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About ChalcopyriteHide

Brass yellow, often with an iridescent tarnish.
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
4.1 - 4.3
Crystal System:
Named in 1725 by Johann Friedrich Henckel from the Greek "chalkos", copper, and "pyrites", strike fire.
Chalcopyrite Group. Chalcopyrite-Eskebornite Series.

A major ore of copper. Common in sulfide veins and disseminated in igneous rocks.
Weathering may lead to the formation of malachite, azurite, brochantite, langite and numerous other secondary copper minerals.

A Zn-rich variety is known from Atlantis II Deep (see zincian chalcopyrite). Also, the Mid-Atlantic-ridge isocubanite may transform to chalcopyrite and UM1994-22-S:CuFe (Cu1-xFe3+xS4 (Wintenberger et al., 1994).

Compare, e.g., UM1991-16-S:CuFeTl, UM1988-17-S:CuFe and UM1988-18-S:CuFe.

Visit for gemological information about Chalcopyrite.

Classification of ChalcopyriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 7th ed.:

9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Pronounciation of ChalcopyriteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of ChalcopyriteHide

Brass yellow, often with an iridescent tarnish.
Greenish black
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
VHN100=187 - Vickers
Hardness Data:
Indistinct on {011}, sometimes distinct.
4.1 - 4.3 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.18 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of ChalcopyriteHide

Common Impurities:

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Phanerozoic : 299.7 ± 1.8 Ma to 57 Ma - based on 7 recorded ages.

Crystallography of ChalcopyriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
I4 2d
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.289 Å, c = 10.423 Å
a:c = 1 : 1.971
Unit Cell V:
291.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Typically found as equant to wedge-shaped pseudo-tetrahedral dispenoidal crystals, often modified by tetragonal scalenohedral faces. Mostly found massive or in disseminated grains and major deposits of such material are known.
Twinned on {112} and {012}, penetration or cyclic.
Subcell: I-centred tetragonal, a = 3.74, c = 5.21 Å.

Crystallographic forms of ChalcopyriteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Chalcopyrite no.13 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chalcopyrite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chalcopyrite no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Chalcopyrite no.58 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:

Occurrences of ChalcopyriteHide

Synonyms of ChalcopyriteHide

Other Language Names for ChalcopyriteHide

Varieties of ChalcopyriteHide

Argentian ChalcopyriteIn association, i.a., with 'Unnamed (Ag Antimonide)', electrum, schapbachite, hessite, and other species.
Auriferous ChalcopyriteA gold-bearing variety of chalcopyrite; probably microscopic or nano-inclusions of gold in the chalcopyrite.
Blister CopperA botryoidal variety of chalcopyrite.
PGE-rich ChalcopyriteA variety, suggested to be a part of a solid solution, extremely rich in platinum-group elements (PGE): up to 43.7 wt.% total PGE.
Stannian ChalcopyriteA tin-bearing variety of chalcopyrite.
Zincian ChalcopyriteFound as hexagonal (-outline) grains, 10-15 microns in size.

Relationship of Chalcopyrite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
GalliteCuGaS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
LaforêtiteAgInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
LenaiteAgFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
RoquesiteCuInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
ShenzhuangiteNiFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
Unnamed (Cu-Mn-Sn Sulfide)Cu2MnSnS4
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3,131 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with QuartzSiO2
1,879 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with CalciteCaCO3
1,824 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with SphaleriteZnS
1,402 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with GalenaPbS
1,038 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
1,023 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with PyriteFeS2
577 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with FluoriteCaF2
565 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with SideriteFeCO3
425 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with BaryteBaSO4
263 photos of Chalcopyrite associated with TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSeIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)SIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bTalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aKësterite Cu2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.30ColusiteCu13VAs3S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30Ovamboite Cu20(Fe,Cu,Zn)6W2Ge6S32Iso.
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6SnWS8Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.35aRenierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16Tet. 4 2m : P4 2c
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSeHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45RambergiteMnSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3Mon. 2/m
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTeOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 4 2m : I4 2d 4 2m : I4 2d 4 2m : I4 2d

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.1.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
3.1.3DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
3.1.8CovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.20LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.33Fe0.66S4Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2OHex.
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
It is the principal ore of copper.

