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Chlorite Group

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About Chlorite GroupHide

Hardness:
2 - 2½
Specific Gravity:
2.6 - 3.3
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
A group of mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic) micaceous phyllosilicate minerals with a structure consisting of T-O-T layers with two layers having their silicate tetrahedral apices pointing towards each other, separated by an interlayer that may be simple octahedrally coordinated cations or which may be a brucite-*like* layer of two sheets of closely packed OH groups with the interstices between sheets providing the octahedral coordination site; the T-O-T layers and interlayer are bonded by electrostatic and hydrogen bonding forces; as the "a" and "b" directions of the T-O-T layer may be oriented to the interlayer "a" and "b" directions in twelve different stacking sequences, resulting in twelve different polytype possibilities (not all of which have been found in Nature yet for each species).

The general formula may be stated A5-6T4Z18, where A = Al, Fe2+, Fe3+, Li, Mg, Mn, or Ni, while T = Al, Fe3+, Si, or a combination of them, and Z = O and/or OH.

The most common species in the chlorite group are clinochlore and chamosite.

The Árkai index (ÁI; Árkai, 1991) is an index for the estimation of a very low metamorphic grade in rocks, based on the evolution of chlorite. It is often used to complement the Kübler index (KI), earlier called the 'illite crystallinity' for the characterisation of pelites, and can also be applied in metabasites.


Pronounciation of Chlorite GroupHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of Chlorite GroupHide

Streak:
Colorless
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale
Density:
2.6 - 3.3 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Paleoproterozoic to Neogene : 2211 Ma to 15.7 ± 0.2 Ma - based on 7 recorded ages.

