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About BarytocalciteHide

Colourless, white, greyish, greenish, light yellow
Vitreous, Resinous
Specific Gravity:
3.66 - 3.71
Crystal System:
In allusion to the composition, containing BARium and CALCium
Polymorph of:

Classification of BarytocalciteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates

2 : AB(XO3)2

11 : Carbonates
5 : Carbonates of Sr and Ba

Pronounciation of BarytocalciteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of BarytocalciteHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, white, greyish, greenish, light yellow
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
3.66 - 3.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.65 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BarytocalciteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.525 nβ = 1.684 nγ = 1.686
Measured: 15° , Calculated: 10°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.161
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively weak

Chemical Properties of BarytocalciteHide


Crystallography of BarytocalciteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.092(1) Å, b = 5.2344(6) Å, c = 6.544(1) Å
β = 106.05(1)°
a:b:c = 1.546 : 1 : 1.25
Unit Cell V:
266.38 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals normally short to long prismatic [101], also short prismatic [001] or equant. {100} striated [001]; and {111}, {252}, {131} striated [101]. Massive.
Cell from Dickens & Bowen (1971). Older cell: 8.13, 5.22, 6.54 Å, 106°.

Crystallographic forms of BarytocalciteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Barytocalcite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0012045BarytocalciteAlm K F (1960) The crystal structure of barytocalcite BaCa(CO3)2 Arkiv for Mineralogi och Geologi 2 399-41019600293
0013289BarytocalciteDickens B, Bowen J S (1971) The crystal structure of BaCa(CO3)2 (barytocalcite) Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards - Physics and Chemistry 75A 197-2031971Cumberland, England0293
0017643BarytocalciteGossner B, Mussgnug F (1930) Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Barytocalcits und seiner strukturellen Beziehungen zu anderen Stoffen _cod_database_code 1010917 Zentralblatt fur Mineralogie und Geologie, A1930 321-32819300293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Epitaxial Relationships of BarytocalciteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Witherite xls in parallel growth on Barytocalcite from Blagill. Baryte on barytocalcite, with baryte {001}[010] parallel to barytocalcite {001}[010]. Calcite on barytocalcite, with calcite (1011), (1101), and (0111) approximately parallel to barytocalcite (101), (111), and (111).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
4.345 Å(25)
4.018 Å(40)
3.140 Å(90)
3.125 Å(100)
2.512 Å(20)
2.379 Å(20)
2.157 Å(25)

Type Occurrence of BarytocalciteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Veins in limestone.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for BarytocalciteHide

Simplified Chinese:钡解石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
18 photos of Barytocalcite associated with WitheriteBaCO3
10 photos of Barytocalcite associated with CalciteCaCO3
5 photos of Barytocalcite associated with AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
5 photos of Barytocalcite associated with Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2O
4 photos of Barytocalcite associated with BaryteBaSO4
3 photos of Barytocalcite associated with AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2
2 photos of Barytocalcite associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
2 photos of Barytocalcite associated with QuartzSiO2
2 photos of Barytocalcite associated with SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
2 photos of Barytocalcite associated with HematiteFe2O3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.AB.05CalciteCaCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05OtaviteCdCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
5.AB.05RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.10AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.15AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15CerussitePbCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.20VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.AB.25HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.30NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.40OlekminskiteSr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
5.AB.50Carbocernaite(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2Orth. mm2
5.AB.55BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.60JuangodoyiteNa2Cu(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.5.1StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.5.2WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.5.3NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
11.5.7BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3

Fluorescence of BarytocalciteHide

Dull yellow (LW & SW UV).

Other InformationHide

Soluble in dilute HCl.