Chalcopyrite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for ChalcopyriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Henckel, J.F. (1725) Pyritologia, oder Kieß Historie. Verlegts Johann Christian Martini (Leipzig), pages 114-115. [Chalcopyrites (Latin), Kupfer-Kieß (German)].
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 219-224.
Yund, R. A. and Kullerud, G. (1966): Thermal stability of assemblages in the Cu-Fe-S system. Journal of Petrology, 7, 454-488.
Mariano, A.N. (1967) Abstract of paper presented at the twelfth annual meeting: Crystallographic polarity in chalcopyrite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 297-298.
Cabri, L.J. (1973): New data on phase relations in the Cu-Fe-S system. Econ. Geol. 68, 443-454.
Hall, S.R., Stewart, J.M. (1973) The crystal structure refinement of chalcopyrite, CuFeS2. Acta Crystallographica: B29: 579-585.
Hall, S.R. (1975) Crystal structures of the chalcopyrite series. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 168-172.
Dutrizac, J.E. (1976) Reactions in cubanite and chalcopyrite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 172-181.
Chen, T.T., Dutrizac, J.E., Owens, D.R., Laflamme, J.H.G. (1980) Accelerated tarnishing of some chalcopyrite and tennantite specimens. The Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 173-180.
Robie, R.A., Wiggins, L.B., Barton, P.B., Jr., Hemingway, B.S. (1985) Low-temperature heat capacity and entropy of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): estimates of the standard molar enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation of chalcopyrite and bornite (Cu5FeS4). Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics: 17: 481-488. [in German].
Kratz, T., Fuess, H. (1989) Simultane Strukturbestimmung von Kupferkies und Bornit an einem Kristall. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 186: 167-169.
Wintenberger, M., Andre, G., Garcin, C., Imbert, P., Jehanno, G., Fouquet, Y., Wafik, A. (1994): Intermediate valency, Verwey transition and magnetic structures of a new mineral, Cu1-xFe3+xS4, resulting from the ageing of isocubanite. J. Magnetism Magnetic Materials: 132: 31-45; in: Jambor, J.L., Roberts, A.C (1995): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 80: 186
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 87.
Goh, S.W., Buckley, A.N., Lamb, R.N., Rosenberg, R.A., Moran, D. (2006) The oxidation states of copper and iron in mineral sulfides, and the oxides formed on initial exposure of chalcopyrite and bornite to air. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 70: 2210-2228.
Pearce, C.I., Pattrick, R.A.D., Vaughan, D.J., Henderson, C.M.B., van der Laan, G. (2006) Copper oxidation state in chalcopyrite: Mixed Cu d9 and d10 characteristics. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 70: 4635-4624.
Boon, J. W. (2010) The crystal structure of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and AgFeS2: The permutoidic reactions KFeS2 -> CuFeS2 and KFeS2 -> AgFeS2. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas: 63: 69-80.
Knight, K.S., Marshall, W.G., Zochowski, S.W. (2011) The low-temperature and high-pressure thermoelastic and structural properties of chalcopyrite, CuFeS2. The Canadian Mineralogist: 49: 1015-1034.
Cai, L., Chen, X., Ding, J., Zhou, D. (2012) Leaching mechanism for chalcopyrite in hydrochloric acid. Hydrometallurgy: 113-114: 109-118.

