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Rio Tinto Mines (Riotinto Mines), Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spaini
Regional Level Types
Rio Tinto Mines (Riotinto Mines)Group of Mines
Minas de RiotintoMunicipality
HuelvaProvince
AndalusiaAutonomous Community
SpainCountry

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Key
06774030015384915691041.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
06787410015384915709420.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
02537660015384915713924.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
08732960015384834943528.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
02716970015384837608849.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
07386970015384837598995.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
06774030015384915691041.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
06787410015384915709420.jpg
View of the Rio Tinto pyrite mining area, in 1901.

Rio Tinto Mines, Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
37° 41' 57'' North , 6° 34' 15'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Mines
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Nerva6,009 (2012)1.9km
Zalamea la Real3,506 (2012)8.1km
Berrocal369 (2012)10.4km
Valverde del Camino12,780 (2012)21.2km
Aracena7,351 (2014)21.7km
Name(s) in local language(s):
Minas de Rio Tinto (Minas de Riotinto), Minas de Riotinto, Huelva, Andalucía, España


A massive sulphide (VMS) deposit located on the Rio Tinto river. In the past, it was mainly worked for copper and pyrite; presently the gossan is worked for gold. Mining seems to have begun during the Phoenician period, for the silver in jarosites. Thus, this mine is perhaps the oldest major mine in the world.

Click here to read more about the geology and mining history of Rio Tinto and the Iberian Pyrite Belt.

NOTES:
- Before the township Minas de Riotinto was formed in 1841, the Rio Tinto mines belonged to Nerva township.
- Some pyrites sold as coming from here actually come from the Ambasaguas or Navajun mines in La Rioja, Spain.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

