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Wessels Mine, Hotazel, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Wessels MineMine
HotazelTown
Kalahari manganese fieldOre Field
Northern CapeProvince
South AfricaCountry

This page kindly sponsored by Mark Kucera
Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
27° 6' 46'' South , 22° 51' 5'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:


A manganese mine located near Hotazel in North Cape province. Started in May 1973.
Hydrothermal alteration of the primary Mn ore produced a wealth of well-crystallised minerals.

Wessels mine is an underground operation situated 300 metres below the surface. Access to the workings is achieved by means of a vertical shaft and two incline shafts. The nature of the ore body lends itself to a mechanised room and pillar mining method.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


122 valid minerals. 16 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Habit: Thin, flat-bladed
Colour: Green to reddish brown, black
Description: In the early 1990's it was found as mostly minute crystals & sometimes up to 1cm length as thin, flat-bladded, transparent crystals with pale green andradite and quartz. (ref: Von Bezing) In late 2011 aegirine was found as gangue mineral, now found in association with marshallsussmanite. (ref: Cairncross)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update. Mineralogical Record: 22(4), 279-302; Cairncross, B. and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa pp 150.; Gait, R., & Williams, M. P. (1980). Sugilite, a Second Occurrenge: Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 37-39.; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Afwillite
Formula: Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Description: Less than 50 specimens preserved
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, Linden 2014, RSA, pg 180
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: massive
Description: found as micromounts
Reference: South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Andradite var. Hydroandradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Description: Late-stage hydrothermal orange-red octahedral cystals, associated with henritermierite and earlier calcite, in cracks and vugs of hematite-haussmannite ore.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Habit: massive
Description: micromount specimens
Reference: South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Banalsite
Formula: Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Habit: massive
Description: micromount specimens
Reference: South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: Prismatic
Description: Prismatic crystals up to 16cm long.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 186.; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Reference: South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
Brandtite
Formula: Ca2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 22:480]
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Habit: Crystals to 1cm
Colour: Black
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302; Min Rec (2009) 40:78]; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252; Gait, R., & Williams, M. P. (1980). Sugilite, a Second Occurrenge: Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 37-39.; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
'Braunite-II'
Formula: CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Reference: Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997): The manganese adventure – the South African manganese fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa, 128 pp.; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Description: Late 2003 sky blue brucite was found, studded with sulphur-yellow ettringite crystals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 191. ; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Bultfonteinite
Formula: Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Reference: Maggie Wilson Collection
Cairncrossite (TL)
Formula: Sr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Type Locality:
Description: Found on dump Block 17, Wessels Mine, Northern Cape, only known specimen in the collection of Ludi Von Bezing.
Reference: Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B. and von Bezing, K.-L. (2013) Cairncrossite, IMA 2013-012. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2703; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.; Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B., Topa, D., von Bezing, K.-L. (2016): Cairncrossite, a new phyllosilicate from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 495-505
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.; Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Habit: Slightly curved, prismatic to nearly fibrous.
Colour: Pearly blue, colourless to white
Description: pearly blue, slightly curved crystals are found in association with baryte, calcite, hydroxyapophyllite and pectolite at wessels which also yielded white to colourless slightly curved, prismatic to fibrous crystals associated with andradite, strontium-rich calcite, hausmannite and sturmanite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 194. Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 67.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Charlesite ?
Formula: Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Description: No formal testing known
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
'Clinochrysotile'
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Clinotobermorite
Formula: [Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Reference: Biagioni, C., Bonaccorsi, E., Lezzerini, M., Merlini, M., & Merlino, S. (2012). Thermal behaviour of tobermorite from N’Chwaning II mine (Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa). I. Thermo-gravimetric and X-ray diffraction studies. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(6), 981-989.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.
Colinowensite (TL)
Formula: BaCuSi2O6
Type Locality:
Reference: Rieck, B. (2013) Colinowensite, IMA 2012-060. CNMNC Newsletter No. 15, February 2013, page 6; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 1-12.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Cyprine (TL)
Formula: Ca19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Type Locality:
Reference: Panikorovskii,T.L.,Shilovskikh,V.V., Avdontseva, E.Y., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N. and Krivovichev, S.V. (2015) Cyprine, IMA 2015-044. CNMNC Newsletter No. 27, October 2015, page 1228; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1229–1236.; Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., Krivovichev, S.V. (2017): Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 295-306.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Colour: flesh pink
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Diaspore var. Mangan-diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991): The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record: 22(4), 284.
Diegogattaite (TL)
Formula: Na2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Effenbergerite (TL)
Formula: BaCuSi4O10
Type Locality:
Description: It occurs in pectolite veins which transect a fine grained massive matrix of sugelite, braunite and manganite. Additional minerals accompanying the assemblage include copper, calcite, clinozoite and quartz.
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.
Ephesite
Formula: NaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Description: Found in fissures as small platy 1mm clusters of pale pink ephesite crystals, associated with massive beige andradite, hematite and hausmannite. It has also been identified in assemblage with calcite, brucite, andradite, hausmannite and barite.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Ettringite
Formula: Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Feitknechtite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: XRD by John Attard; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
'Ferro-akermanite'
Formula: Ca2FeSi2O7
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Ferrobustamite
Formula: CaFe2+(Si2O6)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Description: Tabular crystals associated with light brown andradite
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 729308
Foshagite
Formula: Ca4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Friedelite
Formula: Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Gageite
Formula: Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Gaudefroyite
Formula: Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: an update. Mineralogical Record, 22(4), 279-302.; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Glaucochroite
Formula: CaMn2+SiO4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Also as pseudomorphs after kutnohorite
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Gonyerite
Formula: (Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Gowerite
Formula: Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Grossular var. Hibschite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Description: Recorded as small grains.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa. 214.
Groutite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Van King
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.; Antao, S. M., Cruickshank, L. A., & Hazrah, K. S. (2019). Structural Trends and Solid-Solutions Based on the Crystal Chemistry of Two Hausmannite (Mn3O4) Samples from the Kalahari Manganese Field. Minerals, 9(6), 343.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Hennomartinite (TL)
Formula: SrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: anhedral
Colour: yellow-brown
Description: Intergrowths with serandite-pectolite in small veins crosscutting an assemblage of idiomorphic sugilite in fibrous serandite-pectolite.
Reference: Schweiz.Min.Petr.Mitt.(1993) 73, 349-355; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.
Henritermierite
Formula: Ca3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Habit: dipyramid
Colour: red
Description: Zoned crystals with holtstamite.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; European Journal of Mineralogy: 17(2): 375-382.; Antao, S. M., Cruickshank, L. A., & Hazrah, K. S. (2019). Structural Trends and Solid-Solutions Based on the Crystal Chemistry of Two Hausmannite (Mn3O4) Samples from the Kalahari Manganese Field. Minerals, 9(6), 343.
Holtstamite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Type Locality:
Description: Zoned crystals with henritermierite.
Reference: Am. Min. (2005): 90: 1946; European Journal of Mineralogy: 17(2): 375-382.
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368
Inesite
Formula: Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Habit: chisel-shaped in stacked, fan-shaped parallell groups and aggregates
Colour: pale red
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Jennite
Formula: Ca9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Habit: Platey crystals to 0.5mm
Description: Single pocket found.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Johannsenite
Formula: CaMn2+Si2O6
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Kentrolite
Formula: Pb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Kirschsteinite
Formula: CaFe2+SiO4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Lavinskyite (TL)
Formula: K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Type Locality:
Reference: http://rruff.info/lavinskyite; Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., Pinch, W.W. (2014): Lavinskyite, K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4, isotypic with planchéite, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 99, 525-530.
Leucophoenicite
Formula: Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Habit: Short lath-shaped and flattened crystals.
Colour: dark red-brown
Description: Found in assemblage with gageite, rhodochrosite, pyrochroite, hausmannite and calcite
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari Manganese Field: An Update, Mineralogical Record, 22(4) 279-302; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: 208.
