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Mammoth Mine (Mammoth Copper Company; Anderson Mine; Mayflower Mine; Sheridan Mine; Gillispie Mine), Copper Crest group, Mammoth Butte, Backbone District, West Shasta Copper - Zinc Mining District, Klamath Mountains, Shasta Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Mammoth Mine (Mammoth Copper Company; Anderson Mine; Mayflower Mine; Sheridan Mine; Gillispie Mine)Mine
Copper Crest group- not defined -
Mammoth ButteTable/Butte
Backbone DistrictMining District
West Shasta Copper - Zinc Mining DistrictMining District
Klamath MountainsMountain Range
Shasta Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
40° 45' 43'' North , 122° 27' 16'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Central Valley (historical)4,340 (2015)11.5km
Shasta Lake10,159 (2017)11.5km
Mountain Gate943 (2011)11.5km
Keswick451 (2011)15.5km
French Gulch346 (2011)16.9km


A former Cu-Au-Ag-S-Zn-Pb-Cd-Fe mine located in sec. 32, T34N, R5W, MDM, 1.5 km (4,800 feet) E of Mammoth Butte (coordinates of record), on the divide between Shoemaker Gulch and Little Backbone Creek, on private land (patented claim). Discovered 1880. First production 1890. Produced principally during the period 1905-1925. Owned by U.V. Industries (100%), California (1978). Later Owner-Operator was the U.S. Smelting, Refining and Mining Company. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 1,000 meters. Location point selected as adit symbol on USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle map, which represents 470-level adit (main haulage level for mine). Access route to mine not determined at this time. Quadrangle map shows unpaved road to mine.

NOTE: Early reports of the California State Mineralogist make unclear reference to a Mammoth Mine about 6 miles to the south in the Old Diggings District. The 29th Report of the State Mineralogist contains a map of the Old Diggings District, which shows that the Mammoth Mine there is distinct from the Mammoth Mine in the West Shasta District. U.S. Smelting, Refining and Mining Company also owned patented claims in the Old Diggings District.

Mineralization is a Late Devonian replacement massive sulphide deposit (Deposit model: code 184; USGS model code 28a; Massive sulfide, kuroko), hosted in the Balaklala Rhyolite (Late Devonian). The ore body is tabular and strikes S60W and dips 14W at a thickness of 33.53 meters and a width of 304.8 meters and a length of 1,280 meters. Ore bodies also include a tabular, disseminated tabular body and a lenticular ore body. Primary mode of origin was hydrothermal with a secondary mode of contact metasomatic. Pyrite is major ore component. Local rocks include Paleozoic metavolcanic rocks, unit 1 (Eastern Klamath Mountains).

Ore control was folding and faulting; stratigraphic control, foliation, main arch and minor flexures and location of feeder fissures (faults and shear zones). Kinkel and Hall (1952) believed the ore bodies occur along the crest of a broad arch marked by steep cleavage, which is absent elsewhere. District-wide, Albers and Bain (1985) identified three main linear trends, N23?E, N37?E, and N60?E defined by faults, clusters of ore bodies and the long axes of ore bodies. Furthermore they noted that most of the large ore bodies occur at the intersections of these trends and surmised that the faults, especially at the intersections, provided conduits for emanating ore fluids. Post-mineral normal faults disrupt the lateral continuity of the ore. The massive sulfide occurs with sharp contact within the upper unit of the Balaklala Rhyolite. The coarse phenocryst unit of the Balaklala Rhyolite consistently overlies the ore.

Moderate wall rock alteration is present (interm. argillic, sericitic & pyritization). Sericitic alteration: quartz, sericite, pyrite, chlorite hematitic (gossan); hematite gossan and minor supergene enrichment are present locally. Oxidation is known to extend up to 150 feet in from the present erosion surface. Throughout the district, hydrothermal alteration, pervasive below the ore zone and absent above, developed a quartz-sericite-pyrite+/-chlorite assemblage (Kistler and others, 1985 and Reed, 1984).

