28: 346-453.
Kim, S.J. (1980) Birnessite and rancieite problem: their crystal chemistry and new classification. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea: 16: 105-113.
Burns, R.G., Burns, V.M., and Stockman, H. (1983) A review of the todorokite-buserite problem: Implications to the mineralogy of marine manganese nodules: American Mineralogist: 68: 972-980.
Dunn, P.J., Fleischer, M., Francis, C.A., Langley, R.H., Kissin, S.A., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A., and Zilczer, J.A. (1984) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 69: 810-815.
Golden, D.C., Dixon, J.B., and Chen, C.C. (1986) Ion exchange, thermal transformations, and oxidizing properties of birnessite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 34: 511-520.
Golden, D.C., Chen, C.C., and Dixon, J.B. (1987) Transformation of birnessite to buserite, todorokite, and manganite under mild hydrothermal treatment. Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 271-280.
Post, J.E. and Veblen, D.R. (1990) Crystal structure determinations of synthetic sodium, magnesium and potassium birnessite using TEM and the Rietveld method. American Mineralogist: 75: 477-489.
American Mineralogist (1990): 75: 477-489 (abstract).
Manceau, A., Gorshkov, A.I., and Drits, V.A. (1992) Structural chemistry of Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in manganese hydrous oxides: Part II. Information from EXAFS spectroscopy and electron and X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 77: 1144-1157.
Lanson, B., Drits, V.A., Silvester, E., and Manceau, A. (2000) Structure of H-exchanged hexagonal birnessite and its mechanism of formation from Na-rich monoclinic buserite at low pH. American Mineralogist: 85: 826-838.
Lanson, B., Drits, V.A., Gaillot, A., Silvester, E., Plançon, A., and Manceau, A. (2002) Structure of the heavy-metal sorbed birnessite: Part I. Results from X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 87: 1631-1645.
Yang, D.S. and Wang, M.K. (2002) Syntheses and characterization of birnessite by oxidizing pyrochroite in alkaline conditions. Clays and Clay Minerals: 50: 63-69.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., and Gadd, G.M. (2003) Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107.
Villalobos, M., Lanson, B., Manceau, A., Toner, B., and Sposito, G. (2006) Structural model for the biogenic Mn oxide produced by Psuedomonas putida. American Mineralogist: 91: 489-502.
Johnson, E.A. and Post, J.E. (2006) Water in the interlayer region of birnessite: Importance in cation exchange and structural stability. American Mineralogist: 91: 609-618.
Drits, V.A., Lanson, B., and Gaillot, A. (2007) Birnessite polytype systematics and identification by powder X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 92: 771-788.
Aldi, K.A., Cabana, J., Sideris, P.J., and Grey, C.P. (2012) Investigation of cation ordering in triclinic sodium birnessite via 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 97: 883-889.
Cygan, R.T., Post, J.E., Heaney, P.J., and Kubicki, J.D. (2012) Molecular models of birnessite and related hydrated layered minerals. American Mineralogist: 97: 1505-1514.

Internet Links for BirnessiteHide

Localities for BirnessiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Arctic Ocean
 
Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Bogdanov, Y. A., Gurvich, E. G., Bogdanova, O. Y., Ivanov, G. V., Isaeva, A. B., Muravév, K. G., ... & Dubinina, G. I. (1995). Ferromanganese nodules of the Kara Sea. Oceanology, English Translation, VOL. 34, NO. 5, A pp 722-732; Vereshchagin, O. S., Perova, E. N., Brusnitsyn, A. I., Ershova, V. B., Khudoley, A. K., Shilovskikh, V. V., & Molchanova, E. V. (2019). Ferro-manganese nodules from the Kara Sea: Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis. Ore Geology Reviews, 106, 192-204.
Atlantic Ocean
 