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Magnesio-arfvedsonite
Formula: {Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Manganvesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: T. Armbruster et al. (2002) Mineralogical Magazine 66, 137-150; European Journal of Mineralogy: 17(2): 375-382.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Marokite
Formula: CaMn3+2O4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Meieranite (TL)
Formula: Na2Sr3MgSi6O17
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., van Nieuwenhuizen, J.J., Lavinsky, R.M. and Xie, X. (2015) Meieranite, IMA 2015- 009. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 533; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535.
Minnesotaite
Formula: Fe2+3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Mozartite
Formula: CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Nchwaningite
Formula: Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Nyfeler, D., Armbruster, T., Dixon, R., & Bermanec, V. (1995). Nchwaningite, Mn2SiO3 (OH) 2H2O, a new pyroxene-related chain silicate from the N’chwaning mine, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Am Mineral, 80, 377-386.
Neltnerite
Formula: CaMn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Norrishite
Formula: KLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2
Reference: Gnos E., Armbruster T., Villa I. M., 2003. Norrishite, K(Mn3+2Li)Si4O10(O)2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 39Ar-40Ar dating. Am. Miner., 88: 189-194
Olmiite
Formula: CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Reference: http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-104499.html.
Orientite
Formula: Ca8Mn3+10(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Orlymanite (TL)
Formula: Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: [Amer.Min.(1990) 75, 923-927; Mandarino, 1997]
Parsettensite
Formula: (K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa The Geological Society of South Africa Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., and Gutzmer, J., (1997), The Manganese Adventure, The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa. Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., and Gutzmer, J., (1997), The Manganese Adventure, The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa. ; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Piemontite-(Sr)
Formula: {CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Poldervaartite (TL)
Formula: CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Type Locality:
Habit: Sprays to 1 cm
Colour: White
Description: One pocket was discovered
Reference: Amer.Min.(1993) 78, 1082-1087; von Bezing, L. & Gutzmer, J. (1994): Das Kalahari Manganerzfeld und seine Mineralien (II). Mineralien-Welt, 5(5), 41-59. Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (2001): Seltene Mineralien aus dem Kalahari-Manganerzfeld, Südafrika. Lapis, 26(10), 32-42; Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (2002): Spectacular Minerals from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Rocks & Minerals, 77(2), 94-107.
Portlandite
Formula: Ca(OH)2
Reference: Speziale, S., Reichmann, H. J., Schilling, F. R., Wenk, H. R., & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2008). Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(10), 1148-1153.
Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)
Formula: [(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Type Locality:
Habit: fine fibers to 0.2mm
Colour: dark red to lilac
Reference: Schweiz.Min.Petr.Mitt.(1993) 73, 349-355; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Pyrochroite
Formula: Mn(OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 22:289]
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Pyrophanite
Formula: Mn2+TiO3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.; Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Rhodonite
Formula: CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368
Richterite
Formula: {Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Ruizite
Formula: Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Schizolite
Formula: NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Colour: Light pink to deep pink
Description: Discovered in 2011 at Wessels and N'Chwaning II mines.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Origlieri, M.J., Downs, R.T and Yang, H. (2013) Marshallsussmanite, IMA 2013-067. CNMNC Newsletter No. 18,December 2013, page 3256; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3249-3258
Scottyite (TL)
Formula: BaCu2Si2O7
Type Locality:
Reference: http://rruff.info/scottyite; Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., Pinch, W.W. and Origlieri, M.J. (2012): Scottyite, IMA 2012-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 14, October 2012, page 1284; Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 1281-1288; Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S., Pinch, W. (2013): Scottyite, the natural analogue of synthetic BaCu2Si2O7, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 98, 478–484.
Serandite
Formula: NaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Shigaite
Formula: Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Bruce Cairncross (2000) The Desmond Sacco Collection
Sogdianite
Formula: KZr2Li3Si12O30
Reference: Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006), p. 454
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: Botryoidal
Colour: Olive green
Description: When found was as micromounts except for a handful of specimens collected in the late 1980s coating calcite, up to 2mm thick in layers. In 2011 a few more specimens are known to have been collected, identical to those found earlier, it would seem the pocket has been re-opened.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa, pp 324
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.