At the Mammoth Mine, the ore consisted of copper ore and zinc ore. Between 1905-1925, 3,311,145 tons of copper ore and 84,000 tons of zinc ore were mined. Lydon and O'Brien (1974) reported the copper ore averaged 3.99% Cu, 4.20% Zn, 2.24 oz/ton Ag, and 0.038 oz/ton Au. The zinc ore averaged 21.1% Zn, 2.40% Cu, 5.79 oz/ton Ag, and 0.078 oz/ton Au. Similarly, Kinkel and Hall (1952) reported the copper ore averaged 4-5% Cu, 2-3 oz/ton Ag, and 0.03-0.04 oz/ton Au. The zinc ore consisted of 27-37% Zn, 1-2% Cu, 1.4-6.5 oz/ton Ag, and 0.02-0.4 oz/ton Au. Howe (1985) divided the mineralization into six stages, as follows: 1) Precipitation of framboidal and colloform pyrite and sphalerite; 2) Deposition of fine-grained arsenopyrite and coarse-grained pyrite; the latter encloses tiny inclusions of pyrrhotite; 3) Precipitation of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tennantite, pyrrhotite, bornite, and idaite; and replacement of stage 2 minerals; 4) Recystallization and remobilization of previous stage minerals; 5) Deposition of quartz, sericite, and calcite; 6) Supergene enrichment.

Ore minerals were pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite-tenantite, arsenopyrite, bornite, idaite, digenite, bornite, covellite, chalcocite, unknown gold, unknown silver. The gangue minerals were quartz, sericite, calcite, and chlorite.

Balaklala rhyolite in the mined area consists of porphyritic and non-porphyritic rhyolite flows and intercalated coarse and fine rhyolitic pyroclastic material. The ore zone is in the uppermost part of the middle unit, immediately under the base of the upper unit. The lower unit consists mainly of light grayu to light green non-porphyritic rhyolite and rhyolitic tuff and volcanic breccia. The middle unit ranges in thickness from 150 - 300 feet. It consists of light gray to green porphyritic rhyolite flows and pyroclastic rocks. The upper unit is coarse porphyritic rhyolite containing quartz and feldspar phenocrysts. It is 1,400 feet thick at Mammoth Butte but thins rapidly toward the east. The upper unit forms the "cuprock" for the ore deposits.

Local structures include folds and faults. The principal faults are the California fault, the 12 Drift fault, the Schoolhouse fault, the Gossan fault, the Eureka Fault, the Yolo Fault, the 313 Fault, the Friday fault and the Clark fault. In all these faults, the North or East side has moved down relative to the South or West. The horizontal component is only known for the California. It is 250 feet. All faults are post-ore normal faults that offset the orebodies.

Workings included underground openings. The mine area was extensively developed by thousands of feet of workings appended to nine princpal adits. •Several levels of tunnels with raises and winzes amounted to at least 60,000 feet of development. Nine principle adits were driven at altitudes between 2,426 and 3,096 feet. A few short, unconnected adits were driven at altitudes up to 3,250 feet. Depth was principally gained by tunneling lower on the hillsides. Maximum vertical depth was 800 feet. The main haulage level was the 470-foot-level adit, at an elevation of 2,820 feet, driven a little north of west for about 3,500 feet. Plan view of the workings displays a dominant E-NE trend following the orebodies. Only the Gossan orebody deviates from this trend.

Production data are found in: Kinkel, et al (1956). Between 1905-1925, 3,311,145 tons of copper ore and 84,000 tons of zinc ore were mined at Mammoth Mine. Lydon and O?Brien (1974) reported the copper ore averaged 3.99% Cu, 4.20% Zn, 2.24 oz/ton Ag, and 0.038 oz/ton Au. The zinc ore averaged 21.1% Zn, 2.40% Cu, 5.79 oz/ton Ag, and 0.078 oz/ton Au. Total silver production was 7,416,965 ounces. Total zinc production was about 313,711,000 pounds, including 84,000 tons of ore mined 1914-1915 that averaged 21.10% zinc. Several thousand pounds of cadmium were recovered at the electrolytic zinc plant in Kennett. Kinkel and Hall (1952) reported the copper ore averaged 4-5% Cu, 2-3 oz/ton Ag, and 0.03-0.04 oz/ton Au. The zinc ore consisted of 27-37% Zn, 1-2% Cu, 1.4-6.5 oz/ton Ag, and 0.02-0.4 oz/ton Au.