Varentsov, I. M., Drits, V. A., & GORSCHKOV, A. (2009, April). Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of manganese-iron crusts on the Bezymiannaya Seamount 640, Cape Verde Plate, Atlantic. In Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988 (pp. 89-107). Blackwell Publishing Ltd..
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    • Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal field (TAG)
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.26, pp. 697-711 (1988)
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Argyle Co.
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
    • Darling Co.
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
    • Inglis Co.
      • Bendemeer
Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Krynen, J.P. (1992) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets, Manilla-Narrabri 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map SH/56-9, SH/55-12. Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 319 pages.
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
  • Northern Territory
    • East Arnhem Region
      • Groote Eylandt
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58; Econ Geol (1981) 76:556-567
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Noarlunga
  • Victoria
    • Flinders area
  • Western Australia
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Gregory Ranges District
Jones, S., McNaughton, N.J., Grguric, B. (2013) Structural controls and timing of fault-hosted manganese at Woodie Woodie, East Pilbara, Western Australia. Ore Geology Reviews, 50, 52-82.
    • Moora Shire
Bridge, P.J., Pryce, M.W., Clarke, R.M., and Costello, M.B. (1978): Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine (September 1978 Vol. 42) pp 369-371.
    • Ngaanyatjarraku Shire
      • West Musgrave Block
        • Wingellina Community (Irrunytju)
Putzolu, F., Balassone, G., Boni, M., Maczurad, M., Mondillo, N., Najorka, J., & Pirajno, F. (2018). Mineralogical association and Ni-Co deportment in the Wingellina oxide-type laterite deposit (Western Australia). Ore Geology Reviews.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Tauchendorf
        • Grassendorf
G. Blass, H. W. Graf: Carinthia II 191./111.:145-147 (2001)
  • Salzburg
    • Hallein District
      • Abtenau
        • Tennen Mountains
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Zell am See District
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
            • Schwarzleo mining district
R.Poeverlein (2016)
  • Styria
    • Leibnitz District
      • Oberhaag
        • Lieschengraben
Taucher, J. & Postl, W. (1992), Exel, R. (1993)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
      • Penha do Norte
Rocks & Minerals (2009) 84:42-45
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Poços de Caldas
Waber (1991)
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Sherridon District
MONCUR , M.C, PTACEK, C.J., BLOWES, D.W. & PETERSON, R.C. (2015) The occurrence and implications of efflorescent sulfate minerals at the former Sherritt–Gordon Zn–Cu mine, Sherridon, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 53, 961-977
  • Nova Scotia
    • Colchester Co.
Sabina, A.P. (2015) Rocks and minerals for the collector: Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; South Shore, Nova Scotia. Geological Survey of Canada, Popular Geoscience 97: 456 pages, doi:10.4095/293933
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
GRICE, J.D. (1989) Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec: Canada's Most Diverse Mineral Locality. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 100-108; 166-175.; HORVÁTH, L., GAULT, R.A. (1990) The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire. Mineralogical Record, 21, 281-359.
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • La Negra-Coquimbana district
Pincheira, M., & Fontboté, L. (1990). La Negra-Coquimbana Manganiferous District, Southern Atacama Desert, Chile. In Stratabound Ore Deposits in the Andes (pp. 365-378). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
China
 
  • Guangdong
    • Meizhou
Fengjun Ma (1986): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 1(2)
  • Guangxi
    • Baise
      • Jingxi Co.
Ruixia Hao and Guangyue Guan (1995): China's Manganese Industry 13(1)
    • Chongzuo
      • Daxin Co.
Ruixia Hao and Guangyue Guan (1995): China's Manganese Industry 13(1)
    • Guigang
      • Guiping Co.
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
    • Hechi
      • Yizhou District
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
    • Liuzhou
      • Luzhai Co.
Guilin Institute of Metallurgical Geology, Rocks & Minerals Department, Manganese Thematic Group (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(5), 47-52
  • Hubei
    • Huanggang
      • Luotian Co.
        • Hejiawan
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
    • Wuhan
      • Huangpi District
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
  • Yunnan
    • Dali
      • Heqing County
Yuchun Yang (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(8), 20-23
Czech Republic
 