Sturmanite
Formula: Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Sugilite
Formula: KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Description: Crystals to 20 mm although better crystals to 3mm
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa; Gait, R., & Williams, M. P. (1980). Sugilite, a Second Occurrence: Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 37-39.; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.; Shigley, J. E., Koivula, J. I., & Fryer, C. W. (1987). The occurrence and gemological properties of Wessels Mine sugilite. Gems & gemology, 78-89.; Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Taikanite
Formula: Sr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2
Reference: Armbruster, T. , Oberhänsli, R. and Kunz, M. (1993). "Taikanite BaSr2Mn3+2O2(Si4O12) from the Wessels mine (South Africa)." American Mineralogist, 78(9/10),pp:1088-1095. - Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Tetraferriannite
Formula: KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Thaumasite
Formula: Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Habit: Thin, rectangular blades stacked together in spherical groups
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).;
Tobermorite
Formula: [Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., & Armbruster, T. (2001). The real structure of tobermorite 11Å normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modifications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 13(3), 577-590.; Biagioni, C., Bonaccorsi, E., Lezzerini, M., Merlini, M., & Merlino, S. (2012). Thermal behaviour of tobermorite from N’Chwaning II mine (Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa). I. Thermo-gravimetric and X-ray diffraction studies. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(6), 981-989.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Tweddillite (TL)
Formula: {CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(2002) 66, 137-150; Lapis 2002(11), 43
Vaterite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).;
Vonbezingite (TL)
Formula: Ca6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: elongated monoclinic crystals to 1.5 cm.
Description: No more than 50 specimens where collected from this single pocket, in association with Sturmanite, Calcite, Baryte, Bultfonteinite, Brucite & Vesuvianite. Azurite occurs as tiny inclusions in Vonbezingite.
Reference: Amer.Min.(1992) 77, 1292-1300 Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa. 251.
Vuagnatite
Formula: CaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Wesselsite (TL)
Formula: SrCuSi4O10
Type Locality:
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: [MinRec 22:296]
Xonotlite
Formula: Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: No reference listed

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Bixbyite4.CB.10Mn3+2O3
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Cryptomelane4.DK.05aK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
var. Mangan-diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
Feitknechtite4.FE.25Mn3+O(OH)
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite4.FD.10Mn3+O(OH)
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Jacobsite4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Marokite4.BC.05CaMn3+2O4
Portlandite4.FE.05Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite4.FE.05Mn(OH)2
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Pyrophanite4.CB.05Mn2+TiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite5.AB.05(Ca,Mn)CO3
Kutnohorite5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Vaterite5.AB.20CaCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Gaudefroyite6.AB.60Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Gowerite6.EC.10Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Charlesite ?7.DG.15Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Ettringite7.DG.15Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Shigaite7.DD.35Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Sturmanite7.DG.15Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite7.DG.15Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Vonbezingite (TL)7.DD.65Ca6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Brandtite8.CG.10Ca2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Afwillite9.AG.75Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var. Hydroandradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Banalsite9.FA.60Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Bementite9.EE.05Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Braunite-II'9.AG.05CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Bultfonteinite9.AG.80Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Bustamite9.DG.05CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Cairncrossite (TL)9.EE.Sr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Caryopilite9.ED.15Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Chamosite9.EC.55(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Clinochrysotile'9.ED.
