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Serpentes

Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)Not linked to a GBIF record.
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)38069https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=38069
Rankunranked clade (PBDB)
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Serpentes
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SauropsidaHuxley 1864
classReptiliaLaurenti 1768
subclassEureptilia
-RomeriidaGauthier et al. 1988
-Diapsida
-Eosuchia
-NeodiapsidaBenton 1985
-SauriaGauthier 1984
-Lepidosauromorpha
superorderLepidosauria
orderSquamataOppel 1811
suborderOphidia
orderSerpentes
Common Namesnake
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Serpentessuborderbelongs to Squamatastated without evidenceHay, 1902
Serpentesordersubjective synonym of OphidiaimpliedRomer, 1966
Serpentessuborderbelongs to Squamatastated with evidenceKuhn, 1966
Serpentesorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceEstes and Berberian, 1970
Serpentesorderbelongs to Squamatastated with evidenceBenton, 1985
Serpentesorderbelongs to Scleroglossastated with evidenceEstes et al., 1988
Serpentesorderbelongs to SquamataimpliedCarroll, 1988
Serpentesorderbelongs to Squamatastated without evidenceHolman et al., 1991
Serpentesunranked cladebelongs to Ophidiastated with evidenceLee and Caldwell, 2000
Serpentesorderbelongs to Ophidiastated without evidenceLee and Scanlon, 2002
Serpentesunranked cladebelongs to ReptiliaimpliedAugé and Rage, 2006
Serpentesorderbelongs to SquamataimpliedVenczel and Stiuca, 2008
Serpentesunranked cladebelongs to Squamatastated without evidenceRage et al., 2008
Serpentesunranked cladebelongs to Toxicoferastated with evidencePyron et al., 2013
Serpentesorderbelongs to SquamataimpliedVianey-Liaud et al., 2014
Serpentesunranked cladebelongs to Ophidiastated with evidenceCaldwell et al., 2015
Serpentesorderbelongs to Squamatastated without evidenceStocker and Kirk, 2016
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)661
Extant Size (PBDB)262 (40%)
First Recorded Appearance168 - 165 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Environmentterrestrial (based on Diapsida)
Motilityactively mobile (based on Osteichthyes)
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)R. A. Stirton. 1953. Vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy in Colombia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 64:603-622

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Alethinophidia
infraorder
listed (PBDB)2,737105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Cholophidia
infraorder
listed (PBDB)10113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Scolecophidia
infraorder
listed (PBDB)4559.2 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Typhlopoidea
infraorder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Madtsoiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9999.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Diablophis
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2151 Ma
Late Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Dinilysia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
686.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Eophis
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Goinophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
330.8 Ma
Oligocene
26.3 Ma
Oligocene
Hoplocephalus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Lunaophis
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Ophidium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Portugalophis
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Snake1157 Ma
Jurassic
157 Ma
Jurassic
Protagras
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
150.3 Ma
Eocene
50.3 Ma
Eocene
Pseudonaja
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
42.59 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Tomodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Xiaophis
genus
listed (PBDB)199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1758Serpentes Linnaeus p. 613
1853Ophidion Pomel
1853Ophidion antiquus Pomel
1853Ophidioniscus Pomel
1853Ophidioniscus antiquus Pomel
1870Coluber steinheimensis Fraas p. 291
1880Botrophis de Rochebrune
1880Botrophis gaudryi de Rochebrune
1902Serpentes Hay p. 478
1966Serpentes Kuhn p. 59
1970Serpentes Estes and Berberian p. 6
1981Serpentes Thurmond and Jones p. 162
1985Serpentes Benton p. 157
1988Serpentes Carroll
YearName and Author
1988Serpentes Estes et al.
1991Serpentes Holman et al. p. 1
1996Serpentes Frank and Ramus
2000Serpentes Lee and Caldwell
2002Serpentes Lee and Scanlon
2006Serpentes Augé and Rage p. 244
2008Serpentes Rage et al. p. 391
2008Serpentes Venczel and Stiuca p. 755
2010Serpentes Wilson et al. p. 1
2013Serpentes Pyron et al.
2014Serpentes Vianey-Liaud et al. p. 575
2015Serpentes Caldwell et al.
2016Serpentes McCartney and Seiffert p. 2
2016Serpentes Stocker and Kirk

References

Stirton R. A. (1953) Vertebrate paleontology and continental stratigraphy in Colombia, Geological Society of America Bulletin 64, 603-622
Fraas O. Die Fauna von Steinheim. Mit Rücksicht auf die miocänen Säugethier- und Vogelreste des Steinheimer Beckens, Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg 26, 145-306
Hay O. P. (1902) , Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 179, 1-868
Kuhn O. W. M. (1966) , Die Reptilien. System und Stammesgeschichte [The Reptiles. Systematics and Phylogeny.], 1-154
Estes R., Berberian P. (1970) Paleoecology of a Late Cretaceous vertebrate community from Montana, Breviora 343, 1-35
Thurmond J. T., Jones D. E. (1981) , Fossil Vertebrates of Alabama, 1-244
Benton M. J. (1985) Classification and phylogeny of the diapsid reptiles, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 84 2, 97-164
Carroll R. L. (1988) , Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1-698
Estes R., de Queiroz K., et al (1988) Phylogenetic relationships within Squamata, Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families, 119-282
Holman J. A., Dockery D. T., et al (1991) Paleogene snakes of Mississippi, Mississippi Geology 11 1, 1-12
Frank N., Ramus E. (1996) A Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Reptiles and Amphibians of the World, 1-377
Lee M. S. Y., Caldwell M. W. (2000) Adriosaurus and the affinities of mosasaurs, dolichosaurs, and snakes, Journal of Paleontology 74 3, 915-937
Lee M. S. Y., Scanlon J. D. (2002) The Cretaceous marine squamate Mesoleptos and the origin of snakes, Bulletin of the Natural History Museum: Zoology 68 2, 131-142
Augé M., Rage J.-C. (2006) Herpetofaunas from the Upper Paleocene and Lower Eocene of Morocco, Annales de Paléontologie 92 3, 235-253 doi:10.1016/j.annpal.2005.09.001
Rage J.-C., Folie A., et al (2008) A diverse snake fauna from the early Eocene of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53 3, 391-403
Venczel M., Stiuca E. (2008) Late middle Miocene amphibians and squamate reptiles from Taut, Romania, Geodiversitas 30 4, 731-763
Wilson J. A., Mohabey D. M., et al (2010) Predation upon hatchling dinosaurs by a new snake from the Late Cretaceous of India, PLoS Biology 8 3, e1000322 doi:doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000322
Pyron R. A., Burbrink F. T., et al (2013) A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes, BMC Evolutionary Biology 13 1, 1-53 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-93
Vianey-Liaud M., Comte B., et al (2014) A new early late Oligocene (MP 26) continental vertebrate fauna from Saint-Privat-des-Vieux (Alès Basin, Gard, Southern France), Geodiversitas 36 4, 565-622 doi:10.5252/g2014n4a4
Caldwell M. W., Nydam R. L., et al (2015) The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution, Nature Communications 6 5996, 1-11 doi:10.1038/ncomms6996
McCartney J. A., Seiffert E. R. (2016) A late Eocene snake fauna from the Fayum Depression, Egypt, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 36 1, e1029580 doi:10.1080/02724634.2015.1029580
Stocker M. R., Kirk E. C. (2016) The first amphisbaenians from Texas, with notes on other squamates from the middle Eocene Purple Bench locality, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology e1094081, 1-15 doi:10.1080/02724634.2016.1094081
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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