Crystallography of Chlorite GroupHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0012235ChamositeWalker J R, Bish D L (1992) Application of Rietveld refinement techniques to a disordered IIb Mg-chamosite Clays and Clay Minerals 40 319-3221992Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA0293
0000119ClinochloreBrown B E, Bailey S W (1963) Chlorite polytypism: II. Crystal structure of a one-layer Cr-chlorite American Mineralogist 48 42-6119630293
0000770ClinochlorePhillips T L, Loveless J K, Bailey S W (1980) Cr3+ coordination in chlorites: a structural study of ten chromian chlorites Day Book Body, N. C. American Mineralogist 65 112-12219800293
0000771ClinochlorePhillips T L, Loveless J K, Bailey S W (1980) Cr3+ coordination in chlorites: a structural study of ten chromian chlorites Siskiyou Co., Calif. American Mineralogist 65 112-12219800293
0001619ClinochloreNelson D O, Guggenheim S (1993) Inferred limitations to the oxidation of Fe in chlorite: a high-temperature single-crystal X-ray study American Mineralogist 78 1197-120719930823
0002313ClinochloreGuggenheim S, Zhan W (1999) Crystal structures of two partially dehydrated chlorites: The "modified" chlorite structure American Mineralogist 84 1415-142119990293
0002314ClinochloreGuggenheim S, Zhan W (1999) Crystal structures of two partially dehydrated chlorites: The "modified" chlorite structure American Mineralogist 84 1415-142119990293
0002739ClinochloreWelch M D, Marshall W G (2001) High-pressure behaviour of clinochlore American Mineralogist 86 1380-138620010293
0002740ClinochloreWelch M D, Marshall W G (2001) High-pressure behaviour of clinochlore American Mineralogist 86 1380-138620011.2293
0002741ClinochloreWelch M D, Marshall W G (2001) High-pressure behaviour of clinochlore American Mineralogist 86 1380-138620012.46293
0002742ClinochloreWelch M D, Marshall W G (2001) High-pressure behaviour of clinochlore American Mineralogist 86 1380-138620014.65293
0004250ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Montagnoli M, Nazzareni S, Comodi P (2006) Structural effects of pressure on chlorite: A single-crystal study American Mineralogist 91 1871-18782006Alpe Reguzzolo, Val Malenco, Italy0.0001293
0004251ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Montagnoli M, Nazzareni S, Comodi P (2006) Structural effects of pressure on chlorite: A single-crystal study American Mineralogist 91 1871-18782006Alpe Reguzzolo, Val Malenco, Italy1.83293
0004252ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Montagnoli M, Nazzareni S, Comodi P (2006) Structural effects of pressure on chlorite: A single-crystal study American Mineralogist 91 1871-18782006Alpe Reguzzolo, Val Malenco, Italy3.14293
0004253ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Montagnoli M, Nazzareni S, Comodi P (2006) Structural effects of pressure on chlorite: A single-crystal study American Mineralogist 91 1871-18782006Alpe Reguzzolo, Val Malenco, Italy4.25293
0004254ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Montagnoli M, Nazzareni S, Comodi P (2006) Structural effects of pressure on chlorite: A single-crystal study American Mineralogist 91 1871-18782006Alpe Reguzzolo, Val Malenco, Italy4.85293
0007298ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Comodi P, Nazzareni S, Andreozzi G B (2009) Thermal behaviour of chlorite: an in situ single-crystal and powder diffraction study European Journal of Mineralogy 21 581-5892009Val Malenco, Italy0298
0007299ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Comodi P, Nazzareni S, Andreozzi G B (2009) Thermal behaviour of chlorite: an in situ single-crystal and powder diffraction study European Journal of Mineralogy 21 581-5892009Val Malenco, Italy0574
0007300ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Comodi P, Nazzareni S, Andreozzi G B (2009) Thermal behaviour of chlorite: an in situ single-crystal and powder diffraction study European Journal of Mineralogy 21 581-5892009Val Malenco, Italy0672
0007301ClinochloreZanazzi P F, Comodi P, Nazzareni S, Andreozzi G B (2009) Thermal behaviour of chlorite: an in situ single-crystal and powder diffraction study European Journal of Mineralogy 21 581-5892009Val Malenco, Italy0775
0010543ClinochloreMcMurchy R C (1934) The crystal structure of the chlorite minerals Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 88 420-4321934Miles City, Montana, USA0293
0001949CookeiteZheng H, Bailey S W (1997) Refinement of the cookeite "r" structure American Mineralogist 82 1007-101319970293
0001192FranklinfurnaceitePeacor D R, Rouse R C, Bailey S W (1988) Crystal structure of franklinfurnaceite: A tri-dioctahedral zincosilicate intermediate between chlorite and mica American Mineralogist 73 876-88719880293
0000155SudoiteEggleton R A, Bailey S W (1967) Structural aspects of dioctahedral chlorite American Mineralogist 52 673-68919670293
0015561SudoiteAleksandrova V A, Drits V A, Sokolova G V (1973) Crystal structure of ditrioctahedral chlorite Soviet Physics Crystallography 18 50-5319730293
0003597GlagoleviteKrivovichev S V, Armbruster T, Organova N I, Burns P C, Seredkin M V, Chukanov N V (2004) Incorporation of sodium into the chlorite structure: the crystal structure of glagolevite, Na(Mg,Al)6[Si3AlO10](OH,O)8 American Mineralogist 89 1138-114120040293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

First Recorded Occurrence of Chlorite GroupHide

Synonyms of Chlorite GroupHide

Other Language Names for Chlorite GroupHide

Esperanto:Kloritoj
Russian:Хлорит
Simplified Chinese:绿泥石族
绿泥石
Spanish:Chlorita

Varieties of Chlorite GroupHide

BrunsvigiteA chloritic mineral.
Originally described from Gabbro Quarry (Bärenstein Quarry), Bad Harzburg, Harz Mts, Lower Saxony, Germany.
PrasoliteA soft leek-green fibrous mineral from Kilpatrick Hills, Scotland. An aluminosilicate of Mg and Fe, probably a variety of chlorite.
TatarkaiteA hydrated silicate of aluminium, magnesium, etc. from metamorphosed limestone near the Tatarka river, tributary of the Angara river, Siberia. Tatarkaite has been shown to be chlorite near ripidolite.