Clinotobermorite9.DG.10[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cyprine (TL)9.BG.35Ca19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Effenbergerite (TL)9.EA.05BaCuSi4O10
Ephesite9.EC.20NaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferrobustamite9.DG.05CaFe2+(Si2O6)
Foshagite9.DG.15Ca4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Friedelite9.EE.10Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Gageite9.DH.35Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Glaucochroite9.AC.05CaMn2+SiO4
Gonyerite9.EC.55(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var. Hibschite9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Hennomartinite (TL)9.BE.05SrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Henritermierite9.AD.25Ca3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Holtstamite (TL)9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Inesite9.DL.05Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Jennite9.DG.20Ca9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Johannsenite9.DA.15CaMn2+Si2O6
Kentrolite9.BE.80Pb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2
Kirschsteinite9.AC.05CaFe2+SiO4
Leucophoenicite9.AF.60Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Lizardite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Magnesio-arfvedsonite9.DE.25{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Manganvesuvianite9.BG.35Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Minnesotaite9.EC.05Fe2+3Si4O10(OH)2
Mozartite9.AG.60CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Nchwaningite9.DB.30Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Neltnerite9.AG.05CaMn3+6(SiO4)O8
Norrishite9.EC.20KLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2
Olmiite9.AF.90CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Orientite9.BJ.05Ca8Mn3+10(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Orlymanite (TL)9.EE.30Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Parsettensite9.EG.40(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Piemontite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite-(Sr)9.BG.05{CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Poldervaartite (TL)9.AF.90CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)9.DE.25[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Rhodonite9.DK.05CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Richterite9.DE.20{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ruizite9.BJ.35Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Serandite9.DG.05NaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
Sogdianite9.CM.05KZr2Li3Si12O30
Sugilite9.CM.05KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Taikanite9.DH.25Sr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2
Tephroite9.AC.05Mn2+2SiO4
Tetraferriannite9.EC.20KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Thomsonite-Ca9.GA.10NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Tobermorite9.DG.10[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Tweddillite (TL)9.BG.05{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite9.BG.35Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Vuagnatite9.AG.60CaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Wesselsite (TL)9.EA.05SrCuSi4O10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Xonotlite9.DG.35Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Zoisite9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Åkermanite9.BB.10Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Colinowensite (TL)-BaCuSi2O6
Diegogattaite (TL)-Na2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
'Ferro-akermanite'-Ca2FeSi2O7
Lavinskyite (TL)-K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Meieranite (TL)-Na2Sr3MgSi6O17
Schizolite-NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Scottyite (TL)-BaCu2Si2O7

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Bixbyite4.3.7.2Mn3+2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Pyrophanite4.3.5.3Mn2+TiO3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Diaspore6.1.1.1AlO(OH)
Feitknechtite6.1.4.3Mn3+O(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite6.1.1.3Mn3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Portlandite6.2.1.4Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite6.2.1.3Mn(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Jacobsite7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Marokite7.2.10.1CaMn3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Braunite-II'7.5.1.3CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Neltnerite7.5.1.2CaMn3+6(SiO4)O8
AB8X16
Cryptomelane7.9.1.2K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
Vaterite14.1.2.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Pentaborates
Gowerite26.5.8.1Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Group 27 - COMPOUND BORATES
Miscellaneous
Gaudefroyite27.1.2.1Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Shigaite31.1.2.1Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Vonbezingite (TL)31.5.1.1Ca6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Miscellaneous
Ettringite31.10.2.1Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Charlesite ?32.4.4.1Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Sturmanite32.4.4.2Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite32.4.4.4Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O
Brandtite40.2.3.2Ca2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Glaucochroite51.3.2.3CaMn2+SiO4
Kirschsteinite51.3.2.2CaFe2+SiO4
Tephroite51.3.1.4Mn2+2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var. Hibschite51.4.3d.1Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Henritermierite51.4.4.1Ca3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Leucophoenicite52.3.2c.2Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Afwillite52.4.7.1Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Bultfonteinite52.4.7.2Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Mozartite52.4.2.1CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Vuagnatite52.4.2.2CaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 55 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
Åkermanite55.4.1.1Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Hennomartinite (TL)56.2.3.2SrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Jennite56.2.4.11Ca9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Kentrolite56.2.10.2Pb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2
Group 57 - SOROSILICATES Si3O10 Groups and Larger Noncyclic Groups
Insular Si3O10 and Larger Noncyclic Groups with [Si4O13] groups
Ruizite57.2.2.1Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite58.2.1a.11{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite-(Sr)58.2.1a.12{CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Zoisite58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with insular single and triple groups (n=1, 3)
Orientite58.3.1.2Ca8Mn3+10(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Sogdianite63.2.1a.13KZr2Li3Si12O30
Sugilite63.2.1a.9KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Johannsenite65.1.3a.4CaMn2+Si2O6
Nchwaningite65.1.8.1Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Bustamite65.2.1.2CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ferrobustamite65.2.1.3CaFe2+(Si2O6)
Foshagite65.2.2.1Ca4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Serandite65.2.1.5NaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=4
Taikanite65.3.3.1Sr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)66.1.3c.13[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Richterite66.1.3b.9{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Inesite66.3.3.1Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Xonotlite66.3.1.1Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Caryopilite71.1.2b.1Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
'Clinochrysotile'71.1.2d.1
Lizardite71.1.2b.2Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Effenbergerite (TL)71.2.3.3BaCuSi4O10
Ephesite71.2.2b.16NaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Minnesotaite71.2.1.5Fe2+3Si4O10(OH)2
Norrishite71.2.2b.11KLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2
Tetraferriannite71.2.2b.4KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Chamosite71.4.1.7(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Gonyerite71.4.4.1(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Clinotobermorite72.3.2.2[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Tobermorite72.3.2.1[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings
Friedelite72.4.1b.1Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Group 73 - PHYLLOSILICATES Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets
Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets with double and single layers
Orlymanite (TL)73.2.2b.2Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined islands
Parsettensite74.1.3.1(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Banalsite76.1.6.1Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Miscellaneous
Poldervaartite (TL)78.1.8.1CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Bementite78.5.2.1Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Andradite
var. Hydroandradite
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Aragonite-CaCO3
Cairncrossite (TL)-Sr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Calcite
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
-(Ca,Mn)CO3
Colinowensite (TL)-BaCuSi2O6
Cyprine (TL)-Ca19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Diaspore
var. Mangan-diaspore
-AlO(OH)
Diegogattaite (TL)-Na2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
'Ferro-akermanite'-Ca2FeSi2O7
