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About MoissaniteHide

Portrait of Henri Moissan
Green, black, blue, colourless, green yellow, yellow
Specific Gravity:
3.218 - 3.22
Crystal System:
Named in 1905 after Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (28 September 1852 – 20 February 1907), a French chemist who, after years of research of high-temperature methods and furnaces for the production of carbides and synthetic diamonds, discovered the natural occurrence in the Canyon Diablo meteorite.

Moissan was the first to isolate elemental fluorine and received the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for that.
Dimorph of:
Moissanite, found as tiny crystals in some meteorites (originally formed in star dust) and kimberlites, is a naturally occurring silicon carbide, SiC (in synthetic form a very important high-performance ceramic, more commonly known as abrasive "carborundum").

A large number of polytypes (predominantly hexagonal or rhombohedral) is known.
Most of the natural moissanite grains are 6H and 15R polytypes (Shiryaev et al., 2011).

An unusual example of rock-forming moissanite, also of kimberlitic origin, is known from Turkey (Di Pierro et al., 2003).

Compare 'UM1982-06-C:Si'.

Visit for gemological information about Moissanite.

Classification of MoissaniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
D : Nonmetallic Carbides and Nitrides
A : Nonmetallic carbides
Dana 7th ed.:

3 : Semi-metals and non-metals

2 : Carbides, Nitrides, Silicides and Phosphides

Physical Properties of MoissaniteHide

Green, black, blue, colourless, green yellow, yellow
Greenish grey
9½ on Mohs scale
{0001} Indistinct
3.218 - 3.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    
3.218 - 3.22, Average = 3.21

Optical Data of MoissaniteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.616 - 2.757 nε = 2.654 - 2.812
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.038
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Colour in reflected light:
Pale grey
Pale blue to paler blue

Chemical Properties of MoissaniteHide


Crystallography of MoissaniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
 3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal      

a = 3.08 Å, c = 37.85 Å

 a:c = 1 : 12.289      
 V 310.96 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0004279MoissaniteCapitani G C, Di Pierro S, Tempesta G (2007) The 6H-SiC structure model: Further refinement from SCXRD data from a terrestrial moissanite American Mineralogist 92 403-4072007150 km NW from Izmir, Turkey0293
0017954MoissaniteOtt H (1925) Die Gitterstruktur des Karborunds ( Si C ) I. _cod_database_code 1011053 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 61 515-53119250293
0017910MoissaniteBraekken H (1930) Zur Kristallstruktur des kubischen Karborunds _cod_database_code 1010995 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 75 572-57319300293
0011553MoissaniteWyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York Crystal Structures 1 85-23719630293
0017937MoissaniteBurdick C, Owen E (1918) The Atomic Structure of Carborundum Determined by X-Rays _cod_database_code 1011031 Journal of the American Chemical Society 40 1749-175919180293
0015175MoissaniteXu Y N, Ching W Y (1993) Electronic, optical, and structural properties of some wurtzite crystals Physical Review B48 4335-435119930293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of MoissaniteHide

Synonyms of MoissaniteHide

Other Language Names for MoissaniteHide

Simplified Chinese:莫桑石
Traditional Chinese:碳矽石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Moissanite associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

