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Berzelianite

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About BerzelianiteHide

08854280014946275137709.jpg
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Formula:
Cu2Se
Colour:
Silver-White, shiny lead-grey; easily tarnishes iridescent blue-grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
6.71
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named in 1850 by James Dwight Dana in honor of Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Swedish chemist [August 20, 1779 Linköping, Sweden - August 7, 1848 Stockholm, Sweden]. Berzelius is the father of analytical chemistry, inventor of chemical symbol notation. and discoverer of selenium (Se), cerium (Ce), silicon (Si), thorium (Th), titanium (Ti), and zirconium (Zr), in addition to other elements that he gave to his students to work on.

The mineral berzeliite is also named after Berzelius.
Dimorph of:
Berzelianite-Umangite Group.

A recent study showed the existence of a complete solid-solution series between high digenite [cubic, high-temperature digenite] and berzelianite (Pirard & Hatert, 2008).

Compare 'UM1983-17-Se:CuPb'.


Classification of BerzelianiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.BA.20

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
2.4.10.1

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
3.1.9

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Physical Properties of BerzelianiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Silver-White, shiny lead-grey; easily tarnishes iridescent blue-grey
Streak:
Shining
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=21 - 24 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Malleable
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Comment:
Somewhat malleable
Density:
6.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of BerzelianiteHide

Type:
Isotropic
Type:
Isotropic
Anisotropism:
Isotropic, sometimes slightly anisotropic
Reflectivity:
400nmR=25.8%
420nmR=28.9%
440nmR=30.0%
460nmR=30.7%
480nmR=31.1%
500nmR=31.0%
520nmR=30.2%
540nmR=28.7%
560nmR=27.0%
580nmR=25.5%
600nmR=24.1%
620nmR=22.9%
640nmR=21.8%
660nmR=20.7%
680nmR=19.7%
700nmR=18.7%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 31.1%.

Chemical Properties of BerzelianiteHide

Formula:
Cu2Se
IMA Formula:
Cu2-xSe (x ≈ 0.12)
Common Impurities:
Ag,Tl

Crystallography of BerzelianiteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Setting:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.731 Å
Unit Cell V:
188.23 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Thin dendritic crusts, fine grained, disseminated.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.33 Å(90)
2.03Å(100)
1.729 Å(80)
1.434 Å(30)
1.317 Å(20)
1.171 Å(40)
1.105 Å(20)
Comments:
Skrikerum, Sweden.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Hydrothermal veins.

Type Occurrence of BerzelianiteHide

Synonyms of BerzelianiteHide

Other Language Names for BerzelianiteHide

Relationship of Berzelianite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
UmangiteCu3Se2Tet.

