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Anthozoa

Description

Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates which includes the sea anemones, stony corals and soft corals. Adult anthozoans are almost all attached to the seabed, while their larvae can disperse as part of the plankton. The basic unit of the adult is the polyp; this consists of a cylindrical column topped by a disc with a central mouth surrounded by tentacles. Sea anemones are mostly solitary, but the majority of corals are colonial, being formed by the budding of new polyps from an original, founding individual. Colonies are strengthened by calcium carbonate and other materials and take various massive, plate-like, bushy or leafy forms.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)206https://www.gbif.org/species/206
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)4742https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=4742
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
phylumCnidariaHatschek 1888
classAnthozoaEhrenberg 1834
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameAnthozoa
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)9,923
Extant Size (PBDB)815 (8.2%)
First Recorded Appearance635 - 541 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Motilitystationary, attached
Visionblind
Dietmicrocarnivore
Ecospace CommentsECOSPACE CODE: 261
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Anthozoans, Flower Animals
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthozoa

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Actiniaria
order
acceptedSea Anemone20635 Ma
Neoproterozoic
0 Ma
Extant
Alcyonacea
order
accepted4370.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Antipatharia
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Corallimorpharia
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heliolitina
order
accepted1,199470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Helioporacea
order
accepted106161 Ma
Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Penicillaria
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pennatulacea
order
acceptedSea Pen10.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Scleractinia
order
acceptedStony Coral36,659269 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Spirularia
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zoantharia
order
accepted36,664516 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Acanthigorgiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acervulariidae
family
accepted48450 Ma
Late Ordovician
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Acrophyllidae
family
accepted15419 Ma
Early Devonian
361 Ma
Late Devonian
Adamanophyllidae
family
accepted1336 Ma
Carboniferous
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Agetolitidae
family
accepted67461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Alveolitidae
family
accepted1,040443 Ma
Silurian
254 Ma
Permian
Amplexidae
family
accepted342450 Ma
Late Ordovician
254 Ma
Permian
Amsdenoididae
family
accepted5443 Ma
Silurian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Anisophyllidae
family
accepted3443 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Antiphyllidae
family
accepted228359 Ma
Late Devonian
252 Ma
Permian
Aphrophyllidae
family
accepted28359 Ma
Late Devonian
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Arachnanthidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arachnophyllidae
family
accepted60443 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Auloheliidae
family
accepted5272 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Aulophyllidae
family
accepted472439 Ma
Silurian
254 Ma
Permian
Auloporidae
family
accepted385461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
254 Ma
Permian
Axophyllidae
family
accepted135359 Ma
Late Devonian
265 Ma
Permian
Bajgoliidae
family
accepted18461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Bethanyphyllidae
family
accepted47393 Ma
Early Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Billingsariidae
family
accepted57472 Ma
Early Ordovician
433 Ma
Silurian
Bogambirolitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bothrophyllidae
family
accepted137372 Ma
Late Devonian
279 Ma
Permian
Calceolidae
family
accepted1419 Ma
Early Devonian
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Calostylidae
family
accepted33466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Campophyllidae
family
accepted17441 Ma
Silurian
260 Ma
Permian
Centristelidae
family
accepted2388 Ma
Middle Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Chonophyllidae
family
accepted35443 Ma
Silurian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Chonostegitidae
family
accepted3393 Ma
Early Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Cleistoporidae
family
accepted52439 Ma
Silurian
252 Ma
Permian
Clisiophyllidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coccoserididae
family
accepted117461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
427 Ma
Silurian
Coenitidae
family
accepted279443 Ma
Silurian
354 Ma
Carboniferous
Columnariidae
family
accepted76461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
272 Ma
Permian
Combophyllidae
family
accepted5408 Ma
Early Devonian
392 Ma
Middle Devonian
Cothoniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Craspedophyllidae
family
accepted0