Internet Links for ChalcopyriteHide

Significant localities for ChalcopyriteHide

Showing 30 significant localities out of 28,933 recorded on

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Cloncurry
S Rust Collection
  • South Australia
    • Yorke Peninsula
      • Moonta
RB94/00041;Janz 1990 (unpublished honours thesis) + self prospected
  • Cochabamba
    • Chapare Province
Alfredo Petrov collection.
  • Yukon
    • Mayo mining district
      • Galena Hill
        • Elsa
Oscar Jose Tessari (1979) Model Ages and Applied Whole Rock Geochemistry of Ag-Pb-Zn veins, Keno Hill - Galena Hill Mining Camp, Yukon Territory. MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia.
  • Hubei
    • Huangshi
      • Daye Co.
Jingye Jiang, Dafang Tan, Guojun Hu, and Lichun Zhang (1998): Geology and Prospecting 34(6), 5-9; Ottens, B. (2003): Lapis 28(9), 41-47
  • Grand Est
    • Bas-Rhin
      • Molsheim
        • Schirmeck
Alain Steinmetz and Thierry Brunsperger Collection
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Naumburg
      • Bad Kösen
Mineralogical Collection of the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany. Formerly in the Michael Scheven Collection.
  • Munster
    • Co. Tipperary
      • Monard
Barry Flannery Collection; Steed, G. M. (1983) Gortdrumite, a new sulphide mineral containing copper and mercury, from Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine, 47, 35-6.; Ryback, G., Nawaz, R. and Farley, E. (1988) Seventh Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Irish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 52, n° 365, pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Stazzema
  • Karaganda Region
RWMW specimen; Box, S.E., Syusyura, Boris, Hayes, T.S., Taylor, C.D., Zientek, M.L., Hitzman, M.W., Seltmann, Reimer, Chechetkin, Vladimir, Dolgopolova, Alla, Cossette, P.M., and Wallis, J.C., 2012, Sandstone copper assessment of the Chu-Sarysu Basin, Central Kazakhstan: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5090–E, 63 p. ; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
  • District of Kosovska Mitrovica
    • Kosovska Mitrovica
      • Trepča valley
        • Trepča complex
Féraud J. (1979) - La mine " Stari-Trg " (Trepca, Yougoslavie) et ses richesses minéralogiques. Avec la collaboration de Mari D. et G. (1979) Minéraux et Fossiles, n° 59-60, p. 19-28; Pršek, J. et al. (2012) []; Joana Koà Odziejczyk ,Jaroslav Pršek , Halilqela ( 2012) MIneralogical Diversity In Orebodies Within Xth Horizon.At Stan Terg Mine, Kosovo. Buletini i Shkencave Gjeologjike pp84-; Kołodziejczyk, J., Pršek, J., Melfos, V., Voudouris, P. C., Maliqi, F., & Kozub-Budzyń, G. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the Stan Terg deposit (Trepça, Kosovo). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 192(3), 317-333.; Kołodziejczyk, J., Pršek, J., Voudouris, P. C., & Melfos, V. (2017). Bi-sulphotellurides associated with Pb–Bi–(Sb±Ag, Cu, Fe) sulphosalts: an example from the Stan Terg deposit in Kosovo. Geologica Carpathica, 68(4), 366-381.
  • Guanajuato
    • Guanajuato Municipality
      • Guanajuato
Panczner (1987): 152.
  • Áncash
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
Mineralogical Record 28, no. 4 (1997); Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
    • Recuay Province
      • Ticapampa District
Mi.Rec. 28, no.4 (1997)
  • Huancavelica
    • Angaraes Province
Crowley, Jack A., Currier, Rock H., & Szenics, Terry (1997) Mines and Minerals of Peru. Mineralogical Record, Vol.28, No.4. 98p.
  • Lima
    • Huarochiri Province
      • Casapalca
Mineralogical Record (1997): 28(4).; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
  • Pasco
    • Pasco province
      • Tinyahuarco district
        • Colquijirca mining district
Min.Rec., 28, no.4 (1997); Mineralium Deposita September 2003, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 683-694 ; Economic Geology November 2009 vol. 104 no. 7 905-944
  • Maramureș
    • Cavnic
Mineral News 14:12 p 1,4
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Dalnegorsk Urban District
      • Dalnegorsk
[MinRec vol 32 pp 14-15]; Rogulina, L.I., and Sveshnikova, O.L. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 60-74.; Dobovol'skaya, M. G., Baskina, V. A., Balashova, S. P., Kenisarin, A. M., Arakelyants, M. M., Klimachev, L. A., & Muravitskaya, G. N. (1990). Order of Formation of the Ores and Mafic Dikes of the Nikolayevsk Deposit (Southern Primor'ye). International Geology Review, 32(4), 391-403.; Vasilenko, G.P. (2001) The Dalnegorsk Ore District. pp98-124 in Khanchuk, A.I., Gonevchuk, G.A. & Seltmann, R. (Eds) Metallogeny of the Pacific Northwest (Russian Far East): Tectonics, Magmatism and Metallogeny of Active Continental Margins. IAGOD Guidebook series 11, Dalnauka Publishing House, Vladivostok 2004, 176 p
  • Basque Country
    • Guipúzcoa (Gipuzkoa)
      • Mutiloa
Calvo Rebollar, Miguel. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 págs.
  • Galicia
    • A Coruña (La Coruña)
      • Lousame (Noya)
        • Vilacova
Calvo Rebollar, Miguel. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 págs.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Agnes
Henwood, W.J. (1843): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 5, 1-386; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Rudler, F.W. (1905): A Handbook to a Collection of the Minerals of the British Islands, Mostly Selected from the Ludlam Collection. HMSO Publications (London), 241 pp.; Reid, C., Scrivenor, J.B., Flett, J.S., Pollard, W., and MacAlister, D.A. (1906): The Geology of the Country near Newquay. HMSO Publications (London), 131 pp.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 462-467
  • Connecticut
    • Hartford Co.
      • Bristol
Jones, Robert W. (2001): Famous Mineral Localities: The Bristol Copper Mine Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 32(6):433-450.
  • Kentucky
    • Boyle Co.
      • Danville
        • Caldwell Stone Company Quarry
Rocks and Minerals Magazine Vol. 69 No. 4 (jul/aug 1994); Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
  • New Mexico
    • Santa Fe Co.
      • New Placers District
M Massis collection; W. W., Jr Atkinson and Sherman P. Marsh (2012) The San Pedro mine - a record of the history, geology, and mineral collection. New Mexico Mineral Symposium Socorro, NM November 10-11, 2012 Abstracts pp. 22-23.
  • New York
    • Ulster Co.
      • Wawarsing
        • Ellenville
Dana 7:I:592.; Econ Geol (1990) 85:182-196
  • North Carolina
    • Davidson Co.
      • Carolina Slate Belt
        • Cid Mining District
USGS Prof Paper 610 "Principal Gold Producing Districts of the United States"
  • Washington
    • King Co.
      • North Bend
        • Hansen Creek
Eric He's Collection
矿物 and/or 产地  
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