Assay data in 1925: ^40.4% S, 34.3% Fe, 4.2% Zn, 3.99% Cu, 2.24 ounces/ton Ag, and 0.038 ounces/ton Au.

Additional narrative: The Mammoth Mine is one several copper-zinc mines in the eastern Klamath Mountains. The two copper-zinc districts of Shasta County are the East Shasta and West Shasta Districts. Mammoth Mine is in the West Shasta District. The Klamath Mountains geomorphic province consists of four imbricate, fault-bounded, east-dipping plates of oceanic affinity, which have been further subdivided into several terranes (Irwin, 1994; Irwin and Mankinen, 1998). Lithologies include variably metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks and ultramafic masses, intruded locally by post-amalgamation plutons. Volcanic rocks range in composition from mafic through silicic. Sedimentary rocks are chiefly pyroclastic beds, graywacke, and shales with minor cherty and calcareous layers. The plates, from west to east, are the Western Jurassic, Western Paleozoic and Jurassic, Central Metamorphic, and Eastern Klamath (Irwin, 1981). Both the West Shasta and East Shasta Districts are within the Eastern Klamath plate. On a regional scale, the terranes are progressively younger to the west. Within individual plates, however, the east-dipping stratigraphy places stratigraphically higher units east of older units. Consequently, Permian to Triassic rocks of East Shasta District rocks lie east of the Devonian rocks of the West Shasta District. Origin of the massive sulfide ore of the West Shasta District has been the subject of geologic debate for years. The most comprehensive and recent evaluation of the deposits is found in a special issue of Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, volume 80, number 8. As presented in this volume, the West Shasta Copper-Zinc district is now generally considered to represent stratabound Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. The deposits developed during the Early Devonian within a very depleted (exceedingly more depleted in light rare earth elements than in heavy rare earth elements), ensimatic island-arc regime. The arc formed a submarine volcanic pile consisting of a bimodal suite of low-potassium volcanic rocks, represented by the Copley Greenstone and the overlying Balaklala Rhyolite (Bence and Taylor, 1985). Interpretations of trace-element geochemistry of these rocks vary. Bence and Taylor (1985) infer a calc-alkaline trend, whereas Lapierre and others, (1985) infer a tholeiitic trend. Further explanation of this tectonic model is offered below. PRINCIPLE FORMATIONS The original fabrics and petrography of the two main rock units of the Mammoth area have been obscured by regional greenschist-facies metamorphism (probably during the Mesozoic) and hydrothermal alteration associated with mineralization. Some sedimentary structures are preserved in the pyroclastic units. Primary fabrics or structures within the massive sulfide unit are lost, however. Both units display large lateral variation in thickness and an abundance of breccia and conglomerate indicating that the depositional environment was topographically irregular. The oldest unit, the Copley Greenstone, is a 1,800-meter thick sequence of pillow basalts, andesites, and pyroclastic flows with high-Mg andesites near the top. It underlies the Balaklala Rhyolite. The high-Mg andesites compare favorably to boninites recovered from the Marianas arc. Boninites, found in present-day arcs, represent the first stages of back-arc development. Therefore, the high-Mg andesites of the upper Copley Greenstone probably represent the development of an extensional regime and progression to silicic volcanism represented by the Balakala Rhyolite (Lapierre and others, 1985; and references therein).
•The contact between the Balaklala Rhyolite and the Copley Greenstone is locally gradational; in places, rounded clasts of Balaklala-like rhyolite are found in a tuffaceous, andesitic matrix. A few thin flows of Copley-like greenstone are interlayered with the lower part of the Balaklala rhyolite suggesting that the Copley Greenstone and the Balaklala Rhyolite are roughly coeval. Additionally, Copley-like pillow basalts occur within the Balaklala Rhyolite (Albers and Bain, 1985). The 1,000-meter thick Balaklala Rhyolite hosts the massive sulfide ores and consists of siliceous flows, conglomerates, and tuffs (Lapierre and others, 1985). Discontinuous lenses of water-laid tuff overlie nearly all the ore bodies. Some of the tuff beds are ripple-marked, and one contained a fish plate of Devonian age. The lack of intercalated sediments within the volcanic pile suggests a deeply submerged arc (Doe and others, 1985, Lapierre and others, 1985), although apparent contamination