Gageite-Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Holtstamite (TL)-Ca3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)-KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Lavinskyite (TL)-K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Magnesio-arfvedsonite-{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Manganvesuvianite-Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Meieranite (TL)-Na2Sr3MgSi6O17
Olmiite-CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Quartz
var. Amethyst
-SiO2
Schizolite-NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Scottyite (TL)-BaCu2Si2O7
Thomsonite-Ca-NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Tweddillite (TL)-{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Wesselsite (TL)-SrCuSi4O10

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
H HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
H Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
H PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
H Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
H LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
H CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
H DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
H CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
H AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
H InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
H GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
H BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H PortlanditeCa(OH)2
H PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
H ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
H Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
H Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
H XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
H BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
H BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H DiasporeAlO(OH)
H EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
H FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
H FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
H Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
H JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
H LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
H Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
H Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
H SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
H SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
H VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
H TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
H CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
H OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
H Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
H Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
H MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
H MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
H LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
H VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
H GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
H OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H Diaspore var. Mangan-diasporeAlO(OH)
H FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
H SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
H Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
LiLithium
Li Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Li LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Li SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Li EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Li NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
Li SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
B GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
B SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
B GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
B CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
CCarbon
C ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
C VateriteCaCO3
C StrontianiteSrCO3
OOxygen
O OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
O EffenbergeriteBaCuSi4O10
O HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
O Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
O PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
O Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O WesselsiteSrCuSi4O10
O HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
O LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
O ScottyiteBaCu2Si2O7
O ColinowensiteBaCuSi2O6
O CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
O DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
O MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
O CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
O AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
O InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
O GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
O BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O PortlanditeCa(OH)2
O PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
O RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
O ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
O Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
O Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
O BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O DiasporeAlO(OH)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
O FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
O FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
O FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
O GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
O GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
O Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O HematiteFe2O3
O HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
O JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
O JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
O KentrolitePb2Mn23+(Si2O7)O2
O KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
O LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
O Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MarokiteCaMn23+O4
O Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
O SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
O SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
O TephroiteMn22+SiO4
O VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O CelestineSrSO4
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
O TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
O ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
O NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O VateriteCaCO3
O Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
O CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
O PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
O Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
O OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
O Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
O Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
O MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
O MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
O LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
O Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
O Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
O GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
O VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
O BixbyiteMn23+O3
O GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
O Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
O OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
O Diaspore var. Mangan-diasporeAlO(OH)
O FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
O SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
O CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
FFluorine
F Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
F BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Na CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Na DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Na MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
Na SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Na Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Na Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Na SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
MgMagnesium
Mg Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Mg MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
Mg CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Mg ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Mg Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Mg Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mg ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Mg LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
AlAluminium
Al Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Al CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al DiasporeAlO(OH)
Al EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Al VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Al ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Al Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Al Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Al Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Al Diaspore var. Mangan-diasporeAlO(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Al CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
SiSilicon
Si OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Si EffenbergeriteBaCuSi4O10
Si HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Si Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Si PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si WesselsiteSrCuSi4O10
Si HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Si LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Si ScottyiteBaCu2Si2O7
Si ColinowensiteBaCuSi2O6