Baryte and Quartz pseudomorphs after Barytocalcite observed.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BarytocalciteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brooke, H.J., Children, J.G. (1824) On baryto-calcite. The Annals of Philosophy, London: 8: 114-116.
Children (1824) Annals of Philosophy, London: 7: 275.
Johnston, J.F.W. (1835) On the dimorphism of Baryto-calcite. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 6: 1-4.
Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 702.
Des Cloizeaux, A. (1874) Manuel de minéralogie. 2 volumes and Atlas, Paris. volume 2: 80.
Sjögren (1878) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 3: 289.
Des Cloizeaux (1881) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 4: 95.
Mallard, E. (1885) Observations sur les relations cristallographiques et optiques de la barytocalcite dans la série des carbonates, des azotates et des chlorates. Bulletin de Minéralogie Année: 8-2: 44-46.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 289.
Mallard, E. (1895) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 18: 10.
Mügge, O. (1903) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 16: 399.
Kreutz, S. (1909) Contributions to the Study of Parallel Growths of Different Substances. Mineralogical Magazine: 15: 232.
Kreutz (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 48: 185.
Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 1: 171.
Gossner, Mussgnug (1930) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 321.
Kolbeck (1942) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 54: 373.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 220-221.
Arkiv för Mineralogi och Geologi: (1958): 399.
Dickens B., Bowen J.S. (1971) The crystal structure of BaCa(CO3)2 (barytocalcite). Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards - A. Physics and Chemistry: 75A: 197-203.
Kapustin Y.L. (1980) Alstonite, barytocalcite and norsethite. In: Mineralogy of Carbonatites, Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. (New Delhi): 151-153.
Spahr, D., Bayarjargal, L., Vinograd, V., Luchitskaia, R., Milman, V., Winkler, B. (2019) A new BaCa(CO3)2 polymorph. Acta Crystallographica: B75: 291-300.