of Pb (Lapierre and others, 1985) and Sm-Nd (Kistler and others, 1985) indicates some pelagic input. The Balaklala Rhyolite and the nearby Mule Mountain trondhjemite stock are remarkably similar in petrologic and rare-earth element characteristics, and isotopic age. These similarities and corroborative field relationships imply that stock and rhyolite are probably comagmatic (Albers and Bain, 1985). The Mule Mountain stock has been dated at 400 Ma (K-Ar, hornblende and U-Pb, zircon). The Balaklala Rhyolite is subdivided into three units. The upper unit, distinguished by the presence of dark quartz phenocrysts in excess of 4mm in diameter, consists of massive volcanic flows overlying pyroclastic material. The middle unit consists of rhyolite flows, containing quartz phenocrysts 1-4 mm in size, and a complex assortment of tuffs, breccias, and pyritic massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide ore bodies are stratabound and restricted to the upper part of the middle unit. The lowermost unit consists of non-porphyritic to slightly porphyritic tuffs and breccias (Kinkel and others, 1956). EXTENSION AND VOLCANISM Extension (perhaps back-arc spreading) and coeval Balaklala volcanism, resulted in a half dozen silicic eruptive centers (Kinkel, 1966; Albers and Bain, 1985), a series of NW-NE-dipping extensional faults, and abundant NE-trending rhyolitic dikes that intrude the Copley Greenstone. Lindberg (1985) postulated that the extensional faults represent graben-like structures that both localized hydrothermal activity and captured volcanic flows and sediments. Field evidence of graben formation is sparse. The proliferation of breccia and conglomerates in the volcanic units and the extreme variation in unit thickness suggests irregular topography, however. Albers and Bain (1985) identified three main linear trends, N23?E, N37?E, and N60?E defined by faults, clusters of ore bodies, and the long axes of ore bodies. Furthermore, they noted that most of the large ore bodies occur at the intersections of these trends and surmised that the faults, especially at the intersections, provided conduits for emanating ore fluids. Apparently, submarine fumaroles exhaled the ore fluids, which upon mixing with seawater precipitated sulfide minerals. During either a lull in volcanism or a brief interval of radically accelerated ore formation, sulfide precipitation dominated over volcanic sedimentation. The sulfide minerals accumulated as a conformable massive sulfide horizon within the strata of the contemporaneous Balaklala Rhyolite. Earlier interpretations of the deposits described them as a nearly thorough replacement of a highly favorable stratum of unknown original composition (Kinkel and Hall, 1952).
•Kinkel and others (1956) identified two probable volcanic centers and estimated the location of several others. The best-defined center, interpreted to represent a cumulo-dome, is just west of Mammoth Mine. Its roughly oval-shaped body is about 425 meters thick and 2.5 kilometers across. It consists of a body of coarse-phenocryst rhyolite porphyry intruded as vertical dikes, lenses, and a stockwork into shattered wall rocks of non-porphyritic rhyolite. The intrusion contains xenoliths of the non-porphyritic rock. This center probably was a major source of all three units of the Balaklala Rhyolite because, adjacent to the dome, they form thick arcuate belts that contain large amounts of coarse- and fine-grained pyroclastic rocks (Albers and Bain, 1985). The second volcanic center is submerged beneath Shasta Lake, except on the south, where it is characterized by a jumble of rhyolitic breccia. The fragment size in the breccia decreases to the south for a mile where sparse, small fragments are found in greenstone tuff (Kinkel and others, 1956). Four other probable centers have been identified, but are poorly defined (Albers and Bain, 1985). This volcanic pile formed over oceanic lithosphere that by mid-Devonian began subducting under the North American continent. The progressive subduction of the oceanic plate lead to the arc's eventual convergence with the continent and ultimate accretion. As noted above, the younger (Pennsylvanian-Permian) arc of the East Shasta District lies east of the Devonian arc. Hutchinson and Albers (1992) suggested that the Pennsylvanian-Permian island arc formed in a back-arc basin between the continent and the Devonian arc. In this case, the younger arc would have accreted first. This implies that either prior to or after its accretion, the Permian arc was underthrusted by the Devonian arc. This suggests that stratigraphic superposition of the Permian strata is structural not depositional. Available geologic maps of this region