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Defiance Mine, Darwin Mine (Anaconda; Bernon Mine; Defiance Mine; Essex Mine; Independence Mine; Intermediate Mine; Rip Van Winkle Mine; Thompson Mine), Darwin, Darwin Mining District, Darwin Hills, Inyo Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Defiance MineMine
Darwin Mine (Anaconda; Bernon Mine; Defiance Mine; Essex Mine; Independence Mine; Intermediate Mine; Rip Van Winkle Mine; Thompson Mine)Mine
Darwin- not defined -
Darwin Mining DistrictMining District
Darwin HillsGroup of Hills
Inyo Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
36° 16' 54'' North , 117° 36' 33'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Olancha192 (2015)35.7km


A former Ag-W-Au-Cu-Zn-Pb mine located in the SW¼ sec. 13 & in sec. 14 (?), T19S, R40E, MDM, 2.3 km (1.4 miles) NW of Darwin. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 1,000 meters.

NOTE: This is one of several mines incorporated into the "Darwin Mine" of the Anaconda Corp. It was also later incorporated into the group termed the "Darwin Mines," owned by Mexicanus Colorado Inc.

In 1945 The Anaconda Co. purchased the Bernon Defiance, Driver, Essex, Independence, Lane, Lucky Jim, Promontory, Rip Van Winkle and Thompson mines, and other small properties In the Darwin quadrangle and the Columbia mine at the south end of the Darwin Hills in the Coso Peak quadrangle, and they have operated some of them from 1945 to 1955.

The Company „Project Darwin LLC“ acquired the Darwin mines and 58 patented mining claims in 1996. The company is looking for investors to re-start the Darwin mines.

Local rocks include Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits.

Workings include unspecified underground openings.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


32 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: [MinRec 15:13]
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Occurs as fibrous, radiating clusters and coatings.
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 21: 597]: 17; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1942), Notes on some minerals from southern California, III: American Mineralogist: 27: 323; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 244; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 299; Dana 7: II: 250.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 96.
Boulangerite ?
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Description: A specimen in the University of California, Berkeley, collection was tentatively identified as boulangerite.
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 112.
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 166.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 100.
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 422-426
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 21: 597]: 7; Kelley, Vincent Cooper (1938), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin silver-lead mining district, Inyo County, California: California Division Mines Report 34: 543; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 62, 64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342, 355.; Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 21: 597]: 7; Kelley, Vincent Cooper (1938), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin silver-lead mining district, Inyo County, California: California Division Mines Report 34: 543; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342, 355.; Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Description: Alters to anhydrite upon removal.
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 355; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 52, 285; Mueller, W.H.T. (1974) The mineralogy, geology and paragenesis of the 1208 oxide stope, Defiance workings, Darwin mine, Darwin, California. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California, Riverside: vi, 47.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Colour: Colorless
Description: Occurs as crusts with occasional crystals.
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 12; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1942), Notes on some minerals from southern California, III: American Mineralogist: 27: 324; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 89, 217.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Habit: Blade-like.
Colour: Colorless, white
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1942), Notes on some minerals from southern California, III: American Mineralogist: 27: 324; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 223.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: Thin platy.
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18: 17; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1942), Notes on some minerals from southern California, III: American Mineralogist: 27: 323; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 89, 223, 244; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 299; Rocks & Minerals (1948): 81: 208-213.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 17; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1942), Notes on some minerals from southern California, III: American Mineralogist: 27: 323; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 244; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 299; Rocks & Minerals (1948): 81: 208-213.; Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Colour: Pale greenish yellow
Description: Occurs as masses.
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 63; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 439.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 302.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Van King; Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 165.
Selenium
Formula: Se
Reference: MinRec 18:148
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Van King
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 21: 597]: 7; Kelley, Vincent Cooper (1938), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin silver-lead mining district, Inyo County, California: California Division Mines Report 34: 543; Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 342, 355.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS PP 368: 64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 96, 355; Mueller, W.H.T. (1974) The mineralogy, geology and paragenesis of the 1208 oxide stope, Defiance workings, Darwin mine, Darwin, California. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California, Riverside: vi, 47; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 52.; Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Josephine Scripps collection #1973

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Selenium1.CC.10Se
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Boulangerite ?2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Creedite3.CG.15Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Selenium1.3.4.1Se
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite ?3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 12 - COMPOUND HALIDES
Miscellaneous
Creedite12.1.4.1Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Muscovite
var. Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
FFluorine
F CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
F FluoriteCaF2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
AlAluminium
Al CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S BaryteBaSO4
S SulphurS8
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S CovelliteCuS
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
FeIron
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
SeSelenium
Se SeleniumSe
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
SbAntimony
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Knopf, Adolf (1914a), The Darwin silver-lead mining district, California: USGS Bulletin 580: 1-18; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 21: 597]: 7, 12, 17.
Kelley, Vincent Cooper (1938), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin silver-lead mining district, Inyo County, California: California Division Mines (Report 34): 543.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1942), Notes on some minerals from southern California, III: American Mineralogist: 27: 323, 324.
Rocks & Minerals (1948): 23: 833.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124pp.: 250.
Hall, Wayne Everett & Edward M. Mackevett (1963), Geology and ore deposits of the Darwin quadrangle, Inyo County, California: USGS Professional Paper 368: 62, 63, 64.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 89, 96, 112, 217, 223, 244, 342, 355.
Mueller, W.H.T. (1974) The mineralogy, geology and paragenesis of the 1208 oxide stope, Defiance workings, Darwin mine, Darwin, California. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California, Riverside: vi, 46, 47.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 52, 100 (photo 3-2), 165 (photo 4-3), 166 (photo 4-4), 285, 299, 302 (photo 8-10), 439, 513.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10211828.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060270305.

Other Databases

Link to USGS MRDS:10211828

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
USA

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