83 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alloclasite
Formula: Co1-xFexAsS
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Alpersite
Formula: (Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
Reference: Romero, A., I. Gonzalez & E. Galan (2006): The role of efflorescent sulfates in the storage of trace elements in stream waters polluted by acid mine-drainage: the case of Peña del Hierro, southwestern Spain. Can. Mineral. 44, 1431-1446.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Argentojarosite
Formula: AgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Botryogen
Formula: MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Description: Well-shaped crystals larger than one centimeter.
Reference: Calvo, M., Gómez, F., and Viñals, J. (1999) Mineralogía de la Faja Pirítica Ibérica. Bocamina, 4, 50-86.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 543.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Calvo, M., Gómez, F., and Viñals, J. (1999) Mineralogía de la Faja Pirítica Ibérica. Bocamina, 4, 50-86.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Leistel, J.M., Marcoux, E., Thiéblemont, D., Quesada, C., Sánchez, A., Almodóvar, G.R., Pascual, E., and Sáez, R.(1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 2-30.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Nehlig, P., Cassard, D., and Marcoux, E. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 137-149.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Coquimbite
Formula: AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Cornetite
Formula: Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Calvo, M. Gómez, F. y Viñals, J. (1999). Mineralogía de la Faja Pirítica Ibérica. Bocamina (4) 50-86.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Ferricopiapite
Formula: Fe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Freibergite
Formula: (Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Leistel, J.M., Marcoux, E., Thiéblemont, D., Quesada, C., Sánchez, A., Almodóvar, G.R., Pascual, E., and Sáez, R.(1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 2-30.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Gratonite
Formula: Pb9As4S15
Habit: Prismatic
Reference: Calvo, M. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 págs.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: MinMag 67(2):263-278
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Kornelite
Formula: Fe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: The purported lepidocrocite specimens form these and other mines in Huelva are really irridescent goethite.
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Magnesiocopiapite
Formula: MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Romero, A., I. Gonzalez & E. Galan (2006): The role of efflorescent sulfates in the storage of trace elements in stream waters polluted by acid mine-drainage: the case of Peña del Hierro, southwestern Spain. Can. Mineral. 44, 1431-1446.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Mallardite
Formula: MnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Meneghinite
Formula: Pb13CuSb7S24
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Metavoltine
Formula: Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Leistel, J.M., Marcoux, E., Thiéblemont, D., Quesada, C., Sánchez, A., Almodóvar, G.R., Pascual, E., and Sáez, R.(1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 2-30.
Nuffieldite
Formula: Cu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Parabutlerite
Formula: Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Perroudite
Formula: Hg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Romero, A., I. Gonzalez & E. Galan (2006): The role of efflorescent sulfates in the storage of trace elements in stream waters polluted by acid mine-drainage: the case of Peña del Hierro, southwestern Spain. Can. Mineral. 44, 1431-1446.
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Calvo, Miguel. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 págs.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Calvo, M. (2016). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. VIII. Cuarzo y otros minerales de la sílice. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 399 págs.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Rhodonite
Formula: CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Rhomboclase
Formula: (H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Rozenite
Formula: FeSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Siderotil
Formula: FeSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Leistel, J.M., Marcoux, E., Thiéblemont, D., Quesada, C., Sánchez, A., Almodóvar, G.R., Pascual, E., and Sáez, R.(1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 2-30.
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
Starkeyite
Formula: MgSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: Romero, A., I. Gonzalez & E. Galan (2006): The role of efflorescent sulfates in the storage of trace elements in stream waters polluted by acid mine-drainage: the case of Peña del Hierro, southwestern Spain. Can. Mineral. 44, 1431-1446.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Calvo, M. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol I. Elementos. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 156 págs.
Szomolnokite
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
'Tennantite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Reference: Bocamina, (4), (1999) 50-86.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: [MinRec 27:284]
'Turgite'
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Alloclasite2.EB.10bCo1-xFexAsS
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Freibergite2.GB.05(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gratonite2.JB.55Pb9As4S15
Meneghinite2.HB.05bPb13CuSb7S24
Nuffieldite2.JB.25gCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Perroudite2.FC.20cHg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Skutterudite2.EC.05CoAs3
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
'Tennantite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Lepidocrocite ?4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alpersite7.CB.35(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Argentojarosite7.BC.10AgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Botryogen7.DC.25MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite7.CB.55AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Ferricopiapite7.DB.35Fe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Goslarite7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hexahydrite7.CB.25MgSO4 · 6H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Kornelite7.CB.60Fe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
Magnesiocopiapite7.DB.35MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Mallardite7.CB.35MnSO4 · 7H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Metavoltine7.DF.35Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Parabutlerite7.DC.10Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Rhomboclase7.CB.55(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Rozenite7.CB.15FeSO4 · 4H2O
Römerite7.CB.75Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Siderotil7.CB.20FeSO4 · 5H2O
Starkeyite7.CB.15MgSO4 · 4H2O
Szomolnokite7.CB.05FeSO4 · H2O
Voltaite7.CC.25K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Cornetite8.BE.15Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Chamosite9.EC.55(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Rhodonite9.DK.05CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Tephroite9.AC.05Mn2+2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Turgite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe1-xS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Alloclasite2.12.6.2Co1-xFexAsS
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Skutterudite2.12.17.1CoAs3
Chlor-sulfides
Perroudite2.15.5.1Hg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Freibergite3.3.6.3(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Gratonite3.3.2.1Pb9As4S15
Meneghinite3.3.5.1Pb13CuSb7S24
Nuffieldite3.3.4.1Cu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
'Tennantite'3.3.6.2Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite ?6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
Hydrated Acid Sulfates
Rhomboclase29.1.1.1(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Metavoltine29.4.6.1Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hexahydrite29.6.8.1MgSO4 · 6H2O