do not show a tectonic boundary between these arcs (Fraticelli and others, 1987; Strand, 1962). Whether the two arcs accreted independently or as one package, the accretion occurred after Pennsylvanian-Permian time. The validity of a back-arc basin model is challenged by regional biostratigraphy that suggests prohibitively large distances between the Eastern Klamath plate and North American craton in the Permian. The eastern Klamath area is crossed by a side-by-side pair of N-S trending biostratigraphic belts, defined by the unique McCloud fauna and Tethyan fauna. Both faunal assemblages are Pennsylvanian-Permian in age and distinct from contemporaneous North American fauna. The western belt is defined by the McCloud fauna, which is found in the McCloud Limestone. Stratigraphically, the McCloud Limestone occurs between the Devonian and Permian volcanic arc sequences. Tethyan fauna defines the eastern belt. These distinct faunas suggest that their host rocks are far traveled (5,000 km or more) (Stevens and others, 1990), an interpretation that is incompatible with a simple back-arc basin model. The origin of these faunal assemblages is controversial, however. Opponents to an exotic origin of these terranes suggest that the fauna developed in an offshore arc close to (within 1,000 km) but biologically isolated from North America. Similarities between Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian faunas of the Eastern Klamath Terrane and cratonal North America suggest relative proximity (< 1,000 km) (Potter and others, 1990). Furthermore, the presence of continentally derived sediments in related formations supports that suggestion (Miller and others, 1992; and references therein).
•HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM During deposition of the middle unit of the Balaklala Rhyolite, rifting formed submarine basins or grabens (Lindberg, 1985) concomitant with the development of a hydrothermal system. This system circulated heated (100- 425?C; Taylor and South, 1985), acidified (pH 3-5; Reed, 1984) seawater through the volcanic pile. The hydrothermal fluids leached sulfur and base metals from the surrounding rocks. The metals eventually were discharged at hot springs and precipitated on the seafloor, accumulating in the downfaulted basins. Mass balance considerations and isotopic analysis suggest that greater than 95% of the sulfur in the ore deposits could have been leached from the Copley Greenstone during hydrothermal alteration (Taylor and South 1985). MASSIVE SULFIDE ORE The best description of the ore throughout the district is found in Kinkel and others (1956) from which the following is derived. The massive sulfide occurs with sharp contact within the upper unit of the Balaklala Rhyolite. The coarse-phenocryst unit consistently overlies the ore. Deformation and recystallization of the ore has erased primary textures or sedimentary structures. The ore consists of a chaotic mixture of breccia, crystal aggregates, and minor crosscutting veins. The ore is generally localized along fold axes, but it also occurs along the flanks. It is most common in synformal basins, but also occurs along anitformal structures. Pre-mineral and post-mineral faults are common. Some pre-mineral faults served as feeder channels, some of which show wallrock alteration. Others show only localized mineralization within the fault plane. Post-mineral normal faults offset the orebodies from several centimeters to 90 meters (Kinkel and others, 1956). At Mammoth Mine, the orebodies form large lenses of copper- and zinc-bearing pyrite ore within a diffuse, widespread ore zone. The ore zone is elongate NE-SW, plunges slightly to the south, and is 1,280 meters long. It crops out on the northeast in a canyon wall, where it projects into the sky. It is thickest (up to 300 meters) in the central portion. The orebodies occurred along the crest of a broad upright arch. The crest is marked by steep foliation that is absent elsewhere. The zone is moderately disrupted by a series of NE-NW dipping normal faults. Ore was mined down to 213 meters, although the workings reached 243 meters. The largest stopes observed by Kinkel and Hall (1952) measured 274 meters by 152 meters horizontally and 33.5 meters vertically (Kinkel and Hall, 1952). At Mammoth Mine, thin (less than 3 meters) gossan formed in three locations. In other parts of the district, large and well-developed gossan formed. These were oxidized and enriched. A comparison of the production figures from one of the gossan, the Gossan Orebody, and average grades of the primary ore showed a two-fold enrichment of gold and silver. Covellite and chalcocite were reported present in the gossan (Kinkel and Hall, 1952).