2.3OsborniteTiNIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.5CarlsbergiteCrNIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.8XifengiteFe5Si3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
2.9Khamrabaevite(Ti,V,Fe)CIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.10Haxonite(Fe,Ni)23C6Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.12Roaldite(Fe,Ni)4NIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3n
2.13Suessite(Fe,Ni)3SiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
2.14Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3PTet. 4 : I4
2.15Barringerite(Fe,Ni)2PHex. 6 m2 : P62m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for MoissaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Kunz, G.F. (1905) Moissanite, a natural silicon carbide. American Journal of Science: 19: 396-397.
Moissan, H. (1905) Étude du siliciure de carbone de la météorite de Cañon Diablo. Les Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences: 140: 405-406.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 123-124.
(1950) Structure Reports (or Strukturbericht): 13: 166. [crystal structure]
Bobrievich, A.P., Kalyuzhuyi, V.A., and Smirnov, G.I. (1957) Moissanite in kimberlites of the East Siberian Platform. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 115(6): 1189–1192 (in Russian).
Regis, A.J. and Sand, L.B. (1958) Natural cubic (β) silicon carbide. Geological Society of America Bulletin: 69: 1633.
Bauer, J., Fiala, J., and Hřichová, R. (1963) Natural alpha-silicon carbide. American Mineralogist: 48: 620-634. []
Bauer, Y., Fiala, Yu., and Grzhikhova, R. (1965) Moissanite from middle mountains of Czechoslovakia. International Geology Review: 7: 1194–1206.
Marshintsev, V.K., Shchelchkova S.G., Zol’nikov G.V., and Voskresenskaya V.B. (1967) New information on moissanite from the Yakutian kimberlites. Geologiya i Geofizika Novosibirsk, 12, 22–31 (in Russian).
Acta Crystallographica B25 (1969) 477 [Recent/Best,Powder Pat., Xl. Structure].
Hannam, A.L. and Shaffer, P.T.B. (1969) Revised X-ray diffraction line intensities for silicon carbide polytypes. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 2: 45–48.
Kaminskiy, F.V., Bukin, V.I., Potapov, S.V., Arkus, N.G., and Ivanova, V.G. (1969) Discoveries of silicon carbide under natural conditions and their genetic importance. International Geology Review: 11: 561–569.
Gevorkyan, R.G., Gurkina, G.A., and Kaminskii, F.V. (1974) New type of natural moissanite from Armenia. Zap. Vses. Mineral. Obshch.: 7: 106–110. [in Russian].
Fleischer, M., Pabst, A., and Cabri, L.J. (1976) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 61: 1054.
Moskvitin, I.Y., Marshintsev, V.K., Mikhaylov, V.A., and Brovkin, A.A. (1978) Moissanite in Vendian sedimentary rocks of the Botuobuya Saddle, Siberian Platform. Transaction (Doklady) of the USSR Academy of Sciences: Earth Science Sections: 239: 1–6, 138–140.
Lyakhovich, V.V. (1980) Origin of accessory moissanite. International Geology Review: 22: 961–970.
(1982) Transactions (Doklady) of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Earth Science Sections: 262: 163. [Powder Pat., Chemistry]
