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Rutile

This page kindly sponsored by Southeastern Mineral Specimens
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About RutileHide

Formula:
TiO2
As a Commodity:
Colour:
Blood red, brownish yellow, brown-red, yellow, greyish-black, black, brown, bluish or violet
Lustre:
Adamantine, Metallic
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
4.23
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
The name rutile was first introduced by the German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1800 (cfr. Lampadius 1800 and Ludwig 1803). The name is from the Latin rutilus, meaning "reddish." The mineral was already known under other names, such as "red schorl" and some other names, some of them later recognized as synonyms or varieties.
I. von Born was the first who described the mineral, in his catalog (1772: 34), as Basaltes crystallisatus ruber [Red crystalline schorl, the latin Basaltes was at the time used for both "schorl" and basalt columns]. The locality given by von Born was Murán near Revúca, Slovakia (Papp 2004). Romé de Lisle (1783) used the name schorl rouge ou purpre [red or purple schorl] for a mineral found as inclusion in quartz from Madagascar. Later, in 1796, De Saussure described sagenite from St. Gothard in Switzerland. Sagenite is now recognized as a variety of rutile, see Sagenite (of Saussure). The element titanium was described by Klaproth (1795) from a specimen of hungarischen rother schörl (huangarian red schorl) from what is todays Slovakia. Richard Kirwan (1796) described the mineral under the name titanite (in Mindat see the entry titanite (of Kirwan)) and Haüy (1801) used the name titane oxydé.
The most common member of the Rutile Group. Rutile is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide, TiO2, found in nature.

Sellaite (magnesium fluoride, MgF2) also has a rutile-type structure. Compare 'UM1987-04-O:Ti'.

Note on the type locality:
Since Werner introduced rutile in 1800, Horcajuelo de la Sierra (originally erronously reported as Cajuelo) in the province of Burgos in Spain has been regarded as the type locality of rutile. A study by Papp (2004, 2007) has show that the type locality should be Revúca, Slovakia . See also the messageboard at https://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-429614.html.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rutile.


Classification of RutileHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
4.4.1.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.9.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of RutileHide

Adamantine, Metallic
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Blood red, brownish yellow, brown-red, yellow, greyish-black, black, brown, bluish or violet
Streak:
Greyish black, pale brown, light yellow
Hardness:
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=894 - 974 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{110} distinct, {100} less distinct; and, {111} in traces.
Parting:
On {092} due to twin gliding; also on {011}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.23(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    4.25 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of RutileHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.605 - 2.613 nε = 2.899 - 2.901
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.294
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Dispersion:
Strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Shades of red, brown, yellow and green.

Chemical Properties of RutileHide

Formula:
TiO2
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ta,Nb,Cr,V,Sn,W,Sb

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Neoarchean to Carboniferous : 2665 Ma to 336.3 ± 0.8 Ma - based on 39 recorded ages.

Crystallography of RutileHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P42/mnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.5937 Å, c = 2.9587 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.644
Unit Cell V:
62.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Commonly prismatic, often slender to acicular [001]. Prism zone vertically striated or furrowed. Usually terminated by {101} or {111}; {001} rare. Rarely pyramidal. Granular massive.
Twinning:
On {011} common. Often geniculated; also contact twins of very varied habit. Sixlings and eightlings at times, occasionally polysynthetic. The twins are sometimes distorted by extension of a pair of faces on {011}. Twin gliding observed on this plane as well. Also on {031}, rare. On {092}, as twin gliding plane.

Crystallographic forms of RutileHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Rutile no.26 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.52 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.62 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rutile no.107 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of RutileHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
HematiteFe2O3
BrookiteTiO2
AnataseTiO2
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented microscopic needles of rutile are frequently observed in corundum, pseudobrookite, phlogopite, and quartz.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of RutileHide

Synonyms of RutileHide

Other Language Names for RutileHide

Varieties of RutileHide

EdisoniteA crystallographic variety of rutile.
Ferrian Antimonian RutileAn Fe- and Sb-bearing variety of rutile.
Originally reported from Yadovitaya fumarole, Tolbachik volcano, Russia.
Gel-RutileOne of the constituents of leucoxene pseudomorphs.
IlmenorutileA Nb-bearing rutile (see also Niobian Rutile); compare also the Ta-bearing variety "strüverite".
Iserite (of Janovsky)Doubtful variety
LusteriteTrade name for artificial rutile.
NigrineAn iron-rich variety of rutile, or an intimate intergrowth of rutile and ilmenite
Niobian Chromian RutileNb-V-enriched variety from DeBeers mine (kimberlites), associated, i.a., with hawthorneite.
Niobian RutileA Nb-bearing variety of rutile.
See also ilmenorutile.
Sagenite (of Saussure)The original definition of the name Sagenite was made by Horace Bénédict de Saussure in 1796.
StrüveriteA Ta- and Fe-bearing variety of rutile.
Compare also ilmenorutile.