Cyathactidae
family
accepted0
Cyathaxoniidae
family
accepted97433 Ma
Silurian
260 Ma
Permian
Cyathophyllidae
family
accepted180450 Ma
Late Ordovician
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Cyathopsidae
family
accepted307393 Ma
Early Devonian
265 Ma
Permian
Cyrtophyllidae
family
accepted29461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Cystiphyllidae
family
accepted484443 Ma
Silurian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Diffingiidae
family
accepted68299 Ma
Carboniferous
272 Ma
Permian
Digonophyllidae
family
accepted105423 Ma
Silurian
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Disphyllidae
family
accepted897443 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Ditoecholasmatidae
family
accepted4453 Ma
Late Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Dorlodotidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Durhaminidae
family
accepted195323 Ma
Carboniferous
260 Ma
Permian
Ekvasophyllidae
family
accepted120365 Ma
Late Devonian
299 Ma
Carboniferous
Endamplexidae
family
accepted4272 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Endophyllidae
family
accepted69443 Ma
Silurian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Endotheciidae
family
accepted2272 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Entelophyllidae
family
accepted144450 Ma
Late Ordovician
392 Ma
Middle Devonian
Eridophyllidae
family
accepted115450 Ma
Late Ordovician
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Eupsammiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Evenkiellidae
family
accepted0
Expressophyllidae
family
accepted20443 Ma
Silurian
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Fasciphyllidae
family
accepted37423 Ma
Silurian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Favositidae
family
accepted2,968470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
232 Ma
Late Triassic
Fletcheriellidae
family
accepted34461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Fletcheriidae
family
accepted27466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Geyerophyllidae
family
accepted52347 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Goniophyllidae
family
accepted140443 Ma
Silurian
382 Ma
Late Devonian
Gorskyitidae
family
accepted22299 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Hadrophyllidae
family
accepted15409 Ma
Early Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Halliidae
family
accepted54443 Ma
Silurian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Halysitidae
family
accepted806488 Ma
Cambrian
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Hapsiphyllidae
family
accepted520450 Ma
Late Ordovician
252 Ma
Permian
Heliolitidae
family
accepted585470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Heterophylliidae
family
accepted40419 Ma
Early Devonian
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Holmophyllidae
family
accepted61443 Ma
Silurian
392 Ma
Middle Devonian
Huadianophyllidae
family
accepted2279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Kepingophyllidae
family
accepted47304 Ma
Carboniferous
260 Ma
Permian
Ketophyllidae
family
accepted43450 Ma
Late Ordovician
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Kielcephyllidae
family
accepted3372 Ma
Late Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Kilbuchophyllidae
family
accepted1458 Ma
Late Ordovician
452 Ma
Late Ordovician
Kiziliidae
family
accepted7345 Ma
Carboniferous
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Kleopatrinidae
family
accepted375359 Ma
Late Devonian
268 Ma
Permian
Kodonophyllidae
family
accepted72443 Ma
Silurian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Koninckocariniidae
family
accepted6307 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Kozlowskiocystiidae
family
accepted0
Kyphophyllidae
family
accepted376450 Ma
Late Ordovician
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Laccophyllidae
family
accepted245443 Ma
Silurian
254 Ma
Permian
Lambelasmatidae
family
accepted31468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Lamottiidae
family
accepted2468 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Lichenariidae
family
accepted54485 Ma
Cambrian
443 Ma
Silurian
Lindstroemiidae
family
accepted17441 Ma
Silurian
260 Ma
Permian
Lipoporidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lithostrotionidae
family
accepted635450 Ma
Late Ordovician
272 Ma
Permian
Lonsdaleiidae
family
accepted16347 Ma
Carboniferous
254 Ma
Permian
Lophophyllidae
family
accepted67359 Ma
Late Devonian
252 Ma
Permian
Lophophyllidiidae
family
accepted449345 Ma
Carboniferous
252 Ma
Permian
Lophotichiidae
family
accepted171318 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Lykophyllidae
family
accepted142456 Ma
Late Ordovician
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Lyoporidae
family
accepted201472 Ma
Early Ordovician
433 Ma
Silurian
Metriophyllidae
family
accepted75443 Ma
Silurian
252 Ma
Permian
Micheliniidae
family
accepted471450 Ma
Late Ordovician
252 Ma
Permian
Mirandellidae
family
accepted7299 Ma
Carboniferous
269 Ma
Permian
Mucophyllidae
family
accepted126443 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Multisoleniidae
family
accepted115450 Ma
Late Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Multithecoporidae
family
accepted106441 Ma
Silurian
252 Ma
Permian
Muriceidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mycophyllidae
