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Polycystina

Description

The polycystines are a group of radiolarians. They include the vast majority of the fossil radiolaria, as their skeletons are abundant in marine sediments, making them one of the most common groups of microfossils. These skeletons are composed of opaline silica. In some it takes the form of relatively simple spicules, but in others it forms more elaborate lattices, such as concentric spheres with radial spines or sequences of conical chambers.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)8065737https://www.gbif.org/species/8065737
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)111594https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=111594
Rankclass (GBIF)
superorder (PBDB)
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Chromista : Radiozoa : Polycystina
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Retaria : Radiolaria : Polycystina
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-Rhizaria
phylumRetariaCavalier-Smith 1999
classRadiolariaMüller 1858
classPolycystina
Scientific NamePolycystina
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Polycystinaorderbelongs to Radiolariastated with evidenceKozur et al., 1996
Polycystinasuperorderbelongs to Radiolariastated without evidenceBuckman and Aitchison, 2001
Polycystinasuperorderbelongs to Radiolariastated with evidenceTakahashi and Miyake, 2014
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)3,963
Extant Size (PBDB)576 (15%)
First Recorded Appearance513 - 507 Ma
Cambrian
Environmentmarine (based on Radiolaria)
Motilitypassively mobile (based on Radiolaria)
Dietomnivore (based on Radiolaria)
Taphonomysilica (based on Radiolaria)
Primary Reference (PBDB)G. K. Sharma and K. Takahashi. 2007. Pleistocene Radiolaria from the Antarctic Continental Margin: Distribution and Biostratigraphy. 69:913-826
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycystina

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Albaillellaria
order
listed (PBDB)1,322466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Archaeospicularia
order
listed (PBDB)125513 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Collodaria
order
listed (PBDB)186.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Helioentactinia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5,055479 Ma
Early Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Latentifistularia
order
listed (PBDB)1,012359 Ma
Late Devonian
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Nassellaria
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
22,540383 Ma
Late Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Spumellaria
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
18,828466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Albaillellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
760359 Ma
Late Devonian
252 Ma
Permian
Archeoentactiniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cauletellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
407290 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Ceratoikiscidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
33466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
345 Ma
Carboniferous
Echidninidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
47501 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Entactiniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1,019466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Eptingiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
919251 Ma
Early Triassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Follicucullidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
494299 Ma
Carboniferous
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Haplentactiniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Heptacladidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
37247 Ma
Early Triassic
197 Ma
Early Jurassic
Hindeosphaeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
674260 Ma
Permian
222 Ma
Late Triassic
Hollandocachoniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Holoeciscidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Inaniguttidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
11479 Ma
Early Ordovician
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Isometractiniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Kungalariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8251 Ma
Early Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Latentifistulidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
208359 Ma
Late Devonian
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Multiarcusellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
102251 Ma
Early Triassic
222 Ma
Late Triassic
Odoghertitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ormistonellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
275290 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Palaeoscenidiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
84461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Palaeospiculumidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pentactinocarpidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
121251 Ma
Early Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Proventocitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3479 Ma
Early Ordovician
466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Pseudorotasphaeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pylentonemidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
29388 Ma
Middle Devonian
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Quinquecapsulariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
60201 Ma
Early Jurassic
85.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Ruzhencevispongidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
56331 Ma
Carboniferous
254 Ma
Permian
Sphaeroentactiniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spongentactiniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spongosaturnaloididae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15237 Ma
Middle Triassic
232 Ma
Late Triassic
Tetrentactiniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Triumbraculidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Afens
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Aitchisonellum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ares
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
59201 Ma
Early Jurassic
170 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Ayrtonius
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8228 Ma
Late Triassic
212 Ma
Late Triassic
Deflandrella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ellisus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Fontinella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Globolaxtorum
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
58209 Ma
Late Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Gustefana
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Japonocampe
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
23247 Ma
Early Triassic
222 Ma
Late Triassic
Kuppelella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mostlericyrtium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Peritiviator
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Protobiramus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pseudoacanthosphaera
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
25151 Ma
Late Jurassic
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Radium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3242 Ma
Middle Triassic
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Religa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Secuicollacta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Senelella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Solidea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spongomassa
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Srakaeosphaera
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Tauridastrum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trexus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
41201 Ma
Early Jurassic
197 Ma
Early Jurassic
Bathyropyramis sanjoaquinensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1867Polycystina Ehrenberg
1996Polycystida Kozur et al. p. 248
2001Polycystina Buckman and Aitchison p. 363
2001Polycystina De Wever et al. p. 107
2004Polycystina Feng et al. p. 379
2008Polycystina Maletz and Bruton p. 1186
2014Polycystina Takahashi and Miyake p. 278

References

Sharma G. K., Takahashi K. (2007) Pleistocene Radiolaria from the Antarctic Continental Margin: Distribution and Biostratigraphy 69, 913-826
Kozur H. W., Mostler H., et al (1996) Well-preserved Tremadocian primitive Radiolaria from the Windfall Formation of the Antelope Range, Eureka County, Nevada, USA, Geol Paläont Mitt Innsbruck 21, 245-271
Buckman S., Aitchison J. C. (2001) Middle Ordovician (Llandeilan) Radiolarians from West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, Micropaleontology 47 4, 359-367
De Wever P., Dumitrica P., et al (2001) Radiolarians in the sedimentary record, London (Gordon & Breach Sc), 1-533
Feng Q., Helmcke D., et al (2004) Early Carboniferous radiolarians from north-west Thailand: paleogeographical implications, Palaeontology 47 2, 377-393
Maletz J., Bruton D. L. (2008) The Middle Ordovician Proventocitum procerulