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Trilobita ✝

Description

Trilobites ( ; meaning "three lobes") are a group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita. Trilobites form one of the earliest-known groups of arthropods. The first appearance of trilobites in the fossil record defines the base of the Atdabanian stage of the Early Cambrian period (521 million years ago), and they flourished throughout the lower Paleozoic era before beginning a drawn-out decline to extinction when, during the Devonian, all trilobite orders except the Proetids died out. Trilobites disappeared in the mass extinction at the end of the Permian about 252 million years ago. The trilobites were among the most successful of all early animals, existing in oceans for almost 300 million years.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)9273948https://www.gbif.org/species/9273948
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)19100https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=19100
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
subphylumMandibulata
classTrilobitaWalch 1771
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameTrilobita
Status (PBDB)extinct
Taxon Size (PBDB)9,247
First Recorded Appearance541 - 530 Ma
Cambrian
Last Recorded Appearance254 - 252 Ma
Permian
Environmentmarine
Motilityfast-moving
Dietcarnivore
Ontogenymolting,addition of parts
Ecospace CommentsECOSPACE CODE: 312. LIFE HISTORY: generally fast moving, surficial, detritivore
JA: originally entered as detritivorous, but primitively "predatory/scavenging" according to Fortey and Owens 1999 based on "morphological grounds" and "out-group comparison"
Taphonomylow Mg calcite, chitin
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Trilobite
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trilobita

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Agnostida
order
accepted5,060530 Ma
Cambrian
443 Ma
Silurian
Asaphida
order
accepted9,538516 Ma
Cambrian
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Aulacopleurida
order
accepted2,318541 Ma
Cambrian
254 Ma
Permian
Corynexochida
order
accepted5,168541 Ma
Cambrian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Harpetida
order
accepted0
Lichida
order
accepted1,439513 Ma
Cambrian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Odontopleurida
order
accepted1,267505 Ma
Cambrian
376 Ma
Late Devonian
Olenellida
order
accepted0
Phacopida
order
accepted10,283513 Ma
Cambrian
354 Ma
Carboniferous
Proetida
order
accepted5,310488 Ma
Cambrian
252 Ma
Permian
Proparia
order
accepted13516 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Ptychopariida
order
accepted4,084541 Ma
Cambrian
426 Ma
Silurian
Redlichiida
order
accepted1,986541 Ma
Cambrian
478 Ma
Early Ordovician
Emucarididae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jamrogiidae
family
accepted0
Liwiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Missisquoiidae
family
accepted44501 Ma
Cambrian
458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Namanoiidae
family
accepted6541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Naraoiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polycyrtaspididae
family
accepted9501 Ma
Cambrian
497 Ma
Cambrian
Sarkiidae
family
accepted1466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Sunaspididae
family
accepted13513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Agrauloides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aliger
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alsataspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amechilus
genus
accepted2485 Ma
Cambrian
479 Ma
Early Ordovician
Amgaspis
genus
accepted2513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Andesaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anomalocephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Antagmopleura
genus
accepted0
Apedopyanus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aphelaspidella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aponileus
genus
accepted0
Arduennops
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asaphoidichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Austrosinia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Avalonia
genus
accepted0
Avonaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Barrandia
genus
accepted43479 Ma
Early Ordovician
453 Ma
Late Ordovician
Bernicella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bicaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Blayacina
genus
accepted0
Boeckia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brabbia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bridgeia
genus
accepted0
Cambrunicornia
genus
accepted4513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Carniphillipsia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Catillicephalites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cavetia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coelaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conagraulos
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conocephalites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conoides
genus
accepted0
Costapyge
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dalarnepeltis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Danzhaina
genus
accepted7516 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Dasyleptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dechenelloides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Deltacare
genus
accepted5485 Ma
Cambrian
478 Ma
Early Ordovician
Deltophthalmus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dicellocephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dikellocephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dimorphichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diplozyga
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ecnomocaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Effnaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Emeraldella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Enontioura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Entomostracites
genus
accepted0
Entsyna
genus
accepted5501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Eopalpebralia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Euarthricocephalus
genus
accepted21516 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Fallagnostus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fitzroyaspis
genus
accepted7479 Ma
Early Ordovician
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Francenaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Franconicabole
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glossicephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glossocoryphus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gogoella
genus
accepted1479 Ma
Early Ordovician
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Goniopleura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hawkinsia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hemicrypturus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hesa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Holstonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Honanaspis
genus
accepted13513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Hsiaella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Idiorhapha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Indigestus
genus
accepted0
Jaylopygiella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Judaiella
genus
accepted0
Kanfuqingia
genus
accepted0
Karlia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kingstonioides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kinsabia
genus
accepted1501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Knechtelia
genus
accepted0
Kochiellina
genus
accepted2513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Latilorenzella
genus
accepted2513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Leptopilus
genus
accepted0
Levisia
genus
accepted0
Liaotungia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ligometopus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Litocodia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lonchinouyia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Loxoparia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Loxopeltis
genus
accepted2513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Mannschreekia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mcnairia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megalurites
genus
accepted0
Metapopristis
genus
accepted0
Metoptogyrus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micragraulos
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Milesdavis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mollisonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monomorphichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Moosia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mufushania
genus
accepted12516 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Mulciberaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Myoproetus
genus
accepted2419 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Namuraspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nathorstia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nehanniaspis
genus
accepted1541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Neomalungia
genus
accepted0
Neophillipsia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Norwoodina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ontoella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Opsypharus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parabriscoia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paracrepicephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paramenocephalites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parapalpebralia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paraphelaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paraphoreotropis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pararedlichia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Peculicephalina
genus
accepted1499 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Perissopyge
genus
accepted7541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Piedmontia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pilgrimia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Planolimbus
genus
accepted0
Plataspella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Preodontochile
genus
accepted1439 Ma
Silurian
433 Ma
Silurian
Protocaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudobergeronites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoclelandia
genus
accepted7485 Ma
Cambrian
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Pseudolisania
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudosalteria
genus
accepted0
Punctaspis
genus
accepted4501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Pusillabole
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pyraustocranium
genus
accepted1485 Ma
Cambrian
479 Ma
Early Ordovician
Quadratispina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Raymondarges
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reaganaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Redlichaspis
genus
accepted0
Rowia
genus
accepted0
Sapenion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sectigena
genus
accepted0
Sekwiaspis
genus
accepted3541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Semnocephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Septimopeltis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Serracaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sneedvillia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sohopleura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sonoraspis
genus
accepted3513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Sphaerocare
genus
accepted4497 Ma
Cambrian
478 Ma
Early Ordovician
Spinacephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spitsbergaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spizharaspis
genus
accepted1501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Strotocephalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Strototropis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Symphysurinella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Symphysuroides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Taxioura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tegopelte
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tholifrons
genus
accepted6501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Thomsonaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tontoia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trachoparia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trapelocera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trinepea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tropidaulus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Variopelta
genus
accepted3541 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Vistoia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yuehsienszella
genus
accepted0
Bolaspidellia prooculis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brassicephalus pulchellus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bronteus laphami
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia cava
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia curta
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia ectypa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia edwardsi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia exilis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia extensa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia intermedia
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia lingula
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burnetia pennsylvanica
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ceraurina glabra
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Clevelandia nitida
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Concephalina whitehallensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conocephalina vesta
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crytolithoides ulrichi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Flatheadia beveri
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gelasens acanthinos
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Geneviella campbellina
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hoytaspis speciosa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hupeaspis freboldi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marrella splendens
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megalaspis insculpta
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megalaspis minor
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micragaulos decorus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neuropteridium pusilla
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nilssonia typa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ontarion axitiosum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oriostoma bigsbyi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oriostoma dingxiangensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oriostoma irma
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paijenborchella peiensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeophyllum lisani
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paranesidea acerius
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parapuzosia dolon
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parapuzosia nitida
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Piazella tuberculata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Placohelia iddingsi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Portlockiella spinifera
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proetus tenuisulcatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proplina centronatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proplina iddingsi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proplina pustulosa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protarca alcon
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protarca typicalis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoprotophyllum belus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoprotophyllum dryope
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Shickshokia cristata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Shickshokia occidentalis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Staurocephalus lagena
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Staurocephalus oarion
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanapsis avitus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanapsis bispinosa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tannodiscus balanus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Telaeomarrolithus intermedius
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wannerina longoculata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wilsonella pennsylvanica
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zacanthiodes submuticus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Naraoiida
order
Not linked to GBIF1extinct497 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Harpida
order
Not linked to GBIF401extinct501 Ma
Cambrian
376 Ma
Late Devonian
Libristoma
subclass
Not linked to GBIF4,084extinct541 Ma
Cambrian
426 Ma
Silurian
Eutrilobita
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Remopleuridacea
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF1extinct494 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Early Ordovician
Eodiscida
order
Not linked to GBIF387extinct541 Ma
Cambrian
439 Ma
Silurian
Opisthoparia
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Atopidae
family
Not linked to GBIF4extinct530 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Ogygiocaridinae
subfamily
Not linked to GBIF1extinct461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Olenida
order
Not linked to GBIF3,128extinct520 Ma
Cambrian
444 Ma
Silurian