Mallardite29.6.10.5MnSO4 · 7H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Rozenite29.6.6.1FeSO4 · 4H2O
Siderotil29.6.7.2FeSO4 · 5H2O
Starkeyite29.6.6.2MgSO4 · 4H2O
Szomolnokite29.6.2.2FeSO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Römerite29.7.2.1Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Coquimbite29.8.3.1AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Kornelite29.8.2.1Fe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
Miscellaneous
Voltaite29.9.1.1K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Argentojarosite30.2.5.5AgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Botryogen31.9.6.1MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Parabutlerite31.9.2.1Fe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Ferricopiapite31.10.5.4Fe3+0.67Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Magnesiocopiapite31.10.5.2MgFe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq
Cornetite41.3.2.1Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
A5(XO4)3Zq
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Tephroite51.3.1.4Mn2+2SiO4
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Chamosite71.4.1.7(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Alpersite-(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
'Chlorite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Turgite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
H MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
H ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
H ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H FerricopiapiteFe3+0.67Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
H SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
H CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
H HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
H VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
H RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
H SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
H MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H Alpersite(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
H StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
O MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
O ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
O TenoriteCuO
O QuartzSiO2
O AnglesitePbSO4
O ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O FerricopiapiteFe3+0.67Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
O RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
O TephroiteMn22+SiO4
O CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
O HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
O VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
O RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
O SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
O MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Alpersite(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
O StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
NaSodium
Na MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
Mg Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Mg MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg Alpersite(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
Mg StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
AlAluminium
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Al VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Si TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
SSulfur
S GratonitePb9As4S15
S BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
S ChalcociteCu2S
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
S ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
S TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S FerricopiapiteFe3+0.67Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
S NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
S PerrouditeHg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
S RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
S SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
S Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
S CinnabarHgS
S HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
S VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
S RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
S SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
S CovelliteCuS
S SulphurS8
S MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S Alpersite(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
S StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl PerrouditeHg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
MnManganese
Mn MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2O
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Mn TephroiteMn22+SiO4
FeIron
Fe BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2O
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Fe ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Fe AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
Fe ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe FerricopiapiteFe3+0.67Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
Fe RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2O
Fe Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Fe VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2O
Fe RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Fe SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
Fe MagnesiocopiapiteMgFe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
CoCobalt
Co AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
Co SkutteruditeCoAs3
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Cu MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
Cu NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Cu Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Cu CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu Alpersite(Mg,Cu)(SO4) · 7H2O
ZnZinc
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As GratonitePb9As4S15
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
As AlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsS
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As SkutteruditeCoAs3
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
BrBromine
Br PerrouditeHg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
AgSilver
Ag ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag PerrouditeHg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
Ag Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
Sb NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Sb Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
IIodine
I PerrouditeHg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg PerrouditeHg5Ag4S5(I,Br)2Cl2
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb GratonitePb9As4S15
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
Pb NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi BismuthBi
Bi NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Burkart-Baumann, I., Ottemann, J., and Nuber, B. (1968) Gratonite from the Rio Tinto deposits, southern Spain. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1968, 215-224 (in German).
Garcia Garcia, Gonzalo (1996) Famous Mineral Localities: The Río Tinto Mines, Huelva, Spain. Mineralogical Record, 27(4), 275-285.
Leistel, J.M., Marcoux, E., Thiéblemont, D., Quesada, C., Sánchez, A., Almodóvar, G.R., Pascual, E., and Sáez, R. (1998) The volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Review and preface to the Thematic Issue. Mineralium Deposita, 33(1-2), 2-30.
Nehlig, P., Cassard, D.G., and Marcoux, E. (1997) Geometry and genesis of feeder zones of massive sulphide deposits: constraints from the Rio Tinto ore deposit (Spain). Mineralium Deposita, 33(1), 137-149.
Calvo, M., Gómez, F., and Viñals, J. (1999) Mineralogía de la Faja Pirítica Ibérica. Bocamina, 4, 50-86.
Calvo, M. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 pp.

Mindat Articles

Rio Tinto and the Iberian Pyrite Belt by Nathalie Brandes


External Links

http://milksci.unizar.es/miner/minespana/riotinto/riotinto1999.html (The works of Riotinto mines in 1999)

http://milksci.unizar.es/miner/minespana/riotinto/papelesriotinto.html (Old papers from Riotinto mines)

http://www.foro-minerales.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=4432 (full description of the locality with many pictures and references, in Spanish)

http://www.foro-minerales.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=3222 (a geological and mineralogical trip through the SW of Spain, in Spanish)

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