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Cnidaria

Description

Cnidaria is a phylum under Kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)43https://www.gbif.org/species/43
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)4524https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=4524
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Cnidaria
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Scientific NameCnidaria
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)10,352
Extant Size (PBDB)845 (8.2%)
First Recorded Appearance635 - 580 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Cnidarians, Coelenterates, Hydroids, Jellyfish
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Anthozoa
class
accepted64,505635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Cubozoa
class
acceptedBox Jellyfish1513 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Hydrozoa
class
accepted467635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Scyphozoa
class
acceptedJellyfish517635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Staurozoa
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bonatiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brooksellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cloudinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cryptolichenariidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dasyconidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gastroconidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hexactinomyxidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hiemaloriidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hydroconidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mawsonitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Olivooidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ormieractinomyxidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Saccosporidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sphaeractinomyxidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Synactinomyxidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tetractinomyxidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triactinomyxidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acanthocladium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Actinoseris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Allotrophiophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amblophyllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Andenipora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anicella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Antiguastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aplosastrea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archaeocyathellus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Armillifera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arumberia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aspidella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Auricoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ausia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Axophyllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Barycora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bergaueria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Blackbrookia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Boarella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bonata
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bosnopsammia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bovella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brachiolophus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bronicella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brooksella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Busella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calamosmilia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cambroctoconus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cambromedusa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Campanella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Carantoseris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cenomanosmilia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Centrastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chondroplon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chorisastrea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coenastrea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cordubia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cramborhiza
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassitubus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyathophoropsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyathopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyclocoenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyclogorgia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyclophylla
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dactylacis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dactylastrea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Delphinastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendrogorgia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendrostroma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dickinsonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diploastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Drymopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Duodecimedusina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Enallastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Episeris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eucrambessa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Favastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Floscula
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Geoporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glyphephyllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gonigoria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gonomeandrus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Graptopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hallidaya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Haloikema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Haootia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Harmodites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Helladastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hiemalora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hymenophyllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ichnusa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Isaura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Isocora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kentlandia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kiaerophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kirklandia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kuibisia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lasmogyra
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lasmophyllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leonura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leptopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leptoptilum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lobocoenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lonsdalia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lophoctenium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Medusina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Medusinites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Meganema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Melusina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesophylloides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mialsemia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microptilum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microseris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microstizia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Moyerolites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Muritella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nadalina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Namacalathus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nasepia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nectopilema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nettelrothia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nimbia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Octocoenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pachysammia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeoscia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paramphipora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pavonaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pericrypta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Peripalma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Perismilia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Petaloptyon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pholidophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phyllastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phyllozoon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Placocaeniopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Placoseris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Planomedusites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polypothecia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polystephanastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Priodon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prismostylus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Procharagma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Procharybdis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protovirgularia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudechinogorgia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudorhizostomites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudostylina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilacabaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pteromorpha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Quadratitubus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ramellina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ramitubus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhaphidopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rugoconites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Septastraeopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Shepshedia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Smithia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Soricimyxum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Staurinidia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanoptilum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stylaxis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stylidophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stylocora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Swartpuntia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tessera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thalamospongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thamnobeatricea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thecophyllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tiernavia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tremocoenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trismilia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ubaghsia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Veprina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Verrillia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Windermeria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zolotytsia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zonephyra
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Carnegiea bassleri
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chaetetes columnaris
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Columnaria alveolata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Columnaria disjuncta
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Columnaria helderbergiae
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Columnaria parvituba
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Columnaria thomii
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Denaphyllum denayensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Disticophyllia melnikovae
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Entelophylloides occidentalis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eridopora radiata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lyellia thebesensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Myriohyllia borrachensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paleophyllum gracile
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paleophyllum margaretae
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Propora lambei
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Propora nordica
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protarea richmondensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prychophyllum infundibulum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pycnopora ovatipora
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thamnastrea borealis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thecosmillia cumanensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tubulipora macnairi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wintanastraea stanleyi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Cyclozoa
class
Not linked to GBIF18635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
485 Ma
Cambrian
Melanofurcata
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Melanosteus
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Melanostylus
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Medusae
class
Not linked to GBIF29635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
501 Ma
Cambrian
Hiemalora
genus
Not linked to GBIF19extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Hydroconozoa
class
Not linked to GBIF13520 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Erniettamorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF19extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Ausia
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Ramellina
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Vauzutsubua
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Zolotytsia
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Xianguangia
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct520 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Spatangopsis
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct520 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Cloudinidae
family
Not linked to GBIF31635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
505 Ma
Cambrian
Myxozoa
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF0
Namacalathus
genus
Not linked to GBIF7extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
530 Ma
Cambrian
Aspidella
genus
Not linked to GBIF77extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
516 Ma
Cambrian
Priscapennamarina
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Conulata
class
Not linked to GBIF40extinct541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Ramitubus
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Sinocyclocyclicus
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Quadratitubus
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Crassitubus
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Cordilites
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct86.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Syringophyllum
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct433 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Haootia
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Medusozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF526extant635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Olivooidae
family
Not linked to GBIF1extinct541 Ma
Cambrian
530 Ma
Cambrian
Liaoningia
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1888Cnidaria Hatschek
1984Cnidaria Squires p. 14
1987Cnidaria Squires p. 19
1998Cnidaria Zrzavy et al.
2002Cnidaria Sepkoski, Jr.
2011Cnidaria Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Cnidaria Nielsen p. 45 figs. Fig. 4.2
2015Cnidaria Pacheco et al. p. 14

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Pacheco M. L. A.F., Galante D., et al (2015) Insights into the skeletonization, lifestyle, and affinity of the unusual Ediacaran fossil Corumbella, PLoS One 10 3, e0114219
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Cairns, Stephen D., 1999: Species richness of recent Scleractinia. Atoll Research Bulletin, no. 59. 1-46. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,..., 2002: Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Moore, Raymond C., 1956: null. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F: Coelenterata. xx + F1-F498. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Daly, M., M.R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A.G. Collins, M.N. Dawson, D.G. Fautin, S.C. France, C.S. McFadden, D.M. Opresko, E. Rodriquez, S.L. Romano, J.L. Stake. (2007). The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa. (1668): 127-182. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Howson, C.M.; Picton, B.E. (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. ISBN 0-948150-06-8. vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Verrill, A. E. (1866). On the Polyps and Echinoderms of New England, with Descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. 10: 333-375. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Gegenbaur, C. (1857). Versuch eines Systems der Medusen, mit Beschreibung neuer oder wenig gekannter Formen; zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Fauna des Mittelmeeres. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig 8: 202-273, pls 7-9. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Götte, A. (1887). Entwickelungsgeschichte der Aurelia aurita und Cotylorhiza tuberculata. Abhandlungen zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Tiere. 4, 1–79; 9 plates. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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