Internet Links for BarytocalciteHide

Localities for BarytocalciteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Lunda Sul Province
    • Catoca kimberlite field
Cruz, S. R., Watangua, M., Melgarejo, J. C., & Gali, S. (2008). New insights into the concept of ilmenite as an indicator for diamond exploration, based on kimberlit petrographic analysis. Revista de la sociedad española de mineralogia, 9, 205-206.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Beltana
            • Ediacaran Fossil Reserve
Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., 1983, Catalogue of South Australian Minerals-1983, Government Printer, Adelaide.
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Barossa Valley
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Rosebery district
        • Rosebery
Ralph Bottrill collection, XRD confirmed
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Bad Gastein
        • Naßfeld valley
          • Kreuzkogel massif
            • Radhausberg
Kirchner, E. Ch., Mrazek, R., Wimmer, H. (2007): Neue Mineralfunde von Bergbauhalden Radhausberg Süd (Weißental) Kreuzkogel. Mineral. Archiv Salzburg 12, 251-254.
  • Tyrol
    • Imst District
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Minas Gerais
    • Araxá
Traversa, G., Gomes, C. B., Brotzu, P., Buraglini, N., Morbidelli, L., Principato, M. S., ... & Ruberti, E. (2001). Petrography and mineral chemistry of carbonatites and mica-rich rocks from the Araxá complex (Alto Paranaíba Province, Brazil). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 73(1), 71-98.; Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J., 2009, Carbonatites of the world, explored deposits of Nb and REE; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1139, 17 p. and database.
Gomide, C. S. (2015). Geoquímica e química mineral de carbonatitos e isótopos estáveis em carbonatitos da província ígnea do alto Paranaíba. PhD thesis University of Brasilia
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Costanzo, A., Moore, K. R., Wall, F., & Feely, M. (2006). Fluid inclusions in apatite from Jacupiranga calcite carbonatites: evidence for a fluid-stratified carbonatite magma chamber. Lithos, 91(1), 208-228.
  • British Columbia
    • Golden Mining Division
Pell, J. (1987) Carbonatites, Nepheline Syenites, Kimberlites and Related Rocks in British Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Energy Open File Report 1987-17; Dunning, G. E., Walstrom, R. E., & Lechner, W. (2018) Barium Silicate Mineralogy of the Western Margin, North American Continent, Part Geology, Origin, Paragenesis and Mineral Distribution from Baja California Norte, Mexico, Western Canada and Alaska, USA. Baymin Journal: 19(5).
    • Liard Mining Division
      • Sifton Pass
        • Kechika River
Scott, J. D., & Peatfield, G. R. (1986). Mannardite [Ba.H2O](Ti6V3+2)O16, a new mineral species, and new data on redledgeite. Canadian Mineralogist, 24, 55-66.
  • New Brunswick
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Bathurst Parish
        • Bathurst Mining Camp
Tschernich, R. (1992) Zeolites of the World. Geoscience Press: p.143.; Grice, Joel D.; Gault, Robert A.; Ansell, H. Gary (1984) Edingtonite; the first two Canadian occurrences. Canadian Mineralogist: 22: 253-258.; Scott, J.D., and Peatfield, G.R. (1986) Mannardite [Ba.H2O](Ti6V3+2)O16, a new mineral species, and new data on redledgeite. Canadian Mineralogist: 24: 55-66.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Killala Lake Area
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 929-942 (2006)
      • O'Meara Township
Platt & Wooley (1990)
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
          • Saint-Amable sill
HORVÁTH, L. (2010) The minerals of the Saint-Amable sill: an update. MICRONEWS 44(4), 23-28.
    • Nord-du-Québec
Nadeau, O.,Cayer, A., Pelletier, M., Stevenson, R. & Jébrak, M. (2015) The Paleoproterozoic Montviel carbonatite-hosted REE–Nb deposit, Abitibi, Canada: Geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis. Ore Geology Reviews 67, 314-335. ; Edahbi, M., Plante, B., Benzaazoua, M., Kormos, L., & Pelletier, M. (2018) Rare Earth Elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm) from a Carbonatite Deposit: Mineralogical Characterization and Geochemical Behavior. Minerals, 8(2), 55.
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake mining district
      • Macmillan Pass
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1257-1276
Econ Geol (1989)84:841-856; Dunning, G. E., Walstrom, R. E., & Lechner, W. (2018) Barium Silicate Mineralogy of the Western Margin, North American Continent, Part Geology, Origin, Paragenesis and Mineral Distribution from Baja California Norte, Mexico, Western Canada and Alaska, USA. Baymin Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Esperanza district
Ruiz Fuller C./Peebles F; "Geología de los yacimientos Metalíferos de Chile"; Fondecyt, Stgo de Chile, 1988.
  • Coquimbo
    • Elqui Province
      • La Serena
        • Talcuna Cu-Mn-Ag mining district
Sernageomin database 2007;Stgo de Chile
  • Chongqing
    • Chengkou Co.
  • Hubei
    • Shiyan
      • Zhushan Co.
Lü Zhi-cheng, Liu Cong-qiang, Liu Jia-jun, and Wu Feng-chang (2004): Progress in Natural Science 14(10), 889-895.