family
accepted0
Neocolumnariidae
family
accepted1408 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Neoroemeriidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Numidiaphyllidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pachyporidae
family
accepted1,180445 Ma
Late Ordovician
252 Ma
Permian
Palaeacidae
family
accepted32365 Ma
Late Devonian
260 Ma
Permian
Palaeocyclidae
family
accepted39458 Ma
Late Ordovician
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Palaeofavosiporidae
family
accepted1408 Ma
Early Devonian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Palaeoporitidae
family
accepted20461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Palaeosmiliidae
family
accepted106365 Ma
Late Devonian
260 Ma
Permian
Paleoalveolitidae
family
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Paleocyclidae
family
accepted4443 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Paliphyllidae
family
accepted26461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
423 Ma
Silurian
Parastriatoporidae
family
accepted128453 Ma
Late Ordovician
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Pentaphyllidae
family
accepted259443 Ma
Silurian
252 Ma
Permian
Periphaceloporidae
family
accepted1290 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Petalaxidae
family
accepted181359 Ma
Late Devonian
265 Ma
Permian
Petraiidae
family
accepted6456 Ma
Late Ordovician
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Petraphyllidae
family
accepted2272 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Phillipsastraeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phillipsastreidae
family
accepted696419 Ma
Early Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Plasmoporellidae
family
accepted67461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Plasmoporidae
family
accepted87461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Plerodiffiidae
family
accepted2296 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Plerophyllidae
family
accepted197408 Ma
Early Devonian
252 Ma
Permian
Polycoeliidae
family
accepted111443 Ma
Silurian
252 Ma
Permian
Porastriatoporidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protozaphrentidae
family
accepted6408 Ma
Early Devonian
371 Ma
Late Devonian
Pseudocladochomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudocladochonidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudofavositidae
family
accepted22323 Ma
Carboniferous
252 Ma
Permian
Pseudopavonidae
family
accepted35347 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Pseudoplasmoporidae
family
accepted14443 Ma
Silurian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Ptenophyllidae
family
accepted640443 Ma
Silurian
269 Ma
Permian
Ptychodactidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ptychophyllidae
family
accepted65450 Ma
Late Ordovician
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Pycnolithidae
family
accepted6461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
439 Ma
Silurian
Pycnostylidae
family
accepted97450 Ma
Late Ordovician
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Pyrgiidae
family
accepted204443 Ma
Silurian
260 Ma
Permian
Pyrigiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Roemeriidae
family
accepted84433 Ma
Silurian
268 Ma
Permian
Romanophyllidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Romingeriidae
family
accepted40443 Ma
Silurian
371 Ma
Late Devonian
Schizophoritidae
family
accepted4296 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Septodaeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sibiriolitidae
family
accepted16461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Sinoporidae
family
accepted35450 Ma
Late Ordovician
260 Ma
Permian
Spongophyllidae
family
accepted64443 Ma
Silurian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Stauriidae
family
accepted303488 Ma
Cambrian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Stelliporellidae
family
accepted70461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Stereolasmatidae
family
accepted192419 Ma
Early Devonian
345 Ma
Carboniferous
Sterictophyllidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Streptelasmatidae
family
accepted1,313488 Ma
Cambrian
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Streptelasmidae
family
accepted4472 Ma
Early Ordovician
427 Ma
Silurian
Stringophyllidae
family
accepted143423 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Syringolitidae
family
accepted15458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Syringophyllidae
family
accepted132470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Syringoporidae
family
accepted652461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
268 Ma
Permian
Tabulaconidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Taeniolitidae
family
accepted23461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Telestidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tetradiidae
family
accepted28461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Tetraporellidae
family
accepted119470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
269 Ma
Permian
Thamnoporidae
family
accepted1388 Ma
Middle Devonian
384 Ma
Middle Devonian
Theciidae
family
accepted96450 Ma
Late Ordovician
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Thecostegitidae
family
accepted21427 Ma
Silurian
290 Ma
Permian