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
Petr Paulis (2001): Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mahren und Schlesien; Kuttna, Kutná Hora p69-73
  • Zlín Region
    • Uherské Hradiště District
      • Komňa
Jirásek J., Matýsek D., Minaříková A. (2018) Oxidické minerály manganu z jihomoravských andezitoidních hornin (Západní Karpaty). Bull Mineral Petrolog 26(2): 168-175.
      • Nezdenice
Jirásek J., Matýsek D., Minaříková A. (2018) Oxidické minerály manganu z jihomoravských andezitoidních hornin (Západní Karpaty). Bull Mineral Petrolog 26(2): 168-175.
Denmark
 
  • Greenland
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
Finland
 
  • North Karelia
    • Joensuu
Schwertmann, U. et al 1987. Properties of iron oxides in relation to the environment of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals Vol 35, No 4, 297-307.
France
 
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Faucogney-et-la-Mer
        • Esmoulières
          • Saphoz
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Mollau
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
      • Foix
P. Picot, Z. Johan : "Atlas of Ore Minerals", BRGM, Elsevier, 1982
P. Picot, Z. Johan : "Atlas of Ore Minerals", BRGM, Elsevier, 1982
      • Saint-Girons
        • Castelnau-Durban
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
        • Esplas de Serou
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
    • Haute-Garonne
      • Bagnères-de-Luchon
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
        • Peyresourde
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
        • Nabias
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 475-478.
        • Vielle-Aure
DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Albères massif
        • Collioure (Cotlliure)
BERBAIN. C, IOB. S, ROATTINO. T, RILEY. T, (2016). Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères 2ème partie : zones minéralisées. Ed Association française de Microminéralogie,
      • Corneilla-de-Conflent
        • Plateau d'Ambulla (Las Ambollas)
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 80.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler
      • Brohltal
        • Wassenach
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Südwestpfalz
      • Dahner Felsenland
        • Nothweiler
Held, U. und Günther, M.A. (1993) Geologie und Tektonik der Eisenerzlagerstätte Nothweiler am Westrand des Oberrheingrabens. Jber. Mitt. oberrhein. geol. Ver., N.F. 75, 197-215.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Wernigerode
        • Hasserode
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
Greece
 
  • Central Greece
    • Phthiotis
      • Lokris
Pantó, G. & Maksimović, Z. (2001): Two new rare earth minerals in an unusual mineralization of the Nissi bauxite deposit, Greece. Acta Geologica Hungarica 44, 81-93.
  • Peloponnese
    • Argolis
Φωτιάδης, Α. Δ. (2010). Fe-Mn nodular concretions associated with middle Jurassic oceanic melange (Argolis, Greece). Επιστημονική Επετηρίδα του Τμήματος Γεωλογίας (ΑΠΘ), 99, 323-332.
Φωτιάδης, Α. Δ. (2010). Fe-Mn nodular concretions associated with middle Jurassic oceanic melange (Argolis, Greece). Επιστημονική Επετηρίδα του Τμήματος Γεωλογίας (ΑΠΘ), 99, 323-332.
  • South Aegean
    • Milos
      • Milos Island
Hein, J. R.; Stamatakis, M. G.; Dowling, J. S. (2000): Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 109, B67-B76.
    • Syros
      • Syros Island
        • Gria Spilia
Altherr, R., Soder, C., Panienka, S., Peters, D., & Meyer, H. P. (2013). Pink manganian phengite in a high P/T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1323-1334.
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Edelény District
      • Bódvarákó
Sándor, S. & Papp, G. (1997) Az Esztramos-Hegy ásványai (Minerals of the Ezstramos Hill, North Hungary). Topographia Mineralogica Hungariae 5. Miskolc, 1997
  • Fejér County
    • Kőszárhegy
Szakáll: Minerals of Szár Hill, 2004
  • Veszprém County
    • Veszprém district
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
India
 
  • Odisha
    • Koraput District
Acharya, B.C., Rao, D.S., and Sahoo, R.K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 79-93.
  • Telangana
    • Adilabad District
Rao, J. S. R. Krishna; Kasipathi, C. (1985): Occurrence of todorokite from Adilabad Manganese Mines, Andhra Pradesh. Current Science 54, 862.
Indonesia
 