Si CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Si DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Si MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
Si CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Si AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Si InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Si GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Si ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Si Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Si Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Si BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
Si FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Si FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Si GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
Si Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Si JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Si JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
Si KentrolitePb2Mn23+(Si2O7)O2
Si KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
Si LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
Si Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Si SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
Si TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Si VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Si TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Si ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
Si Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Si CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Si Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
Si OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Si Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Si Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Si MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
Si MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Si LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
Si Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
Si Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
Si VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Si Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
Si OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
Si SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Si BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Si Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Si CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
S ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
S BaryteBaSO4
S EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
S CelestineSrSO4
S ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
ClChlorine
Cl FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
K LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
K SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
K Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
K Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
K TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
K NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
K SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
K CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
CaCalcium
Ca OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Ca PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ca VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Ca Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Ca CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Ca DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Ca CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Ca AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Ca BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Ca PortlanditeCa(OH)2
Ca RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Ca ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Ca Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Ca Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Ca ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Ca FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
Ca FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Ca GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Ca GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Ca JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Ca JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
Ca KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
Ca MarokiteCaMn23+O4
Ca Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Ca Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Ca SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Ca VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Ca Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Ca ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Ca VateriteCaCO3
Ca Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
Ca OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Ca Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Ca Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Ca MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Ca NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
Ca Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Ca VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Ca Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
Ca OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ca SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Ca BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
TiTitanium
Ti PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
MnManganese
Mn OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Mn HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Mn Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Mn PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Mn Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Mn InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Mn BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Mn PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
Mn RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Mn BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Mn FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Mn GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Mn GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
Mn Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Mn HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
Mn HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Mn JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
Mn KentrolitePb2Mn23+(Si2O7)O2
Mn LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
Mn MarokiteCaMn23+O4
Mn Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Mn SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
Mn SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Mn TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Mn KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Mn NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Mn ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mn ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Mn NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
Mn JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Mn CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Mn PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
Mn OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Mn MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Mn NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Mn TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
Mn BixbyiteMn23+O3
Mn GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
Mn OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Mn FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Mn CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Mn BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
FeIron
Fe SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
Fe Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
Fe Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Fe VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Fe TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Fe JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Fe Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
Fe Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
CuCopper
Cu EffenbergeriteBaCuSi4O10
Cu VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Cu WesselsiteSrCuSi4O10
Cu LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Cu ScottyiteBaCu2Si2O7
Cu ColinowensiteBaCuSi2O6
Cu DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Cu CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Cu CopperCu
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
SrStrontium
Sr HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Sr Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Sr WesselsiteSrCuSi4O10
Sr CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Sr MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Sr TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
ZrZirconium
Zr SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
BaBarium
Ba EffenbergeriteBaCuSi4O10
Ba ScottyiteBaCu2Si2O7
Ba ColinowensiteBaCuSi2O6
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
Ba BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
PbLead
Pb KentrolitePb2Mn23+(Si2O7)O2

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Mesoproterozoic : 1040 Ma to 1010 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded on mindat.org for this locality and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Mesoproterozoic
   Stenian
ⓘ Norrishite (youngest age)1010 Ma
ⓘ Norrishite (oldest age)1040 Ma

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
De Villiers, J.P.R. (1979) A mineralogical investigation of Mamatwan and Wessels manganese ores. Report 1920. National Institute of Metallurgy (now Mintek), Randburg, 10 pages.