•Presumably, the deposit was discovered before 1890. No significant mining had occurred prior to 1904 when U.S. Smelting, Refining and Mining Company purchased the property. Large-scale production began in 1905 and continued until 1919, when operations ceased until 1923. Operations resumed in 1923 and ultimately ceased in 1925. Between 1905-1925, 3,311,145 tons of copper ore and 84,000 tons of zinc ore were mined. Ore was transported to the smelter in Kennett. Some exploration has occurred since, but no mining. Hassemer (1983) presented preliminary findings of a reconnaissance geochemistry study of the West Shasta District. The report evaluated various media and the effectiveness of various techniques. Water samples and stream-sediment samples (pan-concentrated and bulk) were collected. Pan concentrates were divided into three fractions (one non-magnetic and two magnetic fractions) by heavy liquid separation and electromagnetic separation. The bulk stream-sediment samples were divided into three fractions based on sieve size. Various analytical methods were employed. The results of the water analysis show that that copper and sulfate concentrations and specific conductance were useful values for reconnaissance. The coarse fraction of the stream sediments (-20 to +80 mesh) proved to be the best fraction for reconnaissance work. Lastly, the non-magnetic fraction proved to have the most intense values with the greatest contrast. The U.S. Geological Survey also tested the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (Raines and others, 1985) and electrical geophysical exploration methods (Horton and others, 1985) in the West Shasta District. Near-infrared spectra (800-2,500 nm) proved to define gossans within the district. The gossans showed distinctive spectral characteristics of goethite (~900 nm) and diaspore (1,400-2,500 nm). Furthermore, spectral differences between gossans correlated with the size of the massive sulfide deposits. The shape and depth of conductive bodies were defined by the application of combined induction techniques. The conductive Hornet orebody was successfully detected within resistive rhyolite by each of the induction surveys employed. However, shale units and various fault zones in the vicinity are also conductive, which confounds interpretation. Differentiation of various conductors required the integrated use of several conduction methods.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286555.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 159.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: Occurs in enriched ores.
Reference: Kinkel, Arthur Rudolph, Jr., Wayne E. Hall & J.P. Albers (1956) Geology and base metal deposits of west Shasta copper-zinc district, Shasta County, California: USGS PP 285, 156 pp.: 137; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 100.; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: MinRec 13:386; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286555.
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Colour: Lemon-yellow
Description: Occurs as coatings on Sphalerite.
Reference: Logan, Clarence August (1926), El Dorado, Shasta and Trinity Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 22: 130; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 87.
Idaite
Formula: Cu5FeS6
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286555.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286555.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Logan, Clarence August (1926), El Dorado, Shasta and Trinity Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 22: 130; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 87.; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286555.
'Tennantite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: Kinkel, Arthur Rudolph, Jr. & Hall, W.E. (1952) Geology of the Mammoth mine, Shasta County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 28, 15 pp.: 8; Kinkel, Arthur Rudolph, Jr., Wayne E. Hall & J.P. Albers (1956) Geology and base metal deposits of west Shasta copper-zinc district, Shasta County, California: USGS PP 285, 156 pp.: 137; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 135.; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310642.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Idaite2.CB.15aCu5FeS6
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
'Tennantite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Idaite2.9.14.1Cu5FeS6