  • West Java Province
    • Bogor Regency
Milési, J.P., Marcoux, E., Sitorus, T., Simandjuntak, M., Leroy, J., and Bailly, L. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 131-149.
Israel
 
Hans Niedermeier (2000) Mineralien Welt, 11, #5, 58-62.
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Nus
      • Saint-Barthélemy
• Barresi, A.A., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R., Bonacina, E. (2005): La miniera di manganese di Varenche (Aosta, Italia nord-occidentale): ardennite, arseniopleite, manganberzeliite, pirofanite, sarkinite, thortveitite, nuovo As-Sc-analogo della metavariscite e altre specie. Micro (località), 2/2005, 81-122.
    • Saint-Marcel
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Ne
        • Reppia
          • Monte Copello
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, (4), 131
  • Marche
    • Macerata Province
P. Mattias- M. Guerra (2008) - Le miniere nelle Marche II° parte Miniere e mineralizzazioni-Giacimenti e vicende Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Ceres
        • Voragno
Maletto, G., Piccoli G.C. (2014): Minerali in Val d’Ala. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 224 pp. + 1 folded map.
  • Tyrrhenian Sea
    • Southern Tyrrhenian Sea
      • Aeolian Arc seamounts
Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Rossi, P.L., Bocchi, G., and Lucchini, F. (1980) A manganese deposit from the South Tyrrhenian region. Oceanologica Acta, 3, 1, 107-113.
Eckhardt, J.-D., Glasby, G.P., Puchelt, H., and Berner, Z. (1997) Hydrothermal manganese crusts from Enarete and Palinuro seamounts in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 15, 2, 175-208.
Japan
 
  • Aichi Prefecture
    • Kasugai City
Am Min 48:952-954
  • Aomori Prefecture
    • Nishitsugaru District
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Shimokita District
      • Higashidori
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Ehime Prefecture
    • Seiyo City
      • Nomura
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Shirokawa
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Karumai
Nambu M, Tanida K (1967) Manjirōite, a new manganese dioxide mineral, from Kohare Mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists and Economic Geologists 58, 39-54
    • Kuji City
      • Yamagata
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Nambu, M. & Tanida, K. (1961): On the progressive alteration of manganese dioxide minerals in the Toyoguchi Mine, Iwate Prefecture. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 45, 39-48. (in Japanese)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kunohe-gun
      • Noda-mura
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kuzumaki
Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Shimohei District
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Yamada
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Kochi Prefecture
    • Niyodogawa
      • Niyodo
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Shiga Prefecture
    • Ritto City
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58; Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Tochigi Prefecture
    • Kanuma City
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Tokyo Prefecture
    • Izu Archipelago
Y. Okayama: Hydrothermal manganese oxides from southwest region of Aogashima island. Mining Geology, 42 (3), 194ff
      • Nishi Shichito Ridge
Jose Carlos Mañuz Sanz collection
    • Nishitama district
      • Okutama-cho
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Jordan
 
  • Tafilah
    • Wadi Arabah (Wadi Araba)
Qatar Univ. Sci. J. 21:101-117.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Kostanay Region
    • Lisakovsk
Golubovskaya, E.V. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(3), 275-281.
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Aldama Municipality
Cross, B. & Culp Zeitner J. (2006), Geodes Natures Treasures, P.26
  • Michoacan
    • Coalcomám Municipality
Ref.: Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, volumen 17, número 2, p.143-153 (2000)
  • Sonora
    • Moctezuma Municipality
Lapis 2001(1), 11-40
Moldova
 
  • Edinet
    • Criva
Klimchouk, A. (2012). Gypsum karst in the Western Ukraine. International Journal of Speleology, 25(3), 20.
New Zealand
 
