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Mamatwan Mine, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape, South Africai
Regional Level Types
Mamatwan MineMine
Kalahari manganese fieldOre Field
Northern CapeProvince
South AfricaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
27° 23' 32'' South , 22° 59' 18'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Kathu9,219 (2012)34.3km
Kuruman9,093 (2012)44.3km
Owned/operated by:
Hotazel Manganese Mines (pty) Ltd (40%) - a subsidiary between Anglo American plc, and


A manganese mine located in northern Cape Province. The open pit operation exploits low-grade manganese ore, compared to the the northerly located Wessels and N'Chwaning mines that exploit high-grade manganese ore. It is the latter that accounts for most of the secondary, collector minerals, as opposed to the low-grade mineralization, hence the Mamatwan mine produces few secondary, aesthetic species.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


31 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Habit: massive
Description: thumbnail specimens
Reference: South African Micromount Society, Kalahari Manganese Fields - KMF, by Dixon, R., and Bezing, L. Von., (1989) Locality datasheet ML 02
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Lithiophorite
Formula: (Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
'Manganese'
Formula: Mn
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Manjiroite
Formula: Na(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
'Wad'
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Manganese' ?1.AE.30Mn
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Bixbyite4.CB.10Mn3+2O3
Cryptomelane4.DK.05aK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Jacobsite4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Lithiophorite4.FE.25(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Manjiroite4.DK.05aNa(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite5.AB.05(Ca,Mn)CO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Bixbyite4.3.7.2Mn3+2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Miscellaneous
Lithiophorite6.4.1.1(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Jacobsite7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AB8X16
Cryptomelane7.9.1.2K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Manjiroite7.9.1.3Na(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Calcite
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
-(Ca,Mn)CO3
'Manganese' ?-Mn
Quartz
var. Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
LiLithium
Li Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
OOxygen
O BixbyiteMn23+O3
O CalciteCaCO3
O CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O ManjiroiteNa(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O TridymiteSiO2
O HematiteFe2O3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O BaryteBaSO4
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
NaSodium
Na ManjiroiteNa(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
SiSilicon
Si Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TridymiteSiO2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
SSulfur
S ChalcociteCu2S
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S MarcasiteFeS2
KPotassium
K CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Ca Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
MnManganese
Mn BixbyiteMn23+O3
Mn CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Mn Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn ManjiroiteNa(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
Mn KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Mn Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn ManganeseMn
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Fe NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
BaBarium
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Ba BaryteBaSO4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
De Villiers, J.P.R. (1979). A mineralogical investigation of Mamatwan and Wessels manganese ores. Report 1920. National Institute of Metallurgy (now Mintek), Randburg, 10 pages.
Kleyenstüber, A.S.E. (1979). ’n Mineralogiese ondersoek van hoë-temperatuur-reduksieprodukte van mangaanerts vanuit die Mamatwanmyn, Kalaharimangaanveld. MSc dissertation (unpublished), Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, 125 pages.
Nel, C.J. (1984). Die mineralogie en geochemie van die Mamatwanertsliggaam, Kalaharimangaanveld, Transvaal-Supergroep. MSc dissertation (unpublished), Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, 119 pages.
Mining Annual Review (1985): 90.
Nel, C.J., Beukes, N.J. and De Villiers, J.P.R. (1986). The Mamatwan manganese mine of the Kalahari manganese field. In: Anhaeusser, C.R. and Maske, S. (editors). Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg, 963–978.
Cairncross, B. and R. Dixon (1995) Minerals of South Africa.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N. and Gutzmer, J. (1997): The Manganese Adventure – The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
Gutzmer, J., Beukes, N.J. and Yeh, H-W. (1997). Metasomatic and supergene fault-controlled alteration of Early Proterozoic sedimentary manganese ore at Mamatwan Mine, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 100, 53–71.
Ramos Preston, P.C.C. (2001). Physical and chemical characterisation of the manganese ore bed at Mamatwan mine, Kalahari Manganese Field. MSc dissertation (unpublished), Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg, 140 pp.

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