Common AssociatesHide

AguilariteAg4SeS
AthabascaiteCu5Se4
CalciteCaCO3
ClausthalitePbSe
CrookesiteCu7(Tl, Ag)Se4
EucairiteAgCuSe
GoldAu
KlockmanniteCuSe
MarcasiteFeS2
Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
PyriteFeS2
StromeyeriteAgCuS
TiemanniteHgSe
UmangiteCu3Se2
UraniniteUO2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
27 photos of Berzelianite associated with CalciteCaCO3
18 photos of Berzelianite associated with EucairiteAgCuSe
17 photos of Berzelianite associated with ClausthalitePbSe
9 photos of Berzelianite associated with UmangiteCu3Se2
8 photos of Berzelianite associated with Hakite-(Hg)Cu6Cu4Hg2Sb4Se12Se
6 photos of Berzelianite associated with PitchblendeUO2
5 photos of Berzelianite associated with SabatieriteCu6TlSe4
3 photos of Berzelianite associated with CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
2 photos of Berzelianite associated with EskeborniteCuFeSe2
2 photos of Berzelianite associated with Star QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.BA.AlburniteAg8GeTe2S4Iso.
2.BA.DzierżanowskiteCaCu2S2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.10DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.BA.15BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
2.BA.25AthabascaiteCu5Se4Orth.
2.BA.25UmangiteCu3Se2Tet.
2.BA.30RickarditeCu7Te5Orth.
2.BA.30WeissiteCu2-xTeHex.
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2SMon. 2/m : P21/m
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCuAg6AuCu2S5
2.BA.45JalpaiteAg3CuS2Tet.
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
2.BA.50EucairiteAgCuSeOrth.
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2SeOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.60HessiteAg2TeMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.60ChenguodaiteAg9Fe3+Te2S4Orth.
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40 Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36Hex. 6 : P6
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
2.BA.70CanfielditeAg8SnS6Orth. mm2
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4Hex.
2.BA.75PetrovskaiteAuAgSMon.
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)Orth.
2.BA.80BilibinskitePbCu2Au3Te2Iso.
2.BA.80Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)Iso.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.1.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
3.1.3DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu39S28Trig.
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
3.1.8CovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2Tet.
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8Trig.
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4Orth.
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.16WeissiteCu2-xTeHex.
3.1.17RickarditeCu7Te5Orth.
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTeOrth.
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2Tet.
3.1.20LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.29IdaiteCu5FeS6Hex.
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.33Fe0.66S4Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.1.31PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2OHex.
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2Tet.
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4Iso.
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BerzelianiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Beudant, F.S. (1832) Berzeline, cuivre sélenié. in Traité Élémentaire de Minéralogie, 2nd Edition, (Paris): 534-534.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 182-183.
Borchert, W. (1945) Gitterumwandlungen im system Cu2-xSe. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 106: 5-24.
Earley, J.W. (1950) Description and synthesis of the selenide minerals. American Mineralogist: 35: 337-364.
Harris, D.C., Cabri, L.J., Murray, E.J. (1970) An occurrence of a sulphur-bearing berzelianite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 10: 737-740.
Heyding, R.D., Murray, R.M. (1976) Crystal structures of Cu1.8Se, Cu3Se2, α- and γCuSe, CuSe2, and CuSe2II. Canadian Journal of Chemistry: 54: 841-848.
Dymkov, Yu.M., Loseva, T.I., Boitsov, V.E. (1983) Alteration of Cu-Fe-sulfides in the process of formation of berzelianite in the Rozhna deposit (Moravia, Czechoslovakia). Novy Dannye Mineral: 31: 4l-51. (in Russian)
Dunn, P.J., Chao, G.Y., Fleischer, M., Ferraiolo, J.A., Langley, R.H., Pabst, A., Zilczer, J.A. (1985) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 70: 219.
Yamamoto, K., Kashida, S. (1991) X-ray study of the average structures of Cu2Se and Cu1.8S in the room temperature and the high temperature phases. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 93: 202–211.
Pirard, C., Hatert, F. (2008) The sulfides and selenides of the Musonoi Mine, Kolwezi, Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Canadian Mineralogist: 46: 219-231.
Roth, N. and Iversen, B.B. (2019). Solving the disordered structure of β-Cu2−xSe using the three-dimensional difference pair distribution function. Acta Cryst. A75, 465-473.

Internet Links for BerzelianiteHide

Localities for BerzelianiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • La Rioja Province
    • Chilecito department
      • Sañogasta
M.K. de Brodtkorb (ed.) (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina, (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325
    • General Lamadrid department
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 42, 1745-1755 (2004).
      • Villa Castelli
Economic Geology (1997) 92, 468-484.
Grundmann, G., & Förster, H. J. (2018). The Sierra de Cacheuta Vein-Type Se Mineralization, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Minerals, 8(4), 127.
de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.; Grundmann, G., & Förster, H. J. (2018). The Sierra de Cacheuta Vein-Type Se Mineralization, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Minerals, 8(4), 127.
Grundmann, G., & Förster, H. J. (2018). The Sierra de Cacheuta Vein-Type Se Mineralization, Mendoza Province, Argentina. Minerals, 8(4), 127.
DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Crosta, S. (2010). Reseña de la ubicación geográfica de los seleniuros de la Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 67(2), 272-279.
Economic Geology (1997) 92, 468-484.
Recursos Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325; de Brodtkorb, M. K.; Gay, H. D.; Sureda, R. J. (1993): Polymetallic selenide-sulfide minerals of the Los Llantenes mining district, La Rioja, Argentina. Maurice, Yvon T. (Ed.), Proc. 8th Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 119-125.
  • Mendoza Province
    • Luján de Cuyo department
      • Cacheuta
        • Sierra de Cacheuta
          • Cerro de Cacheuta
Ahlfeld Friedrich and Angelelll Vlctorio 1948 Las especies minerales de la Republica Argentina Univ Nac Tucumftn Inst Geologla y Mineria Jujuy Pub no 458 p 47 48 49 50 54 67 69 70 71 120 121 133 134
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Leverett, P., McKinnon, A.R., Williams, P.A. (2003) Mineralogy of the oxidised zone at the New Cobar orebody. Advances in Regolith. CRC LEME, Bentley, 267-270.
Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005): Secondary minerals from the central Cobar mines. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 75-82.
  • Northern Territory
    • West Arnhem Region
      • South Alligator River
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Queenstown district
Bottrill, R. S. (2000). A Mineralogical Field Guide for the Western Tasmania Minerals and Museums Tour.
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Western Australia
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Rudall River District
Nickel, Ernest H. (2002): An Unusual Occurrence of Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Hg Mineralisation in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Canadian Mineralogist. 40: 419-433.
[MinRec 18:28]
      • Kalgoorlie-Boulder
        • Golden Mile Mines
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bruck-Mürzzuschlag District
      • Neuberg an der Mürz
        • Altenberg an der Rax
          • Eselberg
Postl, W. & Paar, W.H. (1997)
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí
    • Antonio Quijarro Province
[MinRec 21:137]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Brazil
 