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Baotou City (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo mining district
        • Bayan Obo
USGS Bull. 2143, Table 1, Principal minerals of the Bayan Obo ore deposit .
  • Shaanxi
    • Ankang
      • Hanbin District
Shenghua Wu, Jiajun Liu, Zhenjiang Liu, Degao Zhai, and Meijuan Yao (2010): Geology in China 37(5), 1469-1479
      • Xunyang County
Shenghua Wu, Jiajun Liu, Zhenjiang Liu, Degao Zhai, and Yongliang Xing (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(6), 1100-1112
      • Ziyang County
Lü Zhi-cheng, Liu Cong-qiang, Liu Jia-jun, and Wu Feng-chang (2004): Progress in Natural Science 14(10), 889-895.
  • Sichuan
    • Dazhou
      • Wanyuan Co.
Tang Juxing, Wendi Lin, Derong Gao, and Jilu Mu (1998): Mineral Deposits 17(3), 264-276
Zhongcheng Wang (1996), In: Zhonghe Pang, Jindong Zhang, and Jianhong Sun (eds.): Advances in Solid Earth Sciences. Science Press (Beijing), 202-209
    • Guangyuan
      • Wangcang County
Bai, G. & Yuan, Z. (1985). Carbonatites and related mineral resources. Bull. Inst. Miner. Deposits Chin. Acad. Geol. Sci., 1-193.
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
      • Březové Hory ore region (Birkenberg)
        • Černojamské deposit (Black pits deposit)
P. Škácha
  • Plzeň Region
    • Tachov District
Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991
  • Lapland
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
  • Ostrobothnia
Al-Ani Thair, Sarapää Olli and Torppa Akseli 2010. Petrography and Mineralogy of REE-bearing minerals of Iivaara, Otanmäki and Korsnäs alkaline rocks. Geologian Tutkimuskeskus arkistoraportti M42/2010/15; Thair Al-Ani! and Olli Sarapää (2013) REE-Rich Accessory Minerals in Carbonatitic, Alkaline, Appinitic and Metasomatichydrothermal Rocks, Central and Northern Finland. Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Tutkimusraportti 198 – Geological Survey of Finland, Report of Investigation 198, Pentti Hölttä (ed.) pp 17-21
  • Saxony
    • Mittelsachsen
      • Brand-Erbisdorf
Handbook of Mineralogy
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 221.
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Vellore District
      • Tiruppattur
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Tamar Regional Council
      • Hatrurim Basin
Krüger, B., Krüger, H., Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Vapnik, Y., Olieric, V., Pauluhn, A. (2018) Aravaite, Ba2Ca18(SiO4)6(PO4)3(CO3)F3O: modular structure and disorder of a new mineral with single and triple antiperovskite layers. Acta Crystallographica Section B: 74(6): 492-501.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • South Tyrol
Degenfelder, J., Tropper, P., Constantini, D. & Pomella, H. (2016): Mineralogische Untersuchungen der Mischkristallreihe Ba-hältiger Phlogopit - Kinoshitalit in Marmoren aus dem Meran-Mauls Basement. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 162, 47-50 (in German with English abstract).
  • ǁKaras Region
    • Oranjemund
      • Rosh Pinah
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1257-1276
New Zealand
  • Otago Region
    • Queenstown-Lakes District
      • Makarora
Cooper, A.F., Patterson, L.A. (2008) Carbonatites from a lamprophyric dyke-swarm, South Westland, New Zealand. The Canadian Mineralogist, 46(4): 753-777.
  • West Coast Region
    • Westland District
Woolley, A. R. (2019, September). Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World, Part 4: Antarctica, Asia and Europe (excluding the former USSR), Australasia and Oceanic Islands. Geological Society of London, 283
Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
  • Aldan Shield
    • Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence
[Lapis 1993:4 p.13-20]
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Sirenevyi Kamen' Deposit
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Khibiny Massif
PEKOV, I.V. & NIKOLAEV, A.P. (2013) Minerals of the pegmatites and hydrothermal assemblages of the Koashva deposit (Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogical Almanac 189(2), 7-65.
      • Kukisvumchorr Mt
[World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
Zaitsev, A.N., Men'shikov, Yu.P., Yakovenchuk, V.N. [Зайцев, А.Н., Меньшиков, Ю.П., Яковенчук, В.Н.] (1992): Barium zeolites of the Khibiny alkaline massif [Бариевые цеолиты Хибинского щелочного массива]. Zapiski Vserossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva [Записки Всероссийского Минералогического Общества], 121, 2, 54-61 (in Russian); Zaitsev, A.N., Wall, F., Le Bas, M.J. (1998): REE-Sr-Ba minerals from the Khibina carbonatites, Kola peninsula, Russia: their mineralogy, paragenesis and evolution. Mineralogical Magazine, 62, 225-250; Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Men'shikov, Yu.P. (2005): Khibiny. Laplandia Minerals Ltd. (in association with the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland), Apatity, 468 pp.
    • Kolsky District
Sorokhtina, N.V., Chukanov, N.V., Voloshin, A.V., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Bogdanova, A.N., and Moiseev, M.M. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 620-628.
