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Yukonite

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About YukoniteHide

03531650015835319713036.jpg
Flag of Yukon, Canada
Formula:
Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Colour:
Red-brown, dark brown, nearly black, dark purple
Lustre:
Resinous, Waxy
Hardness:
2 - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.65
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1913 by Joseph Burr Tyrrell and Ronald P. D. Graham for its discovery locality, the Daulton Mine, west side of Windy Arm, Tagish Lake, Yukon, Canada.
Easily confused with Arseniosiderite and identifiable only with XRD methods, although yukonite is frequently amorphous to x-rays.

Note: The "yukonite" described by Nishikawa et al. (2006) may in fact be identical to the Unnamed (Arseniosiderite-related mineral).


Classification of YukoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.DM.25

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
M : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1
42.8.6.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : (AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
20.9.12

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
9 : Arsenates of Fe

Pronounciation of YukoniteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of YukoniteHide

Resinous, Waxy
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Red-brown, dark brown, nearly black, dark purple
Streak:
brown
Hardness:
2 - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.65 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
Original material absorbed water rapidly and increased in specific gravity over time.

Optical Data of YukoniteHide

Type:
Isotropic
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of YukoniteHide

Formula:
Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2O

Crystallography of YukoniteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 19.6 Å
Unit Cell V:
0.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Occurs in pitchy to waxy masses or earthy coatings on fractures in rock. TEM shows crude 5 nm platy shapes with {001}, {100}, and small {110}.
Comment:
Poorly crystalline and frequently amorphous to x-rays. "a orth = √3a hex = 19.6 Å" Also Pseudohexagonal (d 100 = 9.8, a hex =11.3) (Nishikawa et al, 2006).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
14.1 Å(100)
5.58 Å(37)
3.25 Å(57)
2.79 Å(60)
2.61 Å(20)
2.33 Å(3)
2.24 Å(11)
2.14 Å(3)
1.76 Å(9)
1.63 Å(20)
1.51 Å(6)
Comments:
XRD pattern richer in lines are also known (U. Kolitsch, unpublished data). Dunn (1982) gave a similar set of d values.

Type Occurrence of YukoniteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Black bright pitchy lumps with deep yellow to brown internal reflections. The lumps of yukonite decrepitated from the heat of handling or when submersed in water due to escape and expansion of enclosed carbon dioxide.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Quartz-sulfide ore veins
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for YukoniteHide

German:Yukonit
Spanish:Yukonita

Varieties of YukoniteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
10 photos of Yukonite associated with ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
5 photos of Yukonite associated with OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
5 photos of Yukonite associated with KaribibiteFe3+3(As3+O2)4(As3+2O5)(OH)
5 photos of Yukonite associated with PharmacosideriteKFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
5 photos of Yukonite associated with LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
5 photos of Yukonite associated with ArsenocrandalliteCaAl3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
3 photos of Yukonite associated with BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
3 photos of Yukonite associated with LöllingiteFeAs2
3 photos of Yukonite associated with ArseniosideriteCa2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
3 photos of Yukonite associated with AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.DM.Betpakdalite-CaMg[Ca2(H2O)17Mg(H2O)6][Mo8As2Fe3+3O36(OH)] Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DM.Betpakdalite-FeFe[Fe3+2 (H2O)15(OH)2Fe3+(H2O)6][Mo8As2Fe3+3 O37]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DM.05MoriniteNaCa2Al2(PO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
8.DM.05EsperanzaiteNaCa2Al2(AsO4)2(OH)F4 · 2H2OMon.
8.DM.10TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
8.DM.15Betpakdalite-CaCa[Ca2(H2O)17Ca(H2O)6][Mo6+8As5+2Fe3+3O36(OH)]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DM.15Melkovite[Ca2(H2O)15Ca(H2O)6][Mo8P2Fe3+3O36(OH)]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DM.15Betpakdalite-NaCa[Na2(H2O)17Ca(H2O)6][Mo6+8As5+2Fe3+3O34(OH)3]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DM.20Phosphovanadylite-BaBa[V4+4P2O8(OH)8]·12H2OIso.
8.DM.20Phosphovanadylite-CaCa[V4+4P2O12(OH)4] · 12H2O Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
8.DM.30UdumineliteCa3Al8(PO4)2O12 · 2H2O
8.DM.35DelvauxiteCaFe4(PO4,SO4)2(OH)8 · 4-6H2O not confirmedAmor.
8.DM.40Santafeite(Na,Ca,Sr)12(Mn2+,Fe3+,Al,Mg)8Mn4+8(VO4)16(OH,O)20 · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