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Curionópolis
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1451-1463
Canada
 
  • Nunavut
    • Kivalliq Region
      • Baker Lake
Miller A. (1980) Uranium Geology of the Eastern Baker Lake Basin, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories; G.S.C. Bulletin 330.
  • Saskatchewan
    • Beaverlodge Lake area
http://www.ir.gov.sk.ca/dbsearch/MinDepositQuery/default.aspx?ID=1371
J. Traill (1952) Synthesis and x-ray study of uranium sulphate minerals . American Mineralogist 37:394-406.
        • Beaverlodge Lake
ROBINSON, S.C. & BROOKER, E.J. (1952): A cobalt - nickel - copper selenide from the Goldfields district, Saskatchewan, Canada. American Mineralogist 37, 542-544.
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484; Tremblay, L. P. (1978). Geology of the Beaverlodge mining area, Saskatchewan (No. GSCAN-M--367). Geological Survey of Canada.
Handbook of Mineralogy
Handbook of Mineralogy; Stylianos Augustithis (1995) Atlas of the Textural Patterns of Ore Minerals and Metallogenic Processes
China
 
  • Gansu
    • Gannan
      • Luqu Co.
Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383; Caixia Feng, Jiajun Liu, and Shen Liu (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 812-815; Hanjie Wen, Yuzhuo Qiu, and Shirong Liu (2003): Geochimica 32(1), 21-28
  • Hubei
    • Enshi Autonomous Prefecture (E'xi Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Enshi Co.
Feng Caixia, Liu Jiajun, Hu Ruizhong, and Liu Shen (2004): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 23(3), 255-264.
  • Jiangxi
    • Shangrao
      • Dexing Co.
        • Dexing Cu-Mo-Au ore field
          • Dexing copper mine
Jingxian Li and Jiajun Liu (2014): Resources & Industries 16(2), 90-97
  • Sichuan
    • Liangshan
      • Huili County
Zhi Li, Zhenjie Chen, and Fengge Wang (1973): Geology and Prospecting 10(2), 20-24
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
Josef Vajdak (2008) Mineral News, 24, #3, 15. (collected on dump by Pavel Skacha); Škácha, P., Sejkora, J., & Plášil, J. (2017). Selenide mineralization in the Příbram uranium and base-metal district (Czech Republic). Minerals, 7(6), 91.
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
      • Javorník
Sejkora, J., Plášil, J., Litochleb, J., Škácha, P., Pavlícek, R. (2012): A selenide association with macroscopic umangite from the abandoned uranium deposit Zálesí, Rychlebské hory Mountains (Czech Republic). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 20, 187-196 (in Czech with English abstract).
  • Plzeň Region
    • Tachov District
      • Planá u Mariánských Lázní
Scharmová, M., Scharm, B.: Minerály selenu na uranovém ložisku Zadní Chodov. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 43-47.
  • South Bohemian Region
    • Písek District
      • Kovářov
        • Předbořice
Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484; Bindi, L., Förster, H. J., Grundmann, G., Keutsch, F., & Stanley, C. (2016). Petříčekite, CuSe2, a New Member of the Marcasite Group from the Předbořice Deposit, Central Bohemia Region, Czech Republic. Minerals, 6(2), 33.
  • South Moravian Region
    • Brno-Country District
      • Tišnov
Šouba, M.: Příspěvek k mineralizacu dislokací v okolí Tišnovské Nové Vsi. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1984, roč. 29, č. 2, s. 185-191.uraninite, coffinite
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
      • Rožná
Kříbek, B., Žák, K., Dobeš, P., Leichmann, J., Pudilová, M., René, M., ... & Lehmann, B. (2009). The Rožná uranium deposit (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): shear zone-hosted, late Variscan and post-Variscan hydrothermal mineralization. Mineralium deposita, 44(1), 99-128.
Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Petr Pauliš
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38. ; Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89.
Kvaček, M.: Selenides from the deposits of Western Moravia, Czechoslovakia – Part II. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geologica, 1979, vol. 23, nos. 1-2, s. 15-38.
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Shinkolobwe
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
      • Kolwezi
Canadian Mineralogist 46,19-31(2008); Wilson, W. E. (2018) The Musonoi mine, Kolwezi District, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mineralogical Record 49:236-304
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Karlsruhe
      • Baden-Baden
No reference listed
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Franconia
      • Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Großschloppen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
Seeliger, E. & Strunz, H. (1965): Erzpetrographie der Uranmineralien von Wölsendorf. II. Brannerit, Lermontovit(?), Selen und Selenide, Ni- and Bi-Begleitmineralien etc. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 103, 163-178.; Dill, H. G., & Weber, B. (2010). Accessory minerals of fluorite and their implication regarding the environment of formation (Nabburg–Wölsendorf fluorite district, SE Germany), with special reference to fetid fluorite (“Stinkspat”). Ore Geology Reviews, 37(2), 65-86.
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Braunlage
        • St Andreasberg
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
    • Göttingen
      • Osterode am Harz
        • Lerbach
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
      • Walkenried
        • Zorge
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Gernrode
        • Rieder
Schaarschmidt, H. (2007): Weltweit einmalig: Clausthalit als freie Kristalle aus dem Harz. Lapis 32 (3), 41-42. (in German); Heider, J. & Siemroth, J. (2012): Die Selenidmineralisation im Grauwacke-Tagebau Rieder bei Gernrode, Harz. Aufschluss, 63, 213-223.
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001; Tischendorf, G. (1969). Sources of elements in selenide mineralization near Tilkerode (Harz). International Geology Review, 11(11), 1298-1301.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Aue-Bad Schlema
Can Min 40, 4, (2002), 1161-1170; Förster, H. J. (2004). Mineralogy of the Niederschlema-Alberoda U–Se-polymetallic deposit, Erzgebirge, Germany. II: Hessite, Ag2Te, and native Te (?), the first tellurium minerals. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 180(2), 101-113.
          • Shaft 366
The Canadian Mineralogist, V 42, 2004, pp. 1719-1732.
      • Bad Schlema
Handbook of Mineralogy
American Mineralogist (1983): 68: 280-281.
    • Zwickau
      • Hartenstein
FÖRSTER et al. (2003) Canadian Mineralogist 41, 1433-1444
Indonesia
 