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1771Trilobita Walch
1869Dalmanites troosti Safford
1933Trilobita Phleger, Jr. p. 11
1935Trilobita Mason p. 102
1952Trilobita Riccio p. 29
1968Trilobita Robison and Pantoja-Alor p. 775
1992Trilobita Bengtson p. 1022
YearName and Author
1997Trilobita Sundberg and McCollum p. 1071
2001Trilobita McMenamin p. 114
2002Trilobita Sepkoski, Jr.
2007Trilobita Kihm and St. John
2008Trilobita Briggs et al. p. 249
2012Trilobita Nielsen p. 244 figs. Fig. 44.2

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Briggs D. E. G., Lieberman B. S., et al (2008) Middle Cambrian arthropods from Utah, Journal of Paleontology 82 2, 238-254
McMenamin M. A. S. (2001) New trilobites from the Campito Formation of the White-Inyo Mountains, Paleontology Sonora: Lipalian and Cambrian, 114-116
Sundberg F. A., McCollum L. B. (1997) Oryctocephalids (Corynexochida: Trilobita) of the Lower-Middle Cambrian boundary interval from California and Nevada, Journal of Paleontology 77 6, 1065-1090
Bengtson S. (1992) Proterozoic and earliest Cambrian skeletal metazoans, The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study, 1017-1034
Robison R. A., Pantoja-Alor J. (1968) Tremadocian trilobites from the Nochixtlan Region, Oaxaca, Mexico, Journal of Paleontology 42 3, 767-800
Riccio J. F. (1952) The Lower Cambrian Olenellidae of the southern Marble Mountains, California, Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 51 2, 25-49
Mason J. F. (1935) Fauna of the Cambrian Cadiz Formation, Marble Mountains, California, Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 34 2, 97-120
Phleger, Jr. F. B. (1933) Notes on certain Ordovician faunas of the Inyo Mountains, California, Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 32 1, 1-21
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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