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Foraminifera

Description

Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials. Tests of chitin (found in some simple genera, and Textularia in particular) are believed to be the most primitive type. Most foraminifera are marine, the majority of which live on or within the seafloor sediment (i.e., are benthic), while a smaller variety float in the water column at various depths (i.e., are planktonic). Fewer are known from freshwater or brackish conditions, and some very few (nonaquatic) soil species have been identified through molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)8376456https://www.gbif.org/species/8376456
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)71228https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=71228
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Chromista : Foraminifera
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Foraminifera
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
Life
EukaryotaChatton 1925
Rhizaria
phylumRetariaCavalier-Smith 1999
phylumForaminifera(d'Orbigny 1826)
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameForaminifera
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)4,680
Extant Size (PBDB)984 (21%)
First Recorded Appearance635 - 541 Ma
Neoproterozoic
Motilitystationary
Dietomnivore
Ecospace Commentsmost forams are probably omnivore, so this set as default
Primary Reference (PBDB)C. Cervato. 2005. personal opinion.
Common Name(s) Foram, Foraminiferans, Forams, Hole Bearers
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foraminifera

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Globothalamea
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monothalamea
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tubothalamea
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Involutinida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lagenida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aljutovellidae
family
accepted1323 Ma
Carboniferous
315 Ma
Carboniferous
Ammarchaediscidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Baituganellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Boultoniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calcisphaeridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cribrosphaeroididae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dainellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dunbarulidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Endothyranopsidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoendothyranopsidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eonodosariidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eosigmoilinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fusulinellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Globivalvulinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Globoendothyridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Haplophragminidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Howchiniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Insolentithecidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Irregularinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Janischewskinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Koktjubinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Koskinotextulariidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Laxoendothyridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lituotubellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Misellinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mstiniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nanicellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nankinellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polydiexodinidae
family
accepted120290 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Profusulinellidae
family
accepted55323 Ma
Carboniferous
299 Ma
Carboniferous
Pseudofusulinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudopalmulidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudostaffellidae
family
accepted48323 Ma
Carboniferous
299 Ma
Carboniferous
Quasiendothyridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reichelinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Septabrunsiinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spireitlinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tournayellinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triticitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yangchieniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aboudaragina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Abriolina
genus
accepted6247 Ma
Early Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Adhaerentina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Adherentina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aeolides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aguayoina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alanyana
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Allotheca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alveoclavulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ammonema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ammosphaeroides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amphitrema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Annulina
genus
accepted2191 Ma
Early Jurassic
152 Ma
Late Jurassic
Ansa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aoujgalia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archaeoglobitruncana
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arethusa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aristeropora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aristerospira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aspidodexia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aspidospira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asymetria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aulostomella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Auriculina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Balanulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Birbalina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bivertella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bolbodium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Buccinina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Buliminopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cactos
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calatharia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cameroconus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caninina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Canopus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cantharus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cavifera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cayeuxina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cerataria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ceriopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chelibs
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cidarollus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cochleatina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Colpopleura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conicocornuspira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cortalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coskinolinella
genus
accepted2112 Ma
Early Cretaceous
109 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Crambis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crateriola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crustula
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cucurbitina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyclopavonina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cylindria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendropela
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dexiopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dexiospira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diaphoropodon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diplosphaerella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diplostoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Discorbula
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Disonella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dujardinia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echinogromia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ecuadorota
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Elliptina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Enantioamphicoryna
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Encorycium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Endothyrina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoceratobulimina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoflabellina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoheterohelix
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Epistominites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Falsella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Flectospiroides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foliotortus
genus
accepted8228 Ma
Late Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Fourstonella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fujimotoella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glandiolus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Grammobotrys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Grozdilovella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Guembelia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hemisterea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hemisticta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heterostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hipporina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hukawngia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hybridina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hydromylina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Irrawaddia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jurassorotalia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kutaungia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kyatsokia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lacazopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lagenopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lagunculina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lazarusina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lekithiammina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepista
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leptodermella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Linguloglandulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Linthuris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lobularia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Luxapertus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lycophris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lyrina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Macrodites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marenda
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mariannenina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marzoella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megathyra
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesania
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microevolutinella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Millettella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mirfa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mirga
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Misilus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Molnaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monogenerina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Multifarina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nautilina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neusina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nodoplanulis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nodulinella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nummulostegina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oberhauserina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Octonoradiolus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Olympina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oncobotrys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ondogordius
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orbignynoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ormathascia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Otostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ovolina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pectinaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pentasyderina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Periples
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phanerostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Physomphalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Platyoecus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pleurites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pleurostomina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pleurotrema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Poronaia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Porospira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Praelamarckina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Praeuvigerina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protocyclina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psammoscene