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
  • New Zealand Outlying Islands
    • Kermadec Islands
de Ronde, C.E.J.; Hannington, M.D.; Stoffers, P.; Wright, I.C.; Ditchburn, R.G.; Reyes, A.G.; Baker, E.T.; Massoth, G.J.; Lupton, J.E.; Walker, S.L.; Greene, R.R.; Soong, C.W.R.; Ishibashi, J.; Lebon, G.T.; Bray, C.J.; Resing, J.A. 2005 Evolution of a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system : Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Economic geology, 100(6): 1097-1133
Norway
 
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
Raade, G. (2005): Gjerdingen-ekeritten, en unik mineralforekomst. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift nr. 30, 2005, p 17.
  • Oslo
    • Vestre Aker
Neumann, H. (1959): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway. No.1. An introduction. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 39, 231-236 (p.232)
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
        • Barkevik area
K.Eldjarn XRD MGM
Knut Eldjarn specimen. XRD MGM
Pacific Ocean
 
  • Clarion-Clipperton zone
    • Clipperton Island (Ile de Clipperton; Ile de la Passion)
      • USA-4
Mee Burns, V., Burns, R.G. (1978) Authigenic todorokite and phillipsite inside deep-sea manganese nodules. American Mineralogist, 63, 827-831.
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
  • Emperor Seamounts
Mikhailik, P.; Khanchuk, A.; Mikhailik, E.; Zarubina, N.; Blokhin, M. (2019) Compositional Variations and Genesis of Sandy-Gravel Ferromanganese Deposits from the Yōmei Guyot (Holes 431, 431A DSDP), Emperor Ridge. Minerals 9, 709.
  • Kermadec-Tonga trench
A. G. Reyes, C.E.J. DE Ronde, and C. W. R. Soong (2004) a Submarine Magmatic-hydrothermal System at Brothers Volcano, Kermadecs. Proceedings 26th NZ Geothermal Workshop pp 46-52
  • South California Borderland
Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
Hein, J.R., Reid, J.A., Conrad, T.A., Dunham, R.E., Clague, D.A., Schulz, M.S., and Davis, A.S. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1069
  • Woodlark Basin
Lisitsyn, A.P., Binns, R.A., Bogdanov, Yu.A., Scott, S., Zonenshayn, L.P., Gordeyev, V.V., Gurvich, Ye.G., Murav'yev, K.G., Serova, V.V. (1999): Active hydrothermal activity at Franklin seamount western Woodlark Sea (Papua New Guinea). Int. Geol. Rev.: 9: 914-929
Papua New Guinea
 
  • Bismarck Sea
    • Manus Basin
Zhigang Zeng, Shuai Chen and Xiaoyuan Wang. 2012 Mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics of Si-Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin. Science China Earth Science 55(12)
Poland
 
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
    • Kraków Co.
      • Gmina Krzeszowice
Gołębiowska, B., Pieczka, A., Rzepa, G., Matyszkiewicz, J., & Krajewski, M. (2010). Iodargyrite from Zalas (Cracow area, Poland) as an indicator of Oligocene–Miocene aridity in Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 296(1), 130-137.; Gołębiowska, B., Rzepa, G., Pieczka, A. (2016): Exceptional Tl-bearing manganese oxides from Zalas, Krakow area, southern Poland. Mineralogia; DOI: 10.1515/mipo-2016-0002
Romania
 
  • Bihor
    • Pădurea Craiului Mountains
      • Șuncuiuș clay mine
Onac, B.P., Pedersen, R.B., Tysseland, M. (1997) Presence of rare-earth elements in black Ferromanganese coatings from Vântului Cave (Romania). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 59:3, 128-131.
  • Bistrița-Năsăud
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
al României, I. G. (2003) The 5 Th Symposium Baia Mare Branch Of The Geological Society Of Romania. pp11-12
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Dumitras, D.-G., Constantinescu, E., Marincea, S., and Bourgier, V. (2005): Proceedings of the Annual Scientific Session of The Geological Society of Romania, Rosia Montana, 20-21 May 2005, 31-36.; D. Dumitras , Si. Marincea (2000) Phosphates In The Bat Guano Deposit From The "Dry" Cioclovina Cave, Sureanu Mountains, Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Devosits Vol 79 Suppl pp 43-45
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Crimea
Chukhrov F.V., Gorshkov A.I., Berezovskaya V.V., Sivtsov A.V. (1987) New data on mineralogy of Kerch ores, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geol., 4, p. 60-77 (in Rus.)
  • Magadan Oblast
    • Kolyma River Basin
      • Ducat District
        • Omsukchan
          • Ducat ore field
http://www.igem.ru/lmin/fil/metal.htm
  • Murmansk Oblast
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Ochtiná (Achten)
Cílek V., Bosák P., Melka K., Žák K., Langrolvá A., Osborne A.,1998: Mineralogické výskumy v Ochtinské aragonitové jeskyni. Aragonit, 3,7 - 12
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape
Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA
      • Hotazel
South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02
    • Western Belt
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
South Korea
 