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tennantite'3.3.6.2Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S GreenockiteCdS
S SphaleriteZnS
S CovelliteCuS
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S IdaiteCu5FeS6
S DigeniteCu9S5
S ChalcociteCu2S
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe IdaiteCu5FeS6
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu IdaiteCu5FeS6
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Brown, G. Chester (1913), Field report on Mammoth Mine, California Division of Mines and Geology, file number 322-5690, Sacramento).
Brown, G.C. (1915), The counties of Shasta, Siskiyou, Trinity: California State Mining Bureau 14th Report of the State Mineralogist (Report 14): 14: 767-769.
Logan, Clarence August (1926), El Dorado, Shasta and Trinity Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 22: 130.
Tucker, W.B. (1926), Shasta County: California State Mining Bureau 22nd Report of the State Mineralogist (Report 22): 22: 121-216.
Averill, C.V. (1939), Mineral resources of Shasta County: California Journal of Mines and Geology (Report 35): 35(2): 108-191.
Eric, J.C. (1948), Tabulation of Copper Deposits in California in: Copper in California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 144: 197-387.
Jenkins, O.P. (1948), Copper in California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 144, p. 334.
Kinkel, Arthur Rudolph, Jr. & Hall, W.E. (1952) Geology of the Mammoth mine, Shasta County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 28, 15 pp.: 8.
Kinkel, Arthur Rudolph, Jr., Wayne E. Hall & J.P. Albers (1956) Geology and base metal deposits of west Shasta copper-zinc district, Shasta County, California: USGS Professional Paper 285, 156 pp.: 88, 133-138.
O'Brien, J.C. (1957), Copper, in: Wright, L.A., editor, Mineral commodities of California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 176: 169-182.
Strand, R.G. (1962), Geologic atlas of California: Redding Sheet: California Division of Mines and Geology GAM 011, scale 1:250,000.
Kinkel, A.R. and Kinkel, A.R., Jr. (1966), Copper, in Albers, J.P., editor, Mineral resources of California: California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 141-150.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 159.
Clawson, R. F. (1969), Squaw Creek Copper Investigation: California Department of Water Resources Memoir Report, 29 p.
Moore, Lyman (1970), Copper Resources and Production of West Shasta Mining District, U.S. Bureau of Mines Report 85.
Lydon, P.A. and O'Brien, J.C. (1974), Mines and mineral resources of Shasta County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology County Report 6, 154 p.
Hillman, C.T., Schumacher, O. and Gosling, B. (1977), The West Shasta County California, U.S. Bureau of Mines MAS Report, 40 pp.
Irwin, W.P. (1981), Tectonic accretion of the Klamath Mountains, in Ernst, W.G., editor, The geotectonic development of California: Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, p. 29-49.
Mineralogical Record (1982): 13: 386.
Hassemer, J.R. (1983), Some preliminary findings of a reconnaissance geochemistry study, West Shasta District, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 83-57, 16 p.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 87, 92 (map 3-4), 100, 135.
Watkins, R. and Stensrud, H.L. (1983), Age of sulfide ores in the West Shasta and East Shasta Districts, Klamath Mountains, California: Economic Geology: 78: 340-343.
Reed, M.H. (1984), Geology, wall-rock alteration, and massive sulfide mineralization in a portion of the West Shasta District, California: Economic Geology: 79: 1299-1318.
Albers, J.P. and Bain, J.H.C. (1985), Regional setting and new information on some critical geologic features of the West Shasta District, California: Economic Geology: 80: 2072-2091.
Bence, A.E. and Taylor, B.E. (1985), Rare earth element systematics of West Shasta metavolcanics rocks: petrogenesis and hydrothermal alteration: Economic Geology: 80: 2164-2176.
Doe, B.R. and others (1985), The plumbotectonics of the West Shasta Mining District, California: Economic Geology: 80: 2136-2148.
Horton, R.J. and others (1985), Electrical geophysical investigations of massive sulfide deposits and their host rocks, West Shasta Copper-Zinc District: Economic Geology: 80: 2213-2229.
Howe, S.S. (1985), Mineralogy, textures, and relative age relationships of massive sulfide ore in the West Shasta District, California: Economic Geology: 80: 2114-2127.
