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Norsethite

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About NorsethiteHide

Formula:
BaMg(CO3)2
Colour:
Colorless, cloudy white
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.84
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1959 by Mary Emma Mrose, E. C. T. Chao, Joseph James Fahey, and Charles Milton in honor of Keith Norseth (1927–1991), geologist for the Westvaco Mine, west of Green River, Wyoming, USA.

Classification of NorsethiteHide

Approved
5.AB.30

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates
14.2.2.1

14 : ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
2 : AB(XO3)2
11.5.3

11 : Carbonates
5 : Carbonates of Sr and Ba

Physical Properties of NorsethiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colorless, cloudy white
Streak:
White
Hardness:
3½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
{1011}
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
3.84 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.84 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of NorsethiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.694 nε = 1.519
Birefringence:
0.025
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.175
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of NorsethiteHide

Formula:
BaMg(CO3)2

Chemical AnalysisHide

Oxide wt%:
 1
BaO53.11 %
MgO11.28 %
MnO4.68 %
Total:69.07 %
Sample references:
IDLocalityReference
1Kremikovtsi, Sofia City Province, BulgariaZidarov, N., Petrov, O., Tarassov, M., Damyanov, Z., Tarassova, E., Petkova, V., Kalvachev, Y., and Zlatev, Z. (2009) Mn-rich norsethite from the Kremikovtsi ore deposit, Bulgaria. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 186, 321-331.

Crystallography of NorsethiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
R3 2
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.02 Å, c = 16.75 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 3.337
Unit Cell V:
365.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Usually tabular plates with large (0001), rarely Rhombohedral with (0001), {1011}, {1010}, and {1120}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.584 Å(25)
4.21 Å(30)
3.86 Å(35)
3.02 Å(100)
2.66 Å(35)
2.51 Å(35)
2.10 Å(35)
1.931 Å(35)
1.864 Å(35)
Comments:
ICDD 12-530

Type Occurrence of NorsethiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Flat tablets to 0.2-2.0 mm, rarely rhombohedra
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Black shale in Bentonite-hosted alkali mineral deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for NorsethiteHide

German:Norsethit
Simplified Chinese:菱钡镁石
Spanish:Norsethita
Traditional Chinese:菱鋇鎂石

Relationship of Norsethite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.AB.05CalciteCaCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05GaspéiteNi(CO3)Hex.
5.AB.05MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05OtaviteCdCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
5.AB.05RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.10AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.15AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15CerussitePbCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.20VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.AB.25HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.35AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2Tric.
5.AB.40OlekminskiteSr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
5.AB.40ParalstoniteBaCa(CO3)2Trig.
5.AB.45BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.AB.50Carbocernaite(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2Orth. mm2
5.AB.55BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.60JuangodoyiteNa2Cu(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

14.2.2.2ParalstoniteBaCa(CO3)2Trig.
14.2.2.3OlekminskiteSr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.5.1StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.5.2WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.5.4AlstoniteBaCa(CO3)2Tric.
11.5.5ParalstoniteBaCa(CO3)2Trig.
11.5.6BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
11.5.7BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3

Fluorescence of NorsethiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for NorsethiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mrose, M.E., Chao, E.C.T., Fahey, J.J., and Milton, C. (1961) Norsethite, BaMg(CO3)2, a new mineral from the Green River formation, Wyoming. American Mineralogist, 46, 420-429.
Kapustin, J.L. (1965) Norsethite – The first find in USSR. Doklady Acad. Nauk USSR, 161, 922–924 (in Russian).
Sundius, N. and Blix, R. (1965) Norsethite from Långban. Arkiv. Mineral. Geol. 4: 277–278.
Lippmann, F. (1967) Die kristallstruktur des norsethit, BaMg(CO3)2, im vergleich zum dolomit, CaMg(CO3)2. Naturwissenschaften, 54, 514-514.
Steyn, J.G.D. and Watson, M.D. (1967) Note on a new occurrence of norsethite, BaMg(CO3)2. American Mineralogist, 52, 1770–1775.
Effenberger, H. and Zemann, J. (1985) Single crystal X-Ray investigation of norsethite, BaMg(CO3)2: one more mineral with an aplanar carbonate group. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 171, 275-280.
Secco, L. and Lavina, L. (1999) Crystal chemistry of two natural magmatic norsethites, BaMg(CO3)2, from an Mg-carbonatite of the alkaline carbonatitic complex of Tapira (SE Brazil). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 2, 87–96.
Zidarov, N., Petrov, O., Tarassov, M., Damyanov, Z., Tarassova, E., Petkova, V., Kalvachev, Y., and Zlatev, Z. (2009) Mn-rich norsethite from the Kremikovtsi ore deposit, Bulgaria. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 186(3), 321-331.
Effenberger, H., Pippinger, T., Libowitzky, E., Lengauer, C.L., and Miletich, R. (2014) Synthetic norsethite, BaMg (CO3) 2: revised crystal structure, thermal behaviour and displacive phase transition. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(7), 1589-1611.

Internet Links for NorsethiteHide

Localities for NorsethiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Araxá
Traversa, G., Gomes, C. B., Brotzu, P., Buraglini, N., Morbidelli, L., Principato, M. S., ... & Ruberti, E. (2001). Petrography and mineral chemistry of carbonatites and mica-rich rocks from the Araxá complex (Alto Paranaíba Province, Brazil). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 73(1), 71-98.; Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J., 2009, Carbonatites of the world, explored deposits of Nb and REE; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1139, 17 p. and database.
Gomide, C. S. (2015). Geoquímica e química mineral de carbonatitos e isótopos estáveis em carbonatitos da província ígnea do alto Paranaíba. PhD thesis University of Brasilia
    • Tapira
Secco, L. and Lavina, L. (1999) Crystal chemistry of two natural magmatic norsethites, BaMg(CO3)2, from an Mg-carbonatite of the alkaline carbonatitic complex of Tapira (SE Brazil). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 2, 87–96.; Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009) Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Costanzo, A., Moore, K. R., Wall, F., & Feely, M. (2006). Fluid inclusions in apatite from Jacupiranga calcite carbonatites: evidence for a fluid-stratified carbonatite magma chamber. Lithos, 91(1), 208-228.
    • Registro
Bulgaria
 
  • Sofia City Province
Zidarov, N., Petrov, O., Tarassov, M., Damyanov, Z., Tarassova, E., Petkova, V., Kalvachev, Y., and Zlatev, Z. (2009) Mn-rich norsethite from the Kremikovtsi ore deposit, Bulgaria. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 186(3), 321-331.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Liard Mining Division
      • Sifton Pass
        • Kechika River
Scott, J. D., & Peatfield, G. R. (1986). Mannardite [Ba.H2O](Ti6V3+2)O16, a new mineral species, and new data on redledgeite. Canadian Mineralogist, 24, 55-66.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Lac de Gras
Sharygin, I. S., Golovin, A. V., Korsakov, A. V., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2013). Eitelite in sheared peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe (Russia)–a new locality and host rock type. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(5), 825-834.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
      • O'Meara Township
Platt, R.G. and Wooley, A.R. (1990) The carbonatites and fenites of Chipman Lake, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist, 28, 241-250.
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake mining district
      • Macmillan Pass
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1257-1276
Econ Geol (1989)84:841-856
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Baotou City (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo mining district
        • Bayan Obo
          • Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit)
Miyawaki R, Shimazaki H, Shigeoka M, Yokoyama K, Matsubara S, Yurimoto H (2011) Yangzhumingite, KMg2.5Si4O10F2, a new mineral in the mica group from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China. European Journal of Mineralogy 23, 467-473
Youbin Liang, Zhonglong Xu, and Zhiyin Hu (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(9), 29-33
  • Shaanxi
    • Ankang
      • Ziyang County
Zhongcheng Wang (1996), In: Zhonghe Pang, Jindong Zhang, and Jianhong Sun (eds.): Advances in Solid Earth Sciences. Science Press (Beijing), 202-209
Czech Republic
 
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
Zimák, J.: Norsethit z ložiska Zlaté Hory - východ. Minerál, 1998, roč. 6, č. 3, s. 204 - 205
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
India
 
  • West Bengal
    • Paschim Bardhaman District
Mitchell, R. H. & Fareeduddin (2009). Mineralogy of peralkaline lamproites from the Raniganj Coalfield, India. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 457-477. Middlemost, E. A., Paul, D. K., & Fletcher, I. R. (1988). Geochemistry and mineralogy of the minette-lamproite association from the Indian Gondwanas. Lithos, 22(1), 31-42.
Namibia
 