Dunn, P.J., Brummer, J.J., Belsky, H. (1980) Sugilite, a second occurrence: Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 37–39.
Dixon, R.D. (1985) Sugilite and associated minerals from Wessels mine, Kalahari manganese field. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa, 88, 11–17.
Mining Annual Review (1985) 90.
Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61, 10.
Dixon, R.D. (1989) Sugilite and associated metamorphic silicate minerals from Wessels mine, Kalahari manganese field. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of South Africa: 93. Pretoria, 47 pages.
Robinson, George W., King, Vandall T. (1989) What's New in Minerals? Sixteenth Annual Rochester Academy of Science Mineralogical Symposium. Mineralogical Record, 20(5), 387-399 [389].
Von Bezing, K.L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: an update. Mineralogical Record, 22(4), 279-302.
Dai, Yongshan, Harlow, George E. (1992) Description and crystal structure of vonbezingite, a new Ca-Cu-SO4-H2O mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 77(11-12), 1292-1300.
Armbruster, T., Oberhaensli, R., Bermanec, V., Dixon, R.D. (1993) Hennomartinite and kornite, two new Mn3+ rich silicates from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari, South Africa. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 73, 349–355.
Armbruster, T., Oberhaensli, R., Kunz, M. (1993) Taikanite, BaSr2Mn3+2O2[Si4O12], from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: A chain silicate related to synthetic Ca3Mn3+2O2[Si4O12]. American Mineralogist, 78(9-10), 1088–1093.
Dai, Yongshan, Harlow, George E., McGhie, Andrew R. (1993) Poldervaartite, Ca(Ca0.5Mn0.5)(SiO3OH)(OH), a new acid nesosilicate from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: Crystal structure and description. American Mineralogist, 78(9-10), 1082-1087.
Gutzmer, J., Cairncross, B. (1993) Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine, South Africa. Mineralogical Record, 24(5), 365-368.
Fritsch, E., Shigley, J.E. (1994) Causes of the purple and pink colours of manganoan sugilite from the Wessels mine, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(393), 681–685.
Taggart, J.E. Jr, Foord, E.E., Shigley, J.E. (1994) Chemical composition and structural formula of manganoan sugilite from the Wessels mine, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(393), 679–681.
Von Bezing, L., Gutzmer, J. (1994) Das Kalahari Manganerzfeld und seine Mineralien (II). Mineralien-Welt, 5(5), 41-59.
Cairncross, B., R. Dixon (1995) Minerals of South Africa.
Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., Gutzmer, J. (1995) Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Giester, G., Rieck, B. (1996) Wesselsite, SrCu[Si4O10], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60(402), 795–798.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., Gutzmer, J. (1997) The Manganese Adventure – The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Gutzmer, J., Cairncross, B. (2001) Seltene Mineralien aus dem Kalahari-Manganerzfeld, Südafrika. Lapis, 26(10), 32-42.
Gutzmer, J., Cairncross, B. (2002) Spectacular Minerals from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Rocks & Minerals, 77(2): 94-107.
Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., Villa, I.M. (2003) Norrishite, K(Mn3+2Li)Si4O10(O)2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 39Ar-40Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.
Hålenius, U., Häussermann, U., Harryson, H. (2005) Holtstamite, Ca3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)3-x(H4O4)x, a new tetragonal hydrogarnet from Wessels Mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 17, 375–382.
Knight, K.S., Henderson, C.M.B, Clark, S.M. (2010) Structural variations in the wesselsite-effenbergerite (Sr1-xBaxCuSi4O10) solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22, 411–423.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. J. (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S., Pinch, W. (2013) Scottyite, the natural analogue of synthetic BaCu2Si2O7, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 98(2-3), 478–484.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., Pinch, W.W. (2014) Lavinskyite, K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4, isotypic with planchéite, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 99(2-3), 525-530.
Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B., Topa, D., von Bezing, K.-L. (2016) Cairncrossite, a new phyllosilicate from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 495-505.
Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., Krivovichev, S.V. (2017) Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 295-306.

External Links


Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

Africa
African PlateTectonic Plate

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