Kistler, R.W. and others (1985), A reconnaissance Rb-Sr, Sm-Nb, U-Pb, and K-Ar study of some host rocks and ore minerals in the West Shasta Cu-Zn District, California: Economic Geology: 80: 2128-2135.
Lapierre, H. and others (1985), Geodynamic setting of early Devonian Kuroko-type sulfide deposits in the eastern Klamath Mountains (Northern California) inferred by the petrological and geochemical characteristics of the associated island-arc volcanic rocks: Economic Geology: 80: 2100-2113.
Lindberg, P.A. (1985), A volcanogenic interpretation for massive sulfide origin, West Shasta District, California: Economic Geology: 80: 2240-2254.
Raines, G.L. and others (1985), Near-infrared spectra of West Shasta gossans compared with true and false gossans from Australia and Saudi Arabia: Economic Geology: 80: 2230-2239.
Taylor, B.E. and South, B.C. (1985), Regional stable isotope systematics of hydrothermal alteration and massive sulfide deposition in the West Shasta District, California: Economic Geology: 80: 2149-2163.
Guilbert, J.M. and Park, C.F., Jr. (1986), The geology of ore deposits: W.H. Freeman and Company, New York: 589-595.
Singer, D.A. (1986), Descriptive model of Kuroko massive sulfide, in Cox, D.P. and Singer, D.A., editors, Mineral deposit models: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1693: 189-190.
Fraticelli, L.A. and others (1987), Geologic map of the Redding 1 x 2 degree quadrangle: Shasta, Tehama, Humboldt, and Trinity counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-257, scale 1:250,000.
University of California, Berkeley (1988), Mining Waste Study, Final Report (July, 1988), 416 pp.: 207-213.
Potter, A.W. and others (1990), Early Paleozoic stratigraphic, paleogeographic, and biogeographic relations of the eastern Klamath belt, northern California, in Harwood, D.S. and Miller, M.M., editors, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic paleogeographic relations; Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, and related terranes: Geological Society of America Special Paper 255: 57-74.
Stevens, C.H. and others (1990), Significance of the provincial signature of Early Permian fauna of the eastern Klamath terrane, in Harwood, D.S. and Miller, M.M., editors, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic paleogeographic relations; Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, and related terranes: Geological Society of America Special Paper 255: 201-218.
Hutchinson, R.W. and Albers, J.P. (1992), Metallogenic evolution of the Cordilleran region of the western United States, in Burchfiel, B.C. and others, editors, The Cordilleran Orogen: Conterminous U.S.: Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America: vol. G-3: 629-652.
Miller, E.L. and others (1992), Late Paleozoic paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of the western U.S. Cordillera, in Burchfiel, B.C. and others, editors, The Cordilleran Orogen: Conterminous U.S.: Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America: vol. G-3: 57-106.
Poole, F.G. and others (1992), Latest Precambrian to latest Devonian time; Development of a continental margin, in Burchfiel, B.C. and others, editors, The Cordilleran Orogen: Conterminous U.S.: Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America: vol. G-3: 9-56.
Saleeby, J.B. (1992), Petrotectonic and paleogeographic settings of U.S. Cordilleran ophiolites, in Burchfiel, B. C. and others, editors, The Cordilleran Orogen: Conterminous U.S.: Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America: vol. G-3: 653-682.
Irwin, W.P. (1994), Geologic map of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon: U.S. Geological Survey MIS Map I-2148, scale 1:500,000.
Huston, D.L., and others (1996), Productivity of volcanic-hosted massive sulfide districts: New constraints from the d18O of quartz phenocrysts in cogenetic felsic rocks: Geology: 24: 459-462.
Irwin, W.P. and Mankinen, E.A. (1998), Rotational and accretionary evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon, from Devonian to present time: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-114.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286555, 10077557 & 10310642.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060890240.

Other Databases

USGS MRDS Record:10310642

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

North America
North America PlateTectonic Plate

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