Milton, C. and Vitaliano, D.B. (1984) The non-existence of moissanite, SiC. International Geological Congress, Abstract: 27(5): 107–108.
Moore, R.O., Otter, M.L., Rickard, R.S., Harris, J.W., and Gurney, J.J. (1986) The occurrence of moissanite and ferro-periclase as inclusions in diamond. In 4th International Kimberlite Conference, Perth, Extended Abstracts; Abstract Geological Society of Australia, 16, 409–411.
Tang, M., Anders, E., Hoppe, P., and Zinner, E. (1989) Meteoritic silicon carbide and its stellar sources; Implication for galactic chemical evolution. Nature: 339: 351–354.
Zinner, E., Tang, M., and Anders, E. (1989) Interstellar SiC in the Murchison and Murray meteorites: Isotopic composition of Ne, Xe, Si, C and N. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 53: 3273–3290.
Leung, I.S. (1990) Silicon carbide cluster entrapped in a diamond from Fuxian, China. American Mineralogist: 75: 1110–1119.
Leung, I., Guo, W., Friedman, I., and Gleason, J. (1990) Natural occurrence of silicon carbide in a diamondiferous kimberlite from Fuxian. Nature: 346: 352-354.
Lewis, R.S., Amari, S., and Anders, E. (1990) Meteoritic silicon carbide: pristine material from carbon stars. Nature: 348: 293–298.
Marshintsev, V.K. (1990) Nature of silicon carbide in kimberlite rocks of Yakutiya. Mineralogicheskiy Zhurnal: 12(3): 17-26. [in Russian].
Stone, J., Hutcheon, I.D., Epstein, S., and Wasserburg, G.J. (1991) Correlated Si isotope anomalies and large 13C enrichments in a family of exotic SiC grains. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 107: 570–581.
Jambor, J.L. and Grew E.S. (1992) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 77: 207-213.
Filippidis, A. (1993) New find of moissanite in the Metaxades zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic rocks, Thrace county, Greece. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 521–527.
Mathez, E.A., Fogel, R.A., Hutcheon, I.D., and Marshintsev, V.K. (1995) Carbon isotopic composition and origin of SiC from kimberlites of Yakutia, Russia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 59: 781–791.
Leung, I.S., Taylor, L.A., Tsao, C.S., and Han, Z. (1996) SiC in diamond and kimberlites: Implications for nucleation and growth of diamond. International Geology Review: 38: 595–606.
Daulton, T.L., Bernatowicz, T.J., Lewis R.S., Messenger S., Stadermann F.J., and Amari S. (2002) Polytype distribution in circumstellar silicon carbide. Science: 296: 1852–1855.
Di Pierro, S., Gnos, E., Grobety, B.H., Armbruster, T., Bernasconi, S.M., and Ulmer, P. (2003) Rock-forming moissanite (natural alpha-silicon carbide). American Mineralogist: 88: 1817-1821.
Lee, J.S., Yu, S.C., Tung, S.F., Bai, W.J., Yang, J.S., and Fang, Q.S. (2006) The crystal structure of natural 33R moissanite from Tibet. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 221: 213-217.
Capitani, G.C., Di Pierro, S., and Tempesta, G. (2007) The 6H-SiC structure model: further refinement from SCXRD data from a terrestrial moissanite. American Mineralogist: 92: 403-407.
Shiryaev, A.A., Griffin, W.L., and Stoyanov, E. (2011) Moissanite (SiC) from kimberlites: Polytypes, trace elements, inclusions and speculations on origin. Lithos: 122: 152-164.