Relationship of Chlorite Group to other SpeciesHide

Group Members:
Baileychlore (Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1
Borocookeite Li1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
Chamosite (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
Clinochlore Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Cookeite (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
Donbassite Al4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
Franklinfurnaceite Ca2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
Glagolevite Na(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
Gonyerite (Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8Orth.
Nimite (Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
Orthochamosite (Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
Pennantite Mn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
Sudoite Mg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Chlorite Group in petrologyHide

References for Chlorite GroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hey, M. H. (1954): A new review of chlorites. Mineral. Mag. 30, 277-292.
Dodge, F.C.W. (1973): Chlorites from the granitic rocks of the central Sierra Nevada batholith. Mineralogical Magazine, 39, 58-64.
Post, J.L. and Janke, N.C. (1974): Properties of “swelling chlorite” in some Mesozoic formations of California. Clays and Clay Minerals, 22, 67-77.
Hazen, R.M. and Finger, L.W. (1978): The crystal structures and compressibilities of layer minerals at high pressure. II. Phlogopite and chlorite. American Mineralogist, 63, 293-296.
S. Durovic, K. Dornberger-Schiff and Z. Weiss (1983): Chlorite polytypism. I. OD interpretation and polytype symbolism of chlorite structures. Acta Crystallogr. B39, 547-552.
Spinnler, G.E. (1985): HRTEM study of antigorite, pyroxene-serpentine reactions and chlorite, 248 p. Ph.D. Thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.
Schreyer, W., Fransolet, A.M., and Abraham, K. (1986): A miscibility gap in trioctahedral Mn-Mg-Fe chlorites: evidence from the Lienne Valley manganese deposit, Ardennes, Belgium. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 94, 333-342.
Bailey, S. W. (1988): Chlorites: Structures and crystal chemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy 19, 347-403.
Wiewiora, A. & Weiss, Z. (1990): Crystallochemical classifications of phyllosilicates based on the unified system of projection of chemical composition: II. The chlorite group. Clay Minerals 25, 83-92.
Árkai, P. (1991): Chlorite crystallinity: an empirical approach and correlation with illite crystallinity, coal rank and mineral facies as exemplified by Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks of northeast Hungary. J. Metamorphic Geology 9, 723-734.
Hillier, S. and Velde, B. (1991): Octahedral occupancy and the chemical composition of diagenetic (low-temperature) chlorite. Clay Minerals, 26, 149-168.
De Caritat, P., Hutcheon, I. & Walshe, J.E. (1993): Chlorite geothermometry: a review. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, 219-239.
Árkai, P. and Ghabrial, D. (1997): Chlorite crystallinity as an indicator of metamorphic grade of low-temperature meta-igneous rocks; a case study from the Bükk Mountains, Northeast Hungary. Clay Minerals, 32, 205-222.
Li, G., Peacor, D.R., and Essene, E.J. (1998) The formation of sulfides during alteration of biotite to chlorite-corrensite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 46, 649-657.
Lougear, A., M. Grodzicki, C. Bertoldi, A.X. Trautwein, K. Steiner, and G. Amthauer (2000): Mössbauer and molecular orbital study of chlorites. Physica and Chemistry of Minerals, 27, 258-269.
Bertoldi, C., Benisek, A., Cemic, L., and Dachs, E. (2001): The heat capacity of two natural chlorite group minerals derived from differential scanning calorimetry. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 28, 332-336.

Internet Links for Chlorite GroupHide

Significant localities for Chlorite GroupHide

Showing 27 significant localities out of 17,161 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Mareeba Shire
      • Mungana
[Baileychlore] AM 73 (1988), 135; HB2/1 (1995)
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
[Orthochamosite] Am Min 43 (1958), 792
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Stuttgart Region
      • Esslingen
        • Plochingen
          • Lützelbach
[Sudoite] Amer.Min.(1963) 48, 213
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion mining district
          • Agios Konstantinos (Kamariza)
            • Mercati mines
[Baileychlore] LAPIS 2010 7/8, p. 14 (Kristalldruse ad); Rieck, B. (2012): Neue Minerale aus dem Lagerstätten-Bezirk Lavrion/Griechenland und den Kalahari Mangan Feldern/Republik Südafrika. PhD Thesis (unpubl.), University of Vienna, 183 pp. (in German); Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Świdnica County
[Chamosite] Dana, E., 1892, System of Mineralogy (chemical analysis)
[Chamosite] Tomas Praszkier
Russia
 