  • North Gyeongsang Province
    • Bonghwa-gun
Choi, H. S., Kim, S. J., & Kim, J. J. (2005). Mineralogical Characterization of Buserite from the Janggun and Dongnam Mines, Korea. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, 18(4), 259-266.
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Huesca
      • Estopiñán del Castillo
Mata-Perelló,J.M. (1979).- "Las Mineralizaciones de manganeso de Estopiñan y de Natchá" Acta Geol. Hispánica, t. XIV (tomo homenaje al Dr., Luis Sole y Sabaris), 4p. Barcelona.
  • Canary Islands
Marino, E., González, F. J., Kuhn, T., Madureira, P., Wegorzewski, A. V., Mirao, J., ... & Somoza, L. (2019). Hydrogenetic, Diagenetic and Hydrothermal Processes Forming Ferromanganese Crusts in the Canary Island Seamounts and Their Influence in the Metal Recovery Rate with Hydrometallurgical Methods. Minerals, 9(7), 439.
  • Cantabria
    • Sierra de Arnero
      • La Florida mining area
Rossi, C., Lozano, R.P., Isanta, N. y Hellstrom, J. (2010). Manganese stromatolites in caves: El Soplao (Cantabria, Spain). Geology, 38, 1119–1122
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Albacete
      • Elche de la Sierra
Abad, I.; Sánchez-Gómez, M.; Reolid, M.; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, V. (2019) Pyrometamorphic Rocks in the Molinicos Basin (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain): Insights into the Generation of Cordierite Paralavas. Minerals 2019, 9, 748.
    • Ciudad Real
A. Crespo & R. Lunar (1997): Terrestrial hot-spring Co-rich Mn mineralization in the Pliocene-Quaternary Calatrava Region (central Spain). Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol. 119, 253-264.
      • Pozuelo
Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
  • Valencian Community
    • Valencia
      • Requena
        • Campo Arcís
Mata Perelló, J.M., 1994, Geogaceta. 16: 154-155
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg ore district
        • Pajsberg
H.Folvik(2002); Pers.report to the Långban Society
Switzerland
 
  • Grisons
    • Albula Valley
      • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
        • Tinizong (Tinzen)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 409.
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 409.
  • Valais
    • Turtmann Valley
      • Pipjitälli
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 000 (2006) page 205; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
Tonga
 
