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Scyphozoa

Description

The Scyphozoa are an exclusively marine class of the phylum Cnidaria, referred to as the true jellyfish (or "true jellies"). It may include the extinct fossil group the Conulariida, whose affinities are uncertain and widely debated.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)352https://www.gbif.org/species/352
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)4535https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=4535
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Cnidaria : Scyphozoa
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
phylumCnidariaHatschek 1888
classScyphozoaGoette 1887
Common Namejellyfish
Scientific NameScyphozoa
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Scyphozoaclassbelongs to CnidariaimpliedBarnes, 1998
Scyphozoaclassbelongs to Cnidariasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Scyphozoaclassbelongs to Medusozoastated with evidenceKayal et al., 2013
Scyphozoaclassbelongs to Cnidariastated with evidencePacheco et al., 2015
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)116
Extant Size (PBDB)2 (1.7%)
First Recorded Appearance635 - 541 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Visionblind
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Jellyfish, Méduses, Cifozoa, Cifozoário, Meduza, água Viva, Cup Animals, Jellyfishes, Maneter, Dikya, Qualle, Scheibenquallen, Schirmquallen, Scyphozoen, Alforreca, Grumers, Kurage, Kwallen, Medusas, Meduse, Meduses, Méduse, Schijfkwallen, Scyphomedusae, Scyphozoans, Ubur-ubur, água-viva, 鉢虫
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scyphozoa

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Conulariida
order
listed (PBDB)396488 Ma
Cambrian
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Coronatae
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
58541 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Coronatida
order
listed (PBDB)1513 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Lithorhizostomatida
order
listed (PBDB)
Rhizostomatida
order
listed (PBDB)1242 Ma
Middle Triassic
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Rhizostomeae
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Semaeostomatida
order
listed (PBDB)2513 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Semaeostomeae
order
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carinachitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Circonulariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Conulariellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Conulariopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1251 Ma
Early Triassic
251 Ma
Early Triassic
Corumbellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Hexangulaconulariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kimberellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pomoriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhizostomitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Adesmoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Anaconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Archaeoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9479 Ma
Early Ordovician
458 Ma
Late Ordovician
Australoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Beijingoconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1279 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Cheliconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2296 Ma
Permian
296 Ma
Permian
Circonularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Climacoconus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
452 Ma
Late Ordovician
Conchopeltis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Conomedusites
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Conulariella
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2541 Ma
Cambrian
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Conularina
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Corumbella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Ctenoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1408 Ma
Early Devonian
408 Ma
Early Devonian
Ediacaria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
501 Ma
Cambrian
Eoconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3478 Ma
Early Ordovician
453 Ma
Late Ordovician
Exoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
11467 Ma
Middle Ordovician
456 Ma
Late Ordovician
Garraconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Glyptoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Haplorhiza
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hexangulaconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3541 Ma
Cambrian
541 Ma
Cambrian
Holoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Mabianoconullus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Mawsonites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mesoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10408 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Metaconularia
genus
listed (PBDB)18466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
423 Ma
Silurian
Palaenigma
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pseudoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
458 Ma
Late Ordovician
Pustuloconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2260 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Reticulaconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Selindeochrea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sinusconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sphenothallus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17520 Ma
Cambrian
345 Ma
Carboniferous
Stellostomites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tasmanoconularia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1450 Ma
Late Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Tirasiana
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Vendoconularia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dactyloidites asteroides
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dactyloidites edsoni
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hyolithoconularia striata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1887Scyphozoa Goette
1998Scyphozoa Barnes p. 185
2002Scyphozoa Sepkoski, Jr.
2013Scyphozoa Kayal et al.
2015Scyphozoa Pacheco et al. p. 14

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Kayal E., Roure B., et al (2013) Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics, BMC Evolutionary Biology 13, 5
Pacheco M. L. A.F., Galante D., et al (2015) Insights into the skeletonization, lifestyle, and affinity of the unusual Ediacaran fossil Corumbella, PLoS One 10 3, e0114219
Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,..., 2002: Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
MARYMEGAN DALY, MERCER R. BRUGLER, PAULYN CARTWRIGHT, ALLEN G. COLLINS, MICHAEL N. DAWSON, DAPHNE G. FAUTIN, SCOTT C. FRANCE, CATHERINE S. MCFADDEN, DENNIS M. OPRESKO, ESTEFANIA RODRIGUEZ, SANDRA L. ROMANO & JOEL L. STAKE (2007) The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (Eds) (2007) Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668, 1–766. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Marques, Antonio C., and Allen G. Collins, 2004: Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution. Invertebrate Biology, vol. 123, no. 1. 23-42. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Moore, Raymond C., 1956: null. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F: Coelenterata. xx + F1-F498. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Howson, C.M.; Picton, B.E. (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. ISBN 0-948150-06-8. vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Cornelius, P.F.S. (2001). Cubozoa, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 111 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kayal, E.; Roure, B.; Philippe, H.; Collins, A. G.; Lavrov, D. V. (2013). Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics. BMC Evol Biol. 13(1): 5. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Cornelius, P.F.S. (2001). Cubozoa, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 111 - via World Register of Marine Species
Kayal, E.; Roure, B.; Philippe, H.; Collins, A. G.; Lavrov, D. V. (2013). Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics. BMC Evol Biol. 13(1): 5. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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