Internet Links for MoissaniteHide

Localities for MoissaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Victoria
    • City of Greater Shepparton
      • Murchison
Philipp R. Heck, Jennika Greer, Levke Kööp, Reto Trappitsch, Frank Gyngard, Henner Busemann, Colin Maden, Janaína N. Ávila, Andrew M. Davis, and Rainer Wieler (2020) Lifetimes of interstellar dust from cosmic ray exposure ages of presolar silicon carbide. PNAS
  • Western Australia
    • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
      • Lake Argyle area
Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
  • Styria
    • Liezen District
      • Landl
        • Gams bei Hieflau
Grachev, A.F., Borisovsky, S.E., and Grigor'eva, A.V. (2008) The first find of native rhenium in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in the Gams section (Eastern Alps, Austria). Doklady Earth Sciences, 422(7), 1065-1067; Grachev, A.F. (Ed) (2009) The K/T boundary of Gams (Eastern Alps, Austria) and the nature of terminal Cretaceous mass extinction. The Geological Survey of Austria in cooperation with the Geophysical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow-Vienna, 199 pages, doi:10.2205/2009-GAMSbook (electronic version); Geologische Bundesanstalt [Austria], Abhandlungen (2009), 63, 199 pages (printed version).
  • Aghjabadi District
    • Shusha
Meteoritics, vol. 32, pages 719-732; Lee M R, Russell S S, Arden J W, Pillinger C T (1995) Nierite (Si3N4), a new mineral from ordinary and enstatite chondrites, Meteoritics, 30, 387-398
  • Mato Grosso
    • Juína kimberlite field
      • Juína
        • Sorriso river
Kaminski, F., Wirth R. (2017): Nitrides and carbonitrides from the lowermost mantle and their importance in the search for Earth’s "lost" nitrogen. American Mineralogist: 102 (in press); (2017)
  • Smolyan Province
Svetoslav Petrussenko, Iliya Dimitrov, Kostadin Glushkov, Lubomir Metodiev (2007) A Wonderful World of Minerals (Minerals, Mineral Deposits and Localities from the Area of the Town of Chepelare). Fourth International Symposium Mineral Diversity Research and Preservation pp229-233
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
  • Anhui
    • Anqing
      • Qianshan City
Xu, S. et al. (2008): Moissanite in serpentinite from the Dabie Mountains in China. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 899-908.
  • Guizhou
    • Guiyang
      • Qingzhen County
Lin, Yangting, Amari, Sachiko, and Pravdivtseva, Olga (2002) Presolar grains from the Qingzhen (EH3) meteorite. The Astrophysical Journal: 525(1)(08/2002): 257-263.
    • Zunyi
      • Bozhou District
Kehua Yin (2009): Geology and Prospecting 45(3), 273-279
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Xilingol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
      • West Ujimqin Banner (Xiwuzhumuqin Co.)
Zhu, H., Jingsui, Y., Robinson, P. T., Yongwang, Z., Fahui, X., Zhao, L., ... & Wei, X. (2015). The discovery of diamonds in chromitites of the Hegenshan ophiolite, Inner Mongolia, China. Acta Geologica Sinica‐English Edition, 89(2), 341-350.
  • Jiangsu
    • Lianyungang
      • Donghai Co.
        • Maobei
Jingsui Yang, Zhiqin Xu, Wenji Bai, Qingsong Fang, and Zhongming Zhang (2006): 3rd Annual Meeting of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS), July 10-14, 2006, Abstract 59-SE-A0643.
  • Jilin
    • Jilin
      • Chuanying District
Wankang Huang, Yingwen Xie, and Jingming Pan (1978): Geochimica 7(1), 25-34
  • Liaoning
    • Dalian
      • Wafangdian City; Leung, I.S. (1990) Silicon carbide cluster entrapped in a diamond from Fuxian, China. American Mineralogist: 75: 1110–1119.; Leung, I.S., Guo, W., Freidman, I., and Gleanson, J. (1990) Natural occurrence of silicon carbide in a diamondiferous kimberlite from Fuxian. Nature: 346: 352–354.
  • Shandong
    • Laiwu
      • Gangcheng District
Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
      • Laicheng District
Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
    • Linyi
      • Fei County
Weiguo Zhong, Dengshi Zhou, Jitai Liu, Xiaoping Cheng, and Lihua Xie (2003): Shandong Geology 19(1), 43-49
      • Mengyin County
Jianhong Zhang, Guojie Yang, and Zhaohui Li (1986): Kuangwu Xuebao 6, 344-349.
    • Tai'an
      • Daiyue District
Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
    • Zibo
      • Boshan District
Yaxiong Zhong (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(5), 31-36
  • Tibet
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121; Lee, J.S., Yu, S.C., Tung, S.F., Bai, W.J., Yang, J.S., Fang, Q.S., Zhang, Z.M. (2006): The crystal structure of natural 33R moissanite from Tibet. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 221, 213-217.
Xiangzhen Xu, Jingsui Yang, Dengzhu Ba, Qingsong Fang, Songyong Chen, Wenji Bai, and Huaqi Li (2008): Preliminary research on Kangjinla podiform chromite deposit in Tibet. Presented at the 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo, August 6-14, 2008.; Xiangzhen Xu, Jingsui Yang, Guolin Guo, and Fahui Xiong (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(6), 1867-1877
Xiangzhen, X., Jingsui, Y., Songyong, C., Qingsong, F., Wenji, B., & Dengzhu, B. (2009). Unusual mantle mineral group from chromitite ore body Cr-11 in Luobusa ophiolite of Yarlung-Zangbo suture zone, Tibet. Journal of Earth Science, 20(2), 284-302.
  • Yunnan
    • Lijiang
      • Gucheng District
Zhaochong Zhang, Jingwen Mao, Fusheng Wang, and Pirajno, F. (2006): American Mineralogist 91(7), 1178-1183.
Czech Republic
AmMin 48:620-634 (1963)
  • Olomouc Region
    • Olomouc District
Lee M R, Russell S S, Arden J W, Pillinger C T (1995) Nierite (Si3N4), a new mineral from ordinary and enstatite chondrites, Meteoritics, 30, 387-398
  • Pardubice Region
    • Chrudim District
      • Třemošnice
        • Běstvina
Maria Perraki & Shah Wali Faryad (2014): First finding of microdiamond, coesite and other UHP phases in felsic granulites in the Moldanubian Zone: Implications for deep subduction and a revised geodynamic model for Variscan Orogeny in the Bohemian Massif. Lithos 202-203, 157-166.
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Litoměřice District
Rost R.: Doplňky k mineralogii pyropových štěrků v Českém středohoří. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1962, 7, 4, 407-417.
      • Třebívlice
Rost R.: Doplňky k mineralogii pyropových štěrků v Českém středohoří. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1962, 7, 4, 407-417.
  • New Valley
Yasunori Miura (2009) Metamorphosed calcium carbonates in sea-impact glass LDSG. 2009 Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences, R7-03.
Belyanin, G. A., Kramers, J. D., Andreoli, M. A., Greco, F., Gucsik, A., Makhubela, T. V., ... & Wiedenbeck, M. (2017). Petrography of the carbonaceous, diamond-bearing stone “Hypatia” from southwest Egypt: A contribution to the debate on its origin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
  • Tolna County
    • Völgység
      • Bátaapáti
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei:Mineral Species of Hungary,2005
  • Haifa District
[Moissanite-6H] Gems & Gemology, Summer 2014 Vol. 50 No. 2; Howard Coopersmith, Vered Toledo, John Ward, Michiel De Wit, R Spaggiari, Emmanuel Fritsch: "Geology and Exploration of Gem Deposits at Mt. Carmel, Northern Israel: Natural Moissanite, Sapphire, Ruby & Diamond."
J. Hattingh (2019) Updated Competent Person’s Report on the Shefa Gems Ltd Gemstone Assets.
    • Mount Carmel
Griffin, W. L., Gain, S. E. M., Adams, D. T., Huang, J. X., Saunders, M., Toledo, V., ... & O’Reilly, S. Y. (2016). First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel. Geology, 44(10), 815-818.
  • Northern District (HaZafon District)
    • Kishon river