Relationship of Rutile to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
ParatelluriteTeO2Tet.
PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
843 photos of Rutile associated with HematiteFe2O3
751 photos of Rutile associated with QuartzSiO2
336 photos of Rutile associated with AnataseTiO2
104 photos of Rutile associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
103 photos of Rutile associated with BrookiteTiO2
102 photos of Rutile associated with CalciteCaCO3
80 photos of Rutile associated with IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
71 photos of Rutile associated with SideriteFeCO3
65 photos of Rutile associated with Chlorite Group
55 photos of Rutile associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2Mon.
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb2O6Tet.
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.DB.15cNsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteV4+O2Orth.
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.20Scrutinyiteα-PbO2Orth.
4.DB.25IshikawaiteU4+Fe2+Nb2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8Orth.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)Y(U4+,Fe2+)Nb2O8
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe3+,Y)2(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O8Mon.
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,U,Th,Ca,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4Mon.
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4Mon. 2/m
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth.
4.DB.35Qitianlingite(Fe,Mn)2(Nb,Ta)2WO10Orth.
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFe2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8Mon.
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMn2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8Mon.
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteV3+TiO3(OH)Mon.
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.60Biehlite((Sb,As)O)2[MoO4]Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.4.1.2IlmenorutileFex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2Tet.
4.4.1.3Strüverite(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
4.4.1.4PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.5CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.6PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.4.1.7ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.9StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2Orth.
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.9.11HiboniteCaAl12O19Hex.
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6Amor.
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10Hex.
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16Tet.
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Rutile in petrologyHide

References for RutileHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Born, I. von (1772) Lithophylacium Bornianum, seu Index Fossilium. Vol. I: 34 [as Basaltes crystallisatus ruber, cited in Papp 2004]
Delamétherie, J.C. (1795) Théorie de la Terre. Paris 1795, Tome 2, p. 402-403 (2nd ed. 1797: 2: 333)[as sagenite]
Romé de Lisle, J. B. L. (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps de règne minéral. 2nd edition. Paris: L`impr. de Monsieur. Vol 2:421-422 [as schorl rouge ou purpre]
Haüy, H. J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie, 1.ed. Paris: Courcuier [as titane oxydé].
Lampadius, W. A. (1800) Noch ein Paar Bemertungen über den Uran- und Titangehalt einiger Fossilien. Der rothe schörl (Rutil, nach herrn Bergrath Werner), in Sammlung practisch-chemischer Abhandlungen und vermischter Bemerkungen, Volume 3, Walther Dresden
Ludwig, C. F. (1803) Rutil, in Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A. G. Werner, Volume 1 Siegfried Lebrécht Crusius Leipzig: 305-306
Miller (1840) Phil. Mag.: 17: 268.
Hidden, W.E. (1888) On edisonite, a fourth form of titanic acid. American Journal of Science: 36: 272.
Prior, G.T., Zambonini, F.Dr. (1908) On Strüverite and Its Relation to Ilmenorutile. Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 78-89.
Lacroix (1912) Bull. soc. min.: 35: 185.
Ungemach (1916) Bull. soc. min.: 39: 5.
Gliszczynski, S. (1940) Die struktur-geometrische Deutung der Rutil-, Anatas- und Brookitzwillinge. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. Abt. A.: Mineralogie und Petrographie: 9: 181.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 554-561.
Meagher, E.P., Lager, G.A. (1979) Polyhedral thermal expansion in the TiO2 polymorphs; refinement of the crystal structures of rutile and brookite at high temperature. The Canadian Mineralogist: 17: 77-85.
Foord, E.E., Chirnside, W., Davis, A.M., Lichte, F.E., Esposito, K.J. (1995) A new U–Ti–Ca–HREE hydrated oxide and associated niobian rutile from Topaz Valley, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 26: 122-128.
Smith, D.C., Perseil, E.-A. (1997) Sb-rich rutile in the manganese concentrations at St. Marcel-Praborna, Aosta Valley, Italy: petrology and crystal-chemistry. Mineralogical Magazine: 61: 655-669.
Maldener, J., Rauch, F., Gavranic, M., Beran, A. (2001) OH absorption coefficients of rutile and cassiterite deduced from nuclear reaction analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Mineralogy and Petrology: 71: 21-29.
Withers, A.C., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (2003) Rutile/TiO2 II phase equilibria. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 145: 199-204.
Papp, G. (2004) History of minerals, rocks and fossil resins discovered in the Carpathian Region. Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest: 2004, p. 95-96
Bauer, W.H. (2007) The rutile type and its derivatives. Crystallography Reviews: 13: 65-113.
Papp, G., (2007) On the type locality of rutile (review of contemporary data about the occurrence of the “Hungarian red schorl”). In: Jancsy, P. (Ed.), Prvenstvá nerastnej ríše Slovenska — The unique minerals of Slovakia. Slovenské banské múzeum, Banská Štiavnica, pp. 51–55.
Rečnik, A., Stanković, N., Daneu, N. (2015) Topotaxial reactions during the genesis of oriented rutile/hematite intergrowths from Mwinilunga (Zambia). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 169: 19. [http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00410-015-1107-x.pdf]
Nespolo, M. & Souvignier, B. (2015): Structural rationale for the occurrence of the elbow twins in cassiterite and rutile. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 110, 157-165.
Emma Hart, Craig Storey, Emilie Bruand, Hans-Peter Schertl, Bruce D. Alexander (2016): Mineral inclusions in rutile: A novel recorder of HP-UHP metamorphism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 446, 137–148. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012821X16302072 (open access)]

Internet Links for RutileHide

Localities for RutileHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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