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudarcella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudodifflugia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudonubeculina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pteroptyx
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ptygostomum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pulvinulina
genus
accepted10101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
Quasipadangia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reophaxopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdopleura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhaphidodendron
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhaphidohelix
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhaphidoscene
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhodonascia
genus
accepted166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Rhynchoplecta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scurciatoforamen
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Seguenza
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Semseya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Septammina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Silicotextulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Siphonclavulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Siphonema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Soldanina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spirigerina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spirocerium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spiropleurites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stacheia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stacheoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Staphylion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stictogongylus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Strophoconus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Subammoglobigerina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Subrecurvoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Subtrochammina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Synspira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tauchella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Taurogypsina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tectoglobigerina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Terebralina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Terquemina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thalmannina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tolypamminella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trioxeia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triplosphaerina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trochiliascia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tuber
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Turaensis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Turbienta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Turriclavula
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Umbellina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Urnulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vaginuloglandulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Valvorotalia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Volutaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Weikkoella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wetheredella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xenotheka
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xiphophaga
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yanbonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zekritia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Bandyella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Blefuscuiana
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Blowiella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Bogushella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Chapmanina
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct38.0 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Chenia
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct254 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Chiloguembelitria
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Clavigerinella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Conilites
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Corrigotubella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Cribroaperturata
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Drepaniota
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Ellipsodimorphina
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Ellipsoidina
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct56.0 Ma
Paleocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Euuvigerina
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extant28.1 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Fontbotia
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Gallitellia
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Globigerapsis
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Guembelitriella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Haplophragmina
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct323 Ma
Carboniferous
315 Ma
Carboniferous
Hemifusulina
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct318 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Hofkeruva
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Hottingerella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Latibolivina
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Linaresia
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Lipinellina
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Meidamonella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Miniuva
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Mirifica
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Muricoglobigerina
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Nevillella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Nuttallus
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Pacinonion
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Pleuroskelidion
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Porticulasphaera
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct38.0 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Praehedbergella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Proxifrons
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Pseudoclavulina
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Pseudoruttenia
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Pseudowedekindellina
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Pygmaeoseistron
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extant23.0 Ma
Miocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Rectoseptatournayella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Rhodanopeza
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Riveroinella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Ruatoria
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Shouguania
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Sigalitruncana
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Tinophodella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Tollmannia
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Truncorotalia
genus
Not linked to GBIF38extant11.6 Ma
Miocene
2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
Turkmenella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Urbanella
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Kollmannita
genus
Not linked to GBIF4237 Ma
Middle Triassic
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Rosita
genus
Not linked to GBIF4183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Fusilinida
suborder
Not linked to GBIF2extinct303 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Globigerinaceae
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF2,724extant170 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Cassidulinacea
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Nodophtalmidium
genus
Not linked to GBIF5extinct228 Ma
Late Triassic
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Paromalina
genus
Not linked to GBIF10.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Lagenodosaria
genus
Not linked to GBIF219.0 Ma
Miocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Bucella
genus
Not linked to GBIF623.0 Ma
Miocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Orbiculina
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extant2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Biloculina
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extant59.2 Ma
Paleocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Protoelphidium
genus
Not linked to GBIF116.0 Ma
Miocene
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Exagonocyclina
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extant37.2 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Rhapidionina
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct47.8 Ma
Eocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Gyrodina
genus
Not linked to GBIF272.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Montcharmontia
genus
Not linked to GBIF25extinct93.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Gavellinella
genus
Not linked to GBIF4140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
89.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Ophtalmiidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Pseudoglandulina
genus
Not linked to GBIF74272 Ma
Permian
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Rotaliina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF6,372extant456 Ma
Late Ordovician
Allogromiina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF2extant464 Ma
Middle Ordovician
461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Textulariina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF5,456extant541 Ma
Cambrian
Fusulinina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF13,259extant485 Ma
Early Ordovician
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Lagenina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF6,337extant336 Ma
Carboniferous
Globigerinina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF4,714extant140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Involutinina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF595extant307 Ma
Carboniferous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Robertinina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF443extant251 Ma
Early Triassic
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Spirillinina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF132extant318 Ma
Carboniferous
Biokovinacea
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF59extinct151 Ma
Late Jurassic
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Geinitzinoidea
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF6extinct247 Ma
Early Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Haplophragmiina
suborder
Not linked to GBIF1,774extant372 Ma
Late Devonian
Agerina
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct190 Ma
Early Jurassic
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Ceratobuliminacea
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF9extinct172 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Kaptarenkoella
genus
Not linked to GBIF14extinct172 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Silicobathysiphon
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct172 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Camerinidae
family
Not linked to GBIF12extinct56.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1826Foraminifera d'Orbigny
1984Foraminiferida Squires p. 13
2002Foraminiferida Sepkoski, Jr.
2005Foraminifera Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1
2005Foraminiferida Cervato
2007Foraminifera Moreira et al. p. 258 figs. Fig. 1
2011Foraminifera Ishitani et al. p. 38

References

Cervato C. (2005) personal opinion.
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Adl S. M., Simpson A. G. B., et al (2005) The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 5, 399-451
Ishitani Y., Ishikawa S. A., et al (2011) Multigene phylogenetic analyses including diverse radiolarian species support the “Retaria” hypothesis — The sister relationship of Radiolaria and Foraminifera, Marine Micropaleontology 81, 32-42
NOMAC (2016) "Excel document ""NOMAC_higher_taxonomy_25_Nov_2016_final.xlsx"" sent to Johan Liljeblad by Bengt Karlson via e-mail on 2017-01-19. NOMAC=NOrdic Micro Algae Committee" - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
WoRMS (2013) Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.eu/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Polovodova Asteman, I. (2013) Benthic foraminifera from Gullmar Fjord (Alsbäck). 2 excel files: Forams_for LIFEWATCH_2013-02-21 v2 WORMS-checked again.xlsx; Forams_for LIFEWATCH_2013-02-21 v2.xlsx - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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