  • Southern Lau Basin
Stackelberg, U. V. N., & Petersen, S. (1990) Hydrothermal Mineralization from the Valu Fa Ridge, Lau Back-Arc Basin (SW Pacific). Marine Mining 9:271-301
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Altarnun
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Lezant
Famous British Mineral Localities: Greystone Quarry, Lezant, Cornwall. N Elton, D Green, J Hooper & S Weiss. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals No 24 2004, pp 9-28
      • St Hilary
Betterton, J. (1989) Birnessite from Penberthy Croft Mine, Cornwall - a Second English Occurrence. Journal of the Russell Society, 2:2, 48. Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Aberdeenshire
      • Ellon
Jones, L.H.P., Milne, A.A. (1956) Birnessite, a new manganese oxide mineral from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 283-288. Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.
    • Dumfries and Galloway
      • Newton Stewart
Nicholson, K. (1989). Manganese oxides from the British Isles. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(373), 637-638.
    • Inverclyde
      • Gourock
Notes about Gourock, chiefly historical By David Macrae
    • Scottish Borders
Livingstone, A. (2002) : Minerals of Scotland - past and present, NMS Publications Ltd., p. 96
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Rhiw
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • Coosa Co.
Rocks & Minerals: 70(5): 320-333.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Turquoise Mining District (Courtland-Gleeson Mining District)
        • Courtland
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 137.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 398.
    • Gila Co.
      • Globe-Miami Mining District
        • Globe Hills Mining District
          • Globe Hills
            • Globe
              • Globe Placers
Bargar, J. R., Fuller, C. C., Marcus, M. A., Brearley, A. J., De la Rosa, M. P., Webb, S. M., & Caldwell, W. A. (2009). Structural characterization of terrestrial microbial Mn oxides from Pinal Creek, AZ. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(4), 889-910.
  • California
    • Kern Co.
AmMin 56:1057
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168 (photo 4-5).
    • Trinity Co.
      • Coastal Range
        • Three Forks
Huebner, J. Stephen; Flohr, Marta J. (1990) Microbanded manganese formations; protoliths in the Franciscan Complex, California; USGS Professional Paper 1502.
  • Colorado
    • Custer Co.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville
        • Carbonate Hill
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Summit Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
  • Maine
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, p.63.
  • Maryland
    • Calvert Co.
http://www.irocks.com/chesapeake-biominerals-hazen-article/
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Cummington
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 58
      • Plainfield
Kim, Soo Jin (1991). New characterization of takanelite (American Mineralogist, Volume 76, pages 1426-1430); "Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
  • Montana
    • Granite Co.
      • Philipsburg Mining District (Flint Creek Mining District)
H.A. Barrett and M.P.S. Krekeler (2011) The 38th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 14-17, 2011, lecture abstracts, page 9.
  • Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • White Pine Mining District
        • Silver Belt
          • Treasure Hill
            • Summit area
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Rocks & Minerals (Sept/Oct 1981).
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Frondel, et al: Am. Min.:45:871-875 (1960); Dunn(1995):Pt4:584.
Frondel, et al: Am. Min.:45:871-875 (1960); Dunn(1995):Pt4:584.
  • New Mexico
    • Colfax County
      • Springer
        • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
Rocks & Min.: 60:229.
    • Socorro Co.
      • Magdalena District
        • Magdalena
Patrick Haynes
  • New York
    • Warren Co.
Geological Society of America Bulletin January 1971 v. 82 no. 1 p. 101-110
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain Mining District
Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Lincoln
        • Lime Rock
Michael W. Kieron collection
Museum of Natural History & Planetarium, Roger Williams Park collection
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • White Canyon
R&M 75:4 p240-248
    • Tooele Co.
      • Gold Hill Mining District (Clifton Mining District)
        • Gold Hill
Mineral News: 13(9): 1.
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
    • Utah Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER 1024,
    • Washington Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Clifton Forge Iron Mining District
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius Mining District
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wisconsin
    • Oneida Co.
      • Hazelhurst
Bowser, Carl J., E. Callender and Ronald Rossmann, 1970, "Electron Probe and X-ray Studies of Fresh Water Ferromaganese Nodules from Wisconsin and Michigan", Geol. Soc. Am. , Abstracts with Programs, vol. 2, part 7, p. 500-501.
Vanuatu
 
Iizasa, K., Kawasaki, K., Maeda, K., Matsumoto, T., Saito, N., & Hirai, K. (1998). Hydrothermal sulfide-bearing Fe-Si oxyhydroxide deposits from the Coriolis Troughs, Vanuatu backarc, southwestern Pacific. Marine Geology, 145(1-2), 1-21.
Iizasa, K., Kawasaki, K., Maeda, K., Matsumoto, T., Saito, N., & Hirai, K. (1998). Hydrothermal sulfide-bearing Fe-Si oxyhydroxide deposits from the Coriolis Troughs, Vanuatu backarc, southwestern Pacific. Marine Geology, 145(1-2), 1-21.
 
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