  • Bengkulu Province
    • Rejang Lebong District (Rediang Lebong District)
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Israel
 
Vapnik, Y., Galuskina, I., Murashko, M., Britvin, S., & Galuskin, E. (2014). The Hatrurim Complex-the New Unique Locality on World Mineral Map: the Review of Mineral Discoveries. In Israel Geological Society 2014, Annual Meeting, En Boqeq (pp. 143-144).
Mexico
 
  • Durango
    • Mapimí Municipality
      • Mapimí
Panczner(1987):112-384.
Moore, T.P. and Megaw, P.K.M. (2003): Famous mineral localities: The Ojuela mine, Mapimi, Durango, Mexico. The Mineralogical Record, 34(5), 1-91
Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kłodzko Co.
      • Gmina Stronie Śląskie
Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
Russia
 
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Bodaibo
      • Lena Gold District
        • Kropotkinsky ore cluster
http://www.igem.ru/igem/chem/pt/sukhloge.htm; Distler, V. V., Mitrofanov, G. L., Yudovskaya, M. A., Lishnevsky, E. N., & Prokof’ev, V. Y. (2005). Deep structure and ore-forming processes of the Sukhoi Log gold-platinum deposit, Russia. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 921-923). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Sweden (TL)
 
  • Östergötland County
    • Valdemarsvik
[MinRec 19:295]; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
  • Värmland County
    • Arvika
      • Glava
Scherbina, A. S. (1941): The gold-rich chalcocite-bornite deposit of Glava in Vermland, Sweden, and its geological setting. Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Geol., Beilage-Band, 76A, 377-458.
Switzerland
 
  • Aargau
    • Rheinfelden
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 76
UK
 
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
USA
 
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Tharalson, E.R.; Monecke, T.; Reynolds, T.J.; Zeeck, L.; Pfaff, K.; Kelly, N.M. (2019) The Distribution of Precious Metals in High-Grade Banded Quartz Veins from Low-Sulfidation Epithermal Deposits: Constraints from µXRF Mapping. Minerals 9, 740.
    • Mineral Co.
      • Aurora Mining District
        • Durant vein
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Washington
    • Chelan Co.
      • Wenatchee Mining District
        • Wenatchee
          • Squillchuck Creek
Lasmanis, R. (1995): Mineral News: A Compendium of Wenatchee District Mineralogy, Chelan County, Washington, p.6-7
Uzbekistan
 
  • Tashkent
    • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
Handbook of Mineralogy
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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