20.9.1AngelelliteFe3+4(AsO4)2O3Tric. 1 : P1
20.9.2ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
20.9.3KaňkiteFeAsO4 · 3.5H2OMon. 2 : P2
20.9.4FerrisymplesiteFe3+3(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
20.9.5KaatialaiteFe(H2AsO4)3 · 5H2OMon. 2/m
20.9.6SymplesiteFe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
20.9.7ParasymplesiteFe2+3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
20.9.8Natropharmacosiderite(Na,K)Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
20.9.9PharmacosideriteKFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
20.9.10KolfaniteCa2Fe3+3O2(AsO4)3 · 2H2OMon.
20.9.11ArseniosideriteCa2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
20.9.13DussertiteBaFe3+3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
20.9.14Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2OOrth.
20.9.15MapimiteZn2Fe3+3(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 10H2OMon.
20.9.16OgdensburgiteCa2Fe3+4(Zn,Mn2+)(AsO4)4(OH)6 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
20.9.17WalentaiteFe3+3(P0.84As0.16O4)2(O,OH)6As3+2.56Ca0.42Na0.28Mn2+0.35Fe2+0.30O6.1(OH)0.9(H2O)0.9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma

Fluorescence of YukoniteHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for YukoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Tyrell, J.B., Graham, R.P.D. (1913) Yukonite, a new hydrous arsenate of iron and calcium from Tagish Lake, Yukon Territory, Canada; with a note on the associated symplesite. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada: 7(4): 13-18.
Jambor, J.L. (1966) Re-examination of yukonite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 8: 667. (abstr.)
Dunn, P.J. (1982) New data for pitticite and a second occurrence of yukonite at Sterling Hill, New Jersey. Mineralogical Magazine: 46: 261-264.
The Canadian Mineralogist (1970): 8: 13-18.
Ross, D.R., Post, J.E. (1997) New data on yukonite. Powder Diffraction: 12(2): 113-116. Abstract: American Mineralogist (1998): 83: 189.
Pieczka, A., Golebiowska, B. and Franus, W. (1998) Yukonite, a rare Ca-Fe arsenate, from Redziny (Sudetes, Poland). European Journal of Mineralogy: 10: 1367-1370.
Nishikawa, O., Okrugin, V., Belkova, N., Saji, I., Shiraki, K., Tazaki, K. (2006) Crystal symmetry and chemical composition of yukonite: TEM study of specimens collected from Nalychevskie hot springs, Kamchatka, Russia and from Venus Mine, Yukon Territory, Canada. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 73-81.
Garavelli, A., Pinto, D., Vurro, F., Mellini, M., Viti, C., Balić-Žunić, T. (2009) Yukonite from “Grotta del Monaca” cave, Sant'Agata di Esaro, Italy: characterization and comparison with cotype material from Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 47: 39-51.

Internet Links for YukoniteHide

Localities for YukoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • La Rioja Province
    • Vinchina Department
      • Jagüé
        • Quebrada de Cumichango
Las Especies Minerales de La Republica Argentina
  • Salta Province
Ronald G. Simpson (2017) Taron Project NI 43-101 Technical Report Salta Province, Argentina
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • Kufstein District
      • Brixlegg
        • Geyer - Silberberg District
          • Silberberg
Schnorrer, G. and Poeverlein, R. (2002) Schwaz-Brixlegg-Fundstellen: 2. Die Minerale des Stockerstollens bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss, 53, 209-228.
Canada
 
  • Northwest Territories
    • North Slave Region
      • Yellowknife
Jamieson, H. E. (2014): The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Mining and Processing Refractory Gold Ore at Giant Mine, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Pp. 533-549 in Bowell, R.J., Alpers, C.N., Jamieson, H.E., Nordstrom, D.K. and Majzlan, J., Eds. (2014): Arsenic: Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Vol. 79, Mineral. Soc. of Am., Chantilly, VA and Geochem. Soc., St. Louis, MO, USA, 635 pp.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Guysborough Co.
Walker, S.R., Parsons, M.B., Jamieson, H.E., Lanzirotti, A. (2009) Arsenic mineralogy of near-surface tailings and soils: influences on arsenic mobility and bioaccessibility in the Nova Scotia gold mining districts. Canadian Mineralogist: 47: 533-556.
    • Halifax Co.
Walker, S.R., Parsons, M.B., Jamieson, H.E., Lanzirotti, A. (2009) Arsenic mineralogy of near-surface tailings and soils: influences on arsenic mobility and bioaccessibility in the Nova Scotia gold mining districts. Canadian Mineralogist: 47: 533-556.
Walker, S.R., Parsons, M.B., Jamieson, H.E., Lanzirotti, A. (2009) Arsenic mineralogy of near-surface tailings and soils: influences on arsenic mobility and bioaccessibility in the Nova Scotia gold mining districts. Canadian Mineralogist: 47: 533-556.
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse mining district
      • Carcross
        • Tagish Lake
          • Windy Arm
TYRRELL, J.B. & GRAHAM, R.P.D. (1913): Yukonite, a new hydrous arsenate of iron and calcium from Tagish Lake, Yukon Territory, Canada; with a note on the associated symplesite. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 7, Section 4, 13-18. JAMBOR, J.L. (1966): Re-examination of yukonite. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 667(abstr.).
Sabina A.P. (1992) Rock and minerals for the collector: The Alaska highway; Dawson Creek, B.C. to Yukon/Alaska border Geological Survey of Canada, Misc. Report 50: 41. ; Nishikawa, O., Okrugin, V., Belkova, N., Saji, I., Shiraki, K., & Tazaki, K. (2006). Crystal symmetry and chemical composition of yukonite: TEM study of specimens collected from Nalychevskie hot springs, Kamchatka, Russia and from Venus mine, Yukon Territory, Canada. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 73-81.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
SCHNORRER-KÖHLER, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. - Aufschluss 42 (3), 155-171; Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
          • Frohnbach valley
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
      • Rottweil
        • Schenkenzell
Walenta, K. (1996): Neufunde aus dem Schwarzwald. 6. Folge, 1. Teil. Lapis 21 (7-8), 70-76.
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Aschaffenburg District
        • Sailauf
          • Hartkoppe
see locality page
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Donnersberg District
      • Winnweiler
Meisl, S (1985)
    • Vulkaneifel District
      • Gerolstein
        • Hillesheim
Hentschel, G., Die Lavaströme der Graulai: eine neue Fundstelle in der Westeifel, Lapis, Weise Verlag München, 09/1993.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Wernigerode
        • Hasserode
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion mining district
          • Agios Konstantinos (Kamariza)
            • Mercati mines
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
Iran
 