Mikhailova, J. A., Kalashnikov, A. O., Sokharev, V. A., Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Konopleva, N. G., Yakovenchuk, V. N., ... & Ivanyuk, G. Y. (2016). 3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex (Russia). Mineralium Deposita, 51(1), 131-149.
    • Northern Karelia
New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 50-64
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Yekaterinburg
Brusnitsyn, A.I. (2000) Rhodonite deposits of Middle Ural. St. Petersburg University press, p. 200 (in Russ.).
  • Tuva
Doroshkevich, A. G., Veksler, I. V., Izbrodin, I. A., Ripp, G. S., Khromova, E. A., Posokhov, V. F., ... & Vladykin, N. V. (2016). Stable isotope composition of minerals in the Belaya Zima plutonic complex, Russia: Implications for the sources of the parental magma and metasomatizing fluids. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 116, 81-96.
  • Prešov Region
    • Poprad District
      • Liptovská Teplička
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Prešov District
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
South Africa
  • Limpopo
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G., and Markl, G. (2017) Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 102, 1218-1233.
  • Northern Cape
    • John Taolo Gaetsewe
      • Gamagara
        • Kathu
          • Sishen
Costin, G., Fairey, B., & Tsikos, H. (2014) Tokyoite and As-rich tokyoite: new occurrence in the manganese ore of the Postmasburg Manganese Field, South Africa. 21st annual IMA conference
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
      • Nordmark District
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Holtstam D., Larsson, A. (2000) Tegengrenite, a new, rhombohedral spinel-related Sb mineral from the Jakobsberg Fe-Mn deposit, Värmland, Sweden. American Mineralogist 85, 1315-1320; Mineralogical Record: 32: 311.
  • England
    • County Durham
      • Lunedale
Dunham KC. 1990. Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield. Vol 1 Tyne to Stainmore. HMSO
    • Cumbria
      • Eden
        • Alston Moor
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 1 Tyne to Stainmore (2nd Edition), pp 119, 120.
BMS Collection
          • Nenthead
GREEN, D.I., McCALLUM, D. and WOOD, M. (2000) Famous mineral localities: The Brownley Hill Mine, Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 31, 231-250.
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 1 Tyne to Stainmore (2nd Edition), pp 136-138, 143-144
No reference listed
    • North Yorkshire
      • Richmondshire
        • Muker
BMS Collection
    • Northumberland
      • Newbrough
No reference listed
      • West Allen
        • Carrshield
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 1 Tyne to Stainmore (2nd Edition), pp 154
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 1 Tyne to Stainmore (2nd Edition), pp 153-154
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 1 Tyne to Stainmore (2nd Edition), pp 156-158
        • Coalcleugh
Dr Stephen Moreton collection
        • Ninebanks
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 1 Tyne to Stainmore (2nd Edition), pp 152-153
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 1 Tyne to Stainmore (2nd Edition), pp 153
    • Shropshire
      • Chirbury with Brompton
BMS Database
    • Somerset
      • Mendip
        • Nunney
BMS Database
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • West Lothian
      • Linlithgow
BMS Database
  • Wales
    • Powys
      • Old Radnor
Cotterell, T., Green, D., Hubbard, N., Mason, J.S., Starkey, R., Tindle, A. (2011) The Mineralogy of Dolyhir Quarry, Old Radnor, Powys, Wales. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 32, 5-61.
    • Rhondda Cynon Taf
      • Llantrisant
No reference listed
No reference listed
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
      • Magnet Cove
Rocks & Min.:63:109.
Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
    • Montgomery Co.
      • Glenwood
Rocks & Min.: 56:248 & 63:113.
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Boron
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147, 172; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 222.
  • Colorado
    • Rio Blanco Co.
      • Piceance Basin
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Illinois
    • Hardin Co.
      • Cave-in-Rock
        • Ozark-Mahoning group
Reiner Mielke 2017
  • Kentucky
Anderson (1994) Kentucky Geol. Survey Ser. XI Spec. Pub 20
      • Central Tennessee Mining District
Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
    • Russell Co.
Alan Goldstein (2006) Kentucky Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
  • New Mexico
    • Lincoln Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Socorro Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. ed., 1996
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Utah
    • Uintah Co.
Am Min 46:379-393
  • Virginia
    • Pittsylvania Co.
      • James River-Roanoke River Mn-Fe-Ba Mining District
Am Min 88: 740-747
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River formation
Am Min 46:420-429
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