[Moissanite-6H] Stan, C.V.; O’Bannon, E.F., III; Mukhin, P.; Tamura, N.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L. (2020) X-ray Laue Microdiffraction and Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of Natural Silicon and Moissanite. Minerals 10, 204.
  • Akmola Region
    • Burabay
      • Shchuchinsk
Bespaev H.A., Uzhkenov B.S., Aliaskarov S.A., Egembaev K.M. (Almaty, 1999) Gemstones of Kazakhstan, Reference book. Volume 1. Deposits and occurrences of precious and semiprecious stones.
  • Aktobe Region
    • Yrgyz
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
  • North Kazakhstan Region
    • Aiyrtau
Bespaev H.A., Uzhkenov B.S., Aliaskarov S.A., Egembaev K.M. (Almaty, 1999) Gemstones of Kazakhstan, Reference book. Volume 1. Deposits and occurrences of precious and semiprecious stones.
  • Trøndelag
    • Orkland
      • Meldal
        • Grutsæter
Jørgensen, L. B. & Sagvold, E. B. (2001): Geologiske severdigheter og mineralforekomster i Løkkenfeltet. Orkla Industrimuseum 42p
  • Azores
    • São Miguel
Nazzareni, S., Nestola, F., Zanon, V., Bindi, L., Scricciolo, E., Petrelli, M., Zanatta, M., Mariotto, G., Giuli, G. (2018): Discovery of moissanite in a peralkaline syenite from the Azores Islands. Lithos, 324-325, 68-73.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Kyshtym
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Kamchatka Krai
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Gordeev, E. I., Karpov, G. A., Anikin, L. P., Krivovichev, S. V., Filatov, S. K., Antonov, A. V., & Ovsyannikov, A. A. (2014, January). Diamonds in lavas of the Tolbachik fissure eruption in Kamchatka. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 454, No. 1, pp. 47-49). Pleiades Publishing.
[MinRec 31:202]
  • Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
    • Saranpaul
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Evenkiysky District
      • Nizhnyaya Tunguska River Basin (Lower Tunguska River)
Kvasnytsya, V., Wirth, R., Dobrzhinetskaya, L., Matzel, J., Jacobsen, B., Hutcheon, I., ... & Kovalyukh, M. (2013). New evidence of meteoritic origin of the Tunguska cosmic body. Planetary and Space Science, 84, 131-140.
    • Targhasa massif
L. N. Novoselova, A. Yu. Lyul (1986) Geochemical characteristics of iron silicides from Lower Cambrian reefal limestones, Krasnoyarsk. International Geology Review 28:114-118
    • Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District
      • Popigai impact crater
[Moissanite-6H] Gromilov, S. A., Afanasiev, V. P., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2018, August). Moissanites of the Popigai Astrobleme. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 481, No. 2, pp. 997-999). Pleiades Publishing.
  • Magadan Oblast
    • Kolyma River Basin
      • Degdekan rivulet
Plyashkevich, A.A., Minyuk, P.S., Subbotnikova, T.V., Alshevsky, A.V. (2016): Newly Formed Minerals of the Fe–P–S System in Kolyma Fulgurite. Transactions (Doklady) of the Russian Academy of Sciences/Earth Science Section: 467" 380-383; (2016)
  • Murmansk Oblast
  • Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
    • Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky; Gor'kii)
M.I. Novgorodova data
[Mineralien Welt 6/92:62]
  • Primorsky Krai
    • Khanka lake
Molchanov, V. P., & Medvedev, E. I. (2011). Features of chemistry natural gold nanotubes (Primor’ye). Materials, methods and technologies (CD-ROM), 5(2), 263-269
    • Krasnoarmeysky District
      • Roshchino
Seliverstov V.A., Gorshkov A.I., Shcheka S.A., Sivtsov A.V. (1996) Diamonds and carbonadoof Primorskii Krai: mineralogy, crystal; chemistry and genesis, - Geologiya Rudnyh Mestorozhdenii, v.38, №6, p.485-499 (in Russian).
[World of Stones 12:49]
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    • Mirninsky District
      • Daldyn
Романенко, А. В., Алифирова, Т. А., Михайленко, Д. С., Головин, А. В., Корсаков, А. В., & Охфуджи, Х. ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЕ МУАССАНИТА В ГРАФИТСОДЕРЖАЩЕМ ОРТОПИРОКСЕНИТЕ ИЗ КИМБЕРЛИТОВОЙ ТРУБКИ УДАЧНАЯ. Сопредседатели оргкомитета, 497. (Origin of Moissanite in Graphite-bearing Orthopyroxenite from Udachnaya Kimberlite )