  • Kerman Province
    • Rafsanjan County
      • Pariz
Khorasanipour, M., & Esmaeilzadeh, E. (2015). Geo-genic arsenic contamination in the Kerman Cenozoic Magmatic Arc, Kerman, Iran: Implications for the source identification and regional analysis. Applied Geochemistry, 63, 610-622.
Italy
 
  • Calabria
    • Cosenza Province
      • Sant'Agata di Esaro
Garavelli, A., Pinto, D., Vurro, F., Mellini, F., Viti, C., Balić-Žunić, T., and Della Ventura, G. (2009) Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant’Agata di Esaro, Italy: characterization and comparison with cotype material from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 39-51.
Japan
 
  • Oita Prefecture
    • Saiki City
      • Kiura mine (Shin-Kiura mine; Kiura emery mine)
Enju, S., & Uehara, S. (2015). Yukonite and wallkilldellite–(Fe) from the Kiura mine, Oita Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(3), 150-155.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Amerzgane
        • Bou Azzer Mine
N. Meisser, J. Brugger (2006): "Bouazzerit und Maghrebit, zwei neue Arsenatmineralien aus dem Revier Bou Azzer, Marokko", Lapis 31(7/8), 69-71
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Nedre Eiker
Nilsen, Ø. J (2000): Steintur fra MIF-hytta til Korsgårdseter. DG-nytt (Drammen Geologiforening). 19 (1), 12-14
  • Nordland
    • Bindal
Raade, R. (1993) Pitticite and yukonite from Kolsvika, Bindalen. Geologisk Museum. Interne notater 1990-1993. Published by Geologisk Museums Venner, Oslo 1993, p 171-173
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Tvedalen
        • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
Larsen, A. O. (2013): Contributions to the mineralogy of the syenite pegmatites in the Larvik Plutonic Complex. Norsk Bergverksmuseet Skrift 50, 101-109.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kamienna Góra County
      • Gmina Kamienna Góra
        • Rędziny
Domańska, J.: Rędziny. Otoczak, nr. 29, p. 38-52; Pieczka, A., Golebiowska, B. and Franus, W. (1998): Yukonite, a rare Ca-Fe arsenate, from Redziny (Sudetes, Poland). Eur. J. Mineral. 10, 1367-1370.
Russia
 
  • Kamchatka Krai
Nishikawa, O., Okrugin, V., Belkova, N., Saji, I., Shiraki, K., & Tazaki, K. (2006). Crystal symmetry and chemical composition of yukonite: TEM study of specimens collected from Nalychevskie hot springs, Kamchatka, Russia and from Venus mine, Yukon Territory, Canada. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 73-81.
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Zaragoza
      • Alpartir
Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames,Zaragoza. 463 pags.
  • Murcia
    • Lorca
MinRec-2003-0708-315
    • Mazarrón
      • Pastrana
Calvo, M. (2015) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. VII, Fosfatos, arseniatos y vanadatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 479 pages.
Switzerland
 
  • Basel-Landschaft
    • Sissach
      • Buus
Majzlan, J., Petrikis, J., Voegelin, A.. (2016): Arsen- und Thallium-Minerale bei Buus, Baselland. Schweizer Strahler 50 (1), 20-23.
  • Valais
    • Goms
      • Binn
        • Lärchultini
Crumbach M., Cuchet S, Meisser N. (2014) Yukonit von der Lärcheltini : ein weiteres Arsenmineral aus dem Binntal. Schweizer Strahler 4/2014.
    • Sierre
      • Anniviers
        • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
Eckel, E. B.(1997): Minerals of Colorado. [Updated and revised edition]. Fulcrum Publishing. 665 pages
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Pequop Mining District
Smith, M. T., Rhys, D., Ross, K., Lee, C., & Gray, J. N. (2013). The Long Canyon deposit: Anatomy of a new off-trend sedimentary rock-hosted gold discovery in northeastern Nevada. Economic Geology, 108(5), 1119-1145.
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting Mining District
        • Luning
          • Rhyolite Pass
Marco Ciriotti collection (analysed only by SEM-EDS, 2005)
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Dunn(1995):Pt5:685.
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
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