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Scyphozoa

Description

The Scyphozoa are an exclusively marine class of the phylum Cnidaria, referred to as the true jellyfish (or "true jellies"). It may include the extinct fossil group the Conulariida, whose affinities are uncertain and widely debated.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)352https://www.gbif.org/species/352
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)4535https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=4535
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Cnidaria : Scyphozoa
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
phylumCnidariaHatschek 1888
classScyphozoaGoette 1887
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameScyphozoa
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)116
Extant Size (PBDB)2 (1.7%)
First Recorded Appearance635 - 541 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Visionblind
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Jellyfish, Cup Animals, Jellyfishes, Scyphomedusae, Scyphozoans
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scyphozoa

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Coronatae
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhizostomeae
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Semaeostomeae
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Carinachitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Circonulariidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conulariellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conulariopsidae
family
accepted1251 Ma
Early Triassic
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Corumbellidae
family
accepted7635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Hexangulaconulariidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kimberellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pomoriidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhizostomitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Beijingoconularia
genus
accepted1279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Cheliconularia
genus
accepted2296 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Circonularia
genus
accepted0
Climacoconus
genus
accepted2461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Conchopeltis
genus
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Conomedusites
genus
accepted3635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Corumbella
genus
accepted7635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Ediacaria
genus
accepted9635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
485 Ma
Cambrian
Eoconularia
genus
accepted3478 Ma
Early Ordovician
445 Ma
Late Ordovician
Garraconularia
genus
accepted0
Haplorhiza
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hexangulaconularia
genus
accepted3541 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Mawsonites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pustuloconularia
genus
accepted2260 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Selindeochrea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinusconularia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stellostomites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tirasiana
genus
accepted5635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
530 Ma
Cambrian
Vendoconularia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dactyloidites asteroides
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dactyloidites edsoni
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyolithoconularia striata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Coronatida
order
Not linked to GBIF1extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Semaeostomatida
order
Not linked to GBIF2extant513 Ma
Cambrian
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Lithorhizostomatida
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Rhizostomatida
order
Not linked to GBIF1extinct242 Ma
Middle Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Metaconularia
genus
Not linked to GBIF18extinct466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Conulariida
order
Not linked to GBIF396extinct488 Ma
Cambrian
201 Ma
Early Jurassic

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1887Scyphozoa Goette
1998Scyphozoa Barnes p. 185
2002Scyphozoa Sepkoski, Jr.
2013Scyphozoa Kayal et al.
2015Scyphozoa Pacheco et al. p. 14

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Kayal E., Roure B., et al (2013) Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics, BMC Evolutionary Biology 13, 5
Pacheco M. L. A.F., Galante D., et al (2015) Insights into the skeletonization, lifestyle, and affinity of the unusual Ediacaran fossil Corumbella, PLoS One 10 3, e0114219
Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,..., 2002: Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
MARYMEGAN DALY, MERCER R. BRUGLER, PAULYN CARTWRIGHT, ALLEN G. COLLINS, MICHAEL N. DAWSON, DAPHNE G. FAUTIN, SCOTT C. FRANCE, CATHERINE S. MCFADDEN, DENNIS M. OPRESKO, ESTEFANIA RODRIGUEZ, SANDRA L. ROMANO & JOEL L. STAKE (2007) The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (Eds) (2007) Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668, 1–766. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Marques, Antonio C., and Allen G. Collins, 2004: Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution. Invertebrate Biology, vol. 123, no. 1. 23-42. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Moore, Raymond C., 1956: null. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F: Coelenterata. xx + F1-F498. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Howson, C.M.; Picton, B.E. (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. ISBN 0-948150-06-8. vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Howson, C.M.; Picton, B.E. (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. ISBN 0-948150-06-8. vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Cornelius, P.F.S. (2001). Cubozoa, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 111 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kayal, E.; Roure, B.; Philippe, H.; Collins, A. G.; Lavrov, D. V. (2013). Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics. BMC Evol Biol. 13(1): 5. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Cornelius, P.F.S. (2001). Cubozoa, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 111 - via World Register of Marine Species
Kayal, E.; Roure, B.; Philippe, H.; Collins, A. G.; Lavrov, D. V. (2013). Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics. BMC Evol Biol. 13(1): 5. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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