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Enisei Range (Yenisei Ridge; Enisei Ridge)
[var: Tatarkaite] Meister A. (1910) Explorations géologiques dans les régions auriféres de la Sibérie, Région aurifére d'Iénisséi, Livraison IX, p. 498
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Kovdor Massif
[Glagolevite] M. V. Seredkin et al.: Zap. Vses. Min. Obshch.:132(1), 67-75 (2003)
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Krasnyi Chikoy
      • Malkhan pegmatite field (Malchan; "Malechansk")
[Borocookeite] American Mineralogist, 88, 830-836.; International Geological Congress (2008) MRD-06 The Sosedka gem tourmaline-rich mine: Emplacement of extremely chemically heterogeneous pegmatite-forming medium; Zagorsky, V. Y. (2012). Mineralogy of pockets of the Malkhan tourmaline deposit (< i> Transbaikalia): feldspars of the Sosedka vein. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 53(6), 522-534
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
[Nimite] American Mineralogist (1969): 54: 1739; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Långban Ore District
[Gonyerite] Amer.Min.(1955) 40, 1090-1094; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Switzerland
 
  • Valais
    • Conthey
      • Chamoson
[Chamosite] Berthier, P. (1820): Annales des Mines 5, 393-396; Delaloye, M. (1962): Chamosite of Chamoson, Valais. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 42, 644.
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Aberdaron
        • Rhiw
[Pennantite] Campbell, et al (1946); Canadian Mineralogist:21(1983):545.; UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48; Am Min (1955) 40:32-40; W. Campbell Smith and F. A. Bannister (1948) Ganophyllite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire Mineralogical Magazine 28:343-352
Ukraine
 
  • Donetsk Oblast
[Donbassite] Lazarenko, E. K. (1940) Donbassites, a new group of minerals from the Donetz Basin. (in Russian) C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS, 28, 519-521.
USA
 
  • California
    • Calaveras Co.
      • Valley Springs area
Jake Harper: Field work, 1990 - 2110.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Trumbull
        • Long Hill
[Clinochlore] Shannon, Earl V. (1921b), Some Minerals from the Old Tungsten Mine at Long Hill in Trumbull, Connecticut. Proceedings U.S. National Museum: 58(2348): 469-482.; Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
[Clinochlore] P Cristofono collection, 2008
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
        • Haddam Neck
[Cookeite] Mineralogical Record 23:19-28,80; Mineralogical Magazine 1902 13 : 97-121.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Earl Ingerson. American Mineralogist, Vol. 23, No. 4, April 1938, pp. 269-276
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
[Cookeite] Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
  • Maine
    • Oxford County
      • Buckfield
[Cookeite] King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine.; Mineralogical Record 22:382
      • Hebron
[Cookeite] Brush (1866) Am J.. Sci 41:246 ; Penfield (1893) Am. J. Sci 3rd ser. 45:393; USGS Bull 445
      • Paris
[Cookeite] King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, USA, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
  • New Hampshire
    • Coos Co.
      • Gorham
[Chamosite] A. Plante collection; R. Janules collection; A. Smith collection; et.al.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Franklinfurnaceite] Dunn, P.J., et al: Am. Min.:72:812-815 (1987); Dunn(1995):Pt4:493-494.
  • New York
    • Putnam Co.
      • Town of Southeast
        • Brewster
[Clinochlore] (Bridenbaugh, 1873) (Dana, J. D., 1874) (Januzzi, 1966, 1989) (Manchester, 1931) (Trainer, 1938) (Whitlock, 1903).
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • Westtown Township
[Clinochlore] Dana 6:1068; Rocks & Min.: 21:22.
 
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