Timorphyllidae
family
accepted35296 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Trachypsammiidae
family
accepted8296 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Tryplasmatidae
family
accepted369461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
272 Ma
Permian
Tryplasmidae
family
accepted0
Uraliniidae
family
accepted29365 Ma
Late Devonian
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Vaughaniidae
family
accepted0
Verbeekiellidae
family
accepted88359 Ma
Late Devonian
252 Ma
Permian
Vojnovskytesidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Waagenophyllidae
family
accepted854307 Ma
Carboniferous
252 Ma
Permian
Zaphrentidae
family
accepted323470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
260 Ma
Permian
Zaphrentoididae
family
accepted100408 Ma
Early Devonian
279 Ma
Permian
Acaciaporella
genus
accepted1272 Ma
Permian
269 Ma
Permian
Aiptasiodes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Antilacca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asterobillingsa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Axogaster
genus
accepted0
Bathybalva
genus
accepted0
Beugniesastraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Blinmanipora
genus
accepted1516 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Brachycaulia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calameustolia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cornwallatia
genus
accepted6299 Ma
Carboniferous
268 Ma
Permian
Cystihexagonaria
genus
accepted3383 Ma
Late Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Cystostylus
genus
accepted0
Decacoenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Decaphyllum
genus
accepted0
Dolopichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Drewerelasma
genus
accepted3359 Ma
Late Devonian
345 Ma
Carboniferous
Eastonastraea
genus
accepted1299 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Ellipsocyathus
genus
accepted0
Enallophrentis
genus
accepted3419 Ma
Early Devonian
384 Ma
Middle Devonian
Eolympia
genus
accepted1541 Ma
Cambrian
530 Ma
Cambrian
Fedorowskiella
genus
accepted1296 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Flindersipora
genus
accepted4516 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Gerolasma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glaessnerina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gymnophyllum
genus
accepted1315 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Harklessia
genus
accepted1516 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Hebukophyllum
genus
accepted0
Huayunophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Iranophylloides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Joachimastraea
genus
accepted1411 Ma
Early Devonian
408 Ma
Early Devonian
Krimella
genus
accepted172.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Laophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lasmophyllum
genus
accepted3296 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Lekanophyllum
genus
accepted18403 Ma
Early Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Lesliella
genus
accepted0
Liopora
genus
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
452 Ma
Late Ordovician
Lomaphyllum
genus
accepted1307 Ma
Carboniferous
299 Ma
Carboniferous
Mariaephyllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mictocystoides
genus
accepted1269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Mixogonaria
genus
accepted2380 Ma
Late Devonian
376 Ma
Late Devonian
Multimurinus
genus
accepted10299 Ma
Carboniferous
260 Ma
Permian
Neogrootia
genus
accepted1299 Ma
Carboniferous
296 Ma
Permian
Neostereostylus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neotimorphyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nonnegorgonides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Numidiaphyllum
genus
accepted1265 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Palaeocyathus
genus
accepted1426 Ma
Silurian
423 Ma
Silurian
Paracanthus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parairanophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parvaxon
genus
accepted1339 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Pentaphyllia
genus
accepted0
Pentaxon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Petilavenula
genus
accepted2479 Ma
Early Ordovician
472 Ma
Early Ordovician
Plagiosolenacis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Praetachylasma
genus
accepted5272 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Pragnellia
genus
accepted5456 Ma
Late Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Prodarwinia
genus
accepted1439 Ma
Silurian
433 Ma
Silurian
Pseudoheliastrea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudotetradium
genus
accepted1279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Rhipidophyllum
genus
accepted0
Richrathina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schlueteriphyllum
genus
accepted0
Selidolithus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Soetenia
genus
accepted0
Sokoloviella
genus
accepted1423 Ma
Silurian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Stauromatidium
genus
accepted6423 Ma
Silurian
408 Ma
Early Devonian
Stummelasma
genus
accepted19409 Ma
Early Devonian
392 Ma
Middle Devonian
Stylosmiliopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Syringocystis
genus
accepted4439 Ma