  • ǁKaras Region
    • Oranjemund
      • Rosh Pinah
Steyn, J.G.D. and Watson, M.D. (1967) Note on a new occurrence of norsethite, BaMg(CO3)2. American Mineralogist, 52, 1770–1775.; Gardner, H.D. and Hutcheon, I. (1985) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geology of the Jason Pb-Zn deposits, Macmillan Pass, Yukon, Canada. Economic Geology, 80(5), 1257-1276.
New Zealand
 
  • West Coast Region
    • Westland District
      • Burke River
Cooper, A.F. (1996) Nb-rich baotite in carbonatites and fenites at Haast River, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine Vol. 60, 473-482.
A. F Cooper (1971) Carbonatites and Fenitization Associated with a Lamprophyric Dike-Swarm Intrusive into Schists of the New Zealand Geosyncline. GSA Bulletin 82:1327-1340
Cooper, A.F. (1996) Nb-rich baotite in carbonatites and fenites at Haast River, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine Vol. 60, 473-482.
      • Okuru River
Cooper, A.F. (1996) Nb-rich baotite in carbonatites and fenites at Haast River, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine Vol. 60, 473-482.
Romania
 
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
      • Băiţa mining district (Baita Bihor; Rézbánya)
        • Codreanu Mine
Onac, B.P. (2002) Caves formed within Upper Cretaceous skarns at Băiţa, Bihor County, Romania: mineral deposition and speleogenesis. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 1693–1703.; Onac, B.P. and Damm, P. (2002) Preliminary Data on the Mineralogy of Limestone and Skarn-Hosted Caves from Baita (Bihor county, Romania). Studia UBB Geologia, 47(1), 93-104.
        • Tony Mine
Onac, B.P. (2002) Caves formed within Upper Cretaceous skarns at Băiţa, Bihor County, Romania: mineral deposition and speleogenesis. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 1693–1703.
Russia
 
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Vitim Plateau
      • Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin)
Koneva A.A., Konev A.A., Vladykin N.V. (2010) Vein complex of the Biraya carbonatite deposit. in Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Kovdor Massif
http://maurice.strahlen.org/kola/kovdor.htm; Yakovenchuk V N, Ivanyuk G Y, Mikhailova Y A, Selivanova E A, Krivovichev S V (2006) Pakhomovskyite, Co3(PO4)2·8H2O, a new mineral species from Kovdor, Kola Peninsula, Russia, The Canadian Mineralogist 44, 117-123
Mikhailova, J. A., Kalashnikov, A. O., Sokharev, V. A., Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Konopleva, N. G., Yakovenchuk, V. N., ... & Ivanyuk, G. Y. (2016). 3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex (Russia). Mineralium Deposita, 51(1), 131-149.
    • Northern Karelia
Kapustin, J.L. (1965) Norsethite – The first find in USSR. Doklady Acad. Nauk USSR, 161, 922–924 (in Russian).; Belovitskaya, Yulia V. and Pekov, Igor V. (2004) Genetic mineralogy of the burbankite group. New Data on Minerals, 39, 50-64.
Kozlov, E.; Fomina, E.; Sidorov, M.; Shilovskikh, V.; Bocharov, V.; Chernyavsky, A.; Huber, M. (2020) The Petyayan-Vara Carbonatite-Hosted Rare Earth Deposit (Vuoriyarvi, NW Russia): Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Minerals 10, 73.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Mirninsky District
      • Daldyn
Sharygin, I. S., Golovin, A. V., Korsakov, A. V., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2013). Eitelite in sheared peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe (Russia)–a new locality and host rock type. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(5), 825-834.
  • Tuva
Doroshkevich, A. G., Veksler, I. V., Izbrodin, I. A., Ripp, G. S., Khromova, E. A., Posokhov, V. F., ... & Vladykin, N. V. (2016). Stable isotope composition of minerals in the Belaya Zima plutonic complex, Russia: Implications for the sources of the parental magma and metasomatizing fluids. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 116, 81-96.
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
Sundius, N. and Blix, R. (1965) Norsethite from Långban. Arkiv. Mineral. Geol. 4: 277–278.; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Holtstam, D. and Langhof, J. (eds.) (1999) Långban: The mines, their minerals, geology and explorers. Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, 216 pp. (pp. 89-183).
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth Mining District (Powderhorn Mining District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River formation
Am Min 46:420-429
 
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