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Cnidaria

Description

Cnidaria is a phylum under Kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)43https://www.gbif.org/species/43
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)4524https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=4524
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Cnidaria
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
phylumCnidariaHatschek 1888
Scientific NameCnidaria
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Cnidariasubphylumbelongs to Coelenteratastated without evidenceSquires, 1984
Cnidariaphylumbelongs to Epitheliozoastated without evidenceZrzavy et al., 1998
Cnidariaphylumbelongs to Metazoasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Cnidariaphylumbelongs to Metazoastated without evidenceEdgecombe et al., 2011
Cnidariaphylumbelongs to Neuraliastated without evidenceNielsen, 2012
Cnidariaphylumbelongs to Metazoastated with evidencePacheco et al., 2015
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)10,352
Extant Size (PBDB)845 (8.2%)
First Recorded Appearance635 - 580 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Nässeldjur, Cnidarians, Coelenterates, Cnidaires, Coelentérés, Anêmona, Caravela, Cnidario, Coral, Hidra, água Viva, Cnidarien, Coelenteraten, Hohltiere, Nesseltiere, Hydroids, Jellyfish, Neteldieren, 刺胞動物
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Medusozoa
subphylum
listed (PBDB)526635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Anthozoa
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
64,505635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Conulata
class
listed (PBDB)40541 Ma
Cambrian
530 Ma
Cambrian
Cubozoa
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Box Jellyfish1513 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Cyclozoa
class
listed (PBDB)18635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
501 Ma
Cambrian
Hydroconozoa
class
listed (PBDB)13520 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Hydrozoa
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
467635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Medusae
class
listed (PBDB)29635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
513 Ma
Cambrian
Scyphozoa
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Jellyfish517635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Staurozoa
class
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Erniettamorpha
order
listed (PBDB)19635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Bonatiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brooksellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cloudinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
31635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
507 Ma
Cambrian
Cryptolichenariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dasyconidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gastroconidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hexactinomyxidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hiemaloriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hydroconidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mawsonitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Olivooidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1541 Ma
Cambrian
541 Ma
Cambrian
Ormieractinomyxidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Saccosporidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sphaeractinomyxidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Synactinomyxidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tetractinomyxidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Triactinomyxidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Acanthocladium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Actinoseris
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Allotrophiophyllum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amblophyllia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Andenipora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anicella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Antiguastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Aplosastrea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Archaeocyathellus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Armillifera
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Arumberia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Aspidella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
77635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
520 Ma
Cambrian
Auricoma
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ausia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Axophyllia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Barycora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bergaueria
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Blackbrookia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Boarella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bonata
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bosnopsammia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bovella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brachiolophus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bronicella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Brooksella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Busella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Calamosmilia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cambroctoconus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cambromedusa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Campanella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carantoseris
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cenomanosmilia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Centrastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chondroplon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chorisastrea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Coenastrea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cordilites
genus
listed (PBDB)286.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cordubia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cramborhiza
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Crassitubus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Cyathophoropsis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cyathopora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cyclocoenia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cyclogorgia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cyclophylla
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dactylacis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dactylastrea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Delphinastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dendrogorgia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dendrostroma
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dickinsonia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Diploastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Drymopora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Duodecimedusina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Enallastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Episeris
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Escumasia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Eucrambessa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Favastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Floscula
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Geoporites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Glyphephyllia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gonigoria
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gonomeandrus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Graptopora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hallidaya
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Haloikema
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Haootia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Harmodites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Helladastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hiemalora
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
19635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Hymenophyllia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ichnusa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Isaura
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Isocora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kentlandia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kiaerophyllum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kirklandia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kuibisia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lasmogyra
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lasmophyllia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leonura
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leptopora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leptoptilum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Liaoningia
genus
listed (PBDB)
Lobocoenia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lonsdalia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lophoctenium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Medusina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Medusinites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Meganema
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Melanofurcata
genus
listed (PBDB)
Melanosteus
genus
listed (PBDB)
Melanostylus
genus
listed (PBDB)
Melusina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mesophylloides
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mesophyllum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mialsemia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Microptilum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Microseris
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Microstizia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Moyerolites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Muritella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nadalina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Namacalathus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Nasepia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nectopilema
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nettelrothia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nimbia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Octocoenia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pachysammia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Palaeoscia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Paramphipora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pavonaria
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pericrypta
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Peripalma
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Perismilia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Petaloptyon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pholidophyllum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phyllastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phyllozoon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Placocaeniopsis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Placoseris
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Planomedusites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Polypothecia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Polystephanastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Priodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Priscapennamarina
genus
listed (PBDB)
Prismostylus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Procharagma
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Procharybdis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Protovirgularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudechinogorgia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudorhizostomites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudostylina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Psilacabaria
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pteromorpha
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Quadratitubus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Ramellina
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Ramitubus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Rhabdopora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhaphidopora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rugoconites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Septastraeopsis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Shepshedia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sinocyclocyclicus
genus
listed (PBDB)1635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Smithia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Soricimyxum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spatangopsis
genus
listed (PBDB)3520 Ma
Cambrian
520 Ma
Cambrian
Staurinidia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stephanastraea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stephanoptilum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stylaxis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stylidophyllum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stylocora
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Swartpuntia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Syringophyllum
genus
listed (PBDB)1433 Ma
Silurian
433 Ma
Silurian
Tessera
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thalamospongia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thamnobeatricea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thecophyllia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tiernavia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tremocoenia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trismilia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ubaghsia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Vauzutsubua
genus
listed (PBDB)
Veprina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Verrillia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Windermeria
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Xianguangia
genus
listed (PBDB)2520 Ma
Cambrian
520 Ma
Cambrian
Zolotytsia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Zonephyra
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carnegiea bassleri
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chaetetes columnaris
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Columnaria alveolata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Columnaria disjuncta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Columnaria helderbergiae
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Columnaria parvituba
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Columnaria thomii
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Denaphyllum denayensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Disticophyllia melnikovae
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Entelophylloides occidentalis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eridopora radiata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lyellia thebesensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Myriohyllia borrachensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Paleophyllum gracile
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Paleophyllum margaretae
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Propora lambei
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Propora nordica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Protarea richmondensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Prychophyllum infundibulum
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pycnopora ovatipora
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thamnastrea borealis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Thecosmillia cumanensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tubulipora macnairi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Wintanastraea stanleyi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Myxozoa
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1888Cnidaria Hatschek
1984Cnidaria Squires p. 14
1987Cnidaria Squires p. 19
1998Cnidaria Zrzavy et al.
2002Cnidaria Sepkoski, Jr.
2011Cnidaria Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Cnidaria Nielsen p. 45 figs. Fig. 4.2
2015Cnidaria Pacheco et al. p. 14

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Pacheco M. L. A.F., Galante D., et al (2015) Insights into the skeletonization, lifestyle, and affinity of the unusual Ediacaran fossil Corumbella, PLoS One 10 3, e0114219
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Cairns, Stephen D., 1999: Species richness of recent Scleractinia. Atoll Research Bulletin, no. 59. 1-46. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,..., 2002: Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Moore, Raymond C., 1956: null. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F: Coelenterata. xx + F1-F498. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Daly, M., M.R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A.G. Collins, M.N. Dawson, D.G. Fautin, S.C. France, C.S. McFadden, D.M. Opresko, E. Rodriquez, S.L. Romano, J.L. Stake. (2007). The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa. (1668): 127-182. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
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Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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