Silurian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Szechuanophyllum
genus
accepted47290 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Tectamichelinia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thomasiphyllum
genus
accepted13307 Ma
Carboniferous
260 Ma
Permian
Vischeria
genus
accepted0
Wexolina
genus
accepted3290 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Yatsengia
genus
accepted69290 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Zonophyllum
genus
accepted31411 Ma
Early Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Coccosoris astomata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendrobranchia bonsai
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendropora cumula
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendropora osculata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hinderastraea mcanultyi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Medusrephyllum confluens
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Medusrephyllum variabile
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites clava
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites clavatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites corallioides
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites cornutitergum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites fusticulus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites fusunculus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites hystrix
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites laminosus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites pedigerus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites perverrucosus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites scopula
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites speciosus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites tripes
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites verticillatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micralcyonarites vulgaris
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paleophyllum cateniforme
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parralleynia acclinis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stylastrea anna
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Syringocora leymeriei
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trabeulites keithae
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Stolonifera
order
Not linked to GBIF3extant0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Rugosa
subclass
Not linked to GBIF15,745extinct488 Ma
Cambrian
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hexacorallia
subclass
Not linked to GBIF5extant541 Ma
Cambrian
Octocorallia
subclass
Not linked to GBIF335extant513 Ma
Cambrian
Tabulata
subclass
Not linked to GBIF11,172extinct516 Ma
Cambrian
232 Ma
Late Triassic
Actiniae
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Pyxidophyllum
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct209 Ma
Late Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1834Anthozoa Ehrenberg
1984Anthozoa Squires p. 14
1987Anthozoa Squires p. 19
1988Anthozoa Edwards
1988Anthozoa Squires p. 6
1999Anthozoa Squires p. 9
2002Anthozoa Sepkoski, Jr.
2005Anthozoa López-Pérez p. 80
2013Anthozoa Kayal et al.

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Edwards J. C. (1988) Lamottia (Favositida, Tabulata) from Decorah Formation (Kirkfieldian, Ordovician) of Iowa, Journal of Paleontology 62 3, 424-426
Squires R. L. (1988) Eocene Macropaleontology of Northern Lockwood Valley, Ventura County, California, Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 398, 1-23
Kayal E., Roure B., et al (2013) Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics, BMC Evolutionary Biology 13, 5
Daly, M., M.R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A.G. Collins, M.N. Dawson, D.G. Fautin, S.C. France, C.S. McFadden, D.M. Opresko, E. Rodriquez, S.L. Romano, J.L. Stake. (2007). The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa. (1668): 127-182. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Ehrenberg, C. G. (1834). Beiträge zur physiologischen Kenntniss der Corallenthiere im allgemeinen, und besonders des rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin. 1: 225-380. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Manuel, R.L. (1981) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2015) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,..., 2002: Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Moore, Raymond C., 1956: null. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F: Coelenterata. xx + F1-F498. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Daly, M., M.R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A.G. Collins, M.N. Dawson, D.G. Fautin, S.C. France, C.S. McFadden, D.M. Opresko, E. Rodriquez, S.L. Romano, J.L. Stake. (2007). The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa. (1668): 127-182. - via World Register of Marine Species
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ehrenberg, C. G. (1834). Beiträge zur physiologischen Kenntniss der Corallenthiere im allgemeinen, und besonders des rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin. 1: 225-380. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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