      • Vilyui River Basin (Vilui River Basin; Wilui River Basin)
        • Lower Khann'ya River
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Northern Yakutia
      • Olenyok (Olenek) river basin
Koval'skii, V.V., Oleinikov, O.B. (1985): Native metals and natural polymineralic alloys of copper, zinc, lead, tin and antimony in rocks from the "Leningrad" kimberlite pipe. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 285: 203-208; in: Hawthorne, F.C., Bladh, K.W., Burke, E.A.J., Grew, E.S., Langley, R.H., Puziewicz, J., Roberts, A.C., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A. (1987): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 72: 227
  • Tyumen Oblast
6th orogenic lherzolite conference 2014 Morocco; Yang, J., Meng, F., Xu, X., Robinson, P. T., Dilek, Y., Makeyev, A. B., ... & Cliff, J. (2015). Diamonds, native elements and metal alloys from chromitites of the Ray-Iz ophiolite of the Polar Urals. Gondwana Research, 27(2), 459-485.; Shmelev V.R., Perevozchikov B.V., Moloshag V.P. (2014) The Rai-Iz ophiolite massif in the Polar Urals: geology and chromite deposits. Field trip guidebook. 12th International Platinum Symposium. Yekaterinburg: IGG UB RAS, 2014. 44 р.
South Africa
  • Free State
    • Thabo Mofutsanyane District
      • Clocolan
Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 33-75.
  • Sughd
    • Gissar Range
Novgorodova M.I. (1996) Native magnesium and the problem of its genesis, - Geokhimiya, №1, p. 41-50 (in Rus.)
  • Çanakkale Province
    • Ayvacık District
Di Pierro, S., Gnos, E., Grobety, B.H., Armbruster, T., Bernasconi, S.M., Ulmer, P. (2004): Rock-forming moissanite (natural α-silicon carbide). Am. Mineral.: 88(11-12): pt. 1: 1817-1821
  • Izmir Province
Di Pierro, S., Gnos, E., Grobety, B.H., Armbruster, T., Bernasconi, S.M., and Ulmer, P. (2003) Rock-forming moissanite (natural alpha-silicon carbide). American Mineralogist: 88: 1817-1821.
  • Donetsk Oblast
    • Azov Sea Region
      • Eastern Azov area
Tatarintsev, V.I., Tsymbal, S.N., Sandomirskaya, S.M., Egorova, L.N., Vashtchenko, A.N., Khnyazkov, A.P. (1990): Iron-bearing manganese silicides from the Priazovye (USSR). Mineral. Zhurnal: 12 (6): 35-43 (in Russian); in: Jambor, J.L., Puziewicz, J. (1920): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 77: 1118
  • Kirovohrad Oblast
G.M.Yatsenko, Ye.M.Slyvko, A.I.Rosykhina(2000) Allied Mantle Components Of The Klyntsi Gold Zone And The Rivne Explosive Structures (the central part of the Ukrainian shield). Mineralogical Review pp 28-34; O.K.Babynin, A.G.Marchenko, Yu.F.Marchenko (2006) Object B3. Klyntsivske gold deposit. In International Field Workshop. IAGOD Field trip.
  • Mykolayiv Oblast
Nittler, L.R., C.M.O'D. Alexander, F.J. Stadermann, and E.K. Zinner (____) Presolar Al-, Ca-, and Ti-rich Oxide Grains in the Krymka Meteorite.
  • Arizona
    • Coconino County
      • Meteor Crater area
Am Min 77 (1992), 208
AmMin 48:620-634 (1963)
  • Kansas
    • McPherson Co.
Lee M R, Russell S S, Arden J W, Pillinger C T (1995) Nierite (Si3N4), a new mineral from ordinary and enstatite chondrites, Meteoritics, 30, 387-398
  • Wyoming
    • Green River Formation
[Moissanite-3C] REGIS, A.J. & L.B. SAND (1958): Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 69, 1633.
  • Tashkent
    • Chatkal-Kuraminskii Range
      • Koshmansay River
Yusupov, R.G. , et al. : Mavlyanovite, a new mineral species from a lamproite diatreme, Chatkal Ridge, Uzbekistan. Mineralogical Magazine 73,43-50 (2009).
Outer Space
European Journal of Mineralogy; December; v. 19; no. 6; p. 771-782; DOI: 10.1127/0935-1221/2007/0019-1766
The Moon
Frondel, J.W. (2009) Lunar Mineralogy, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 332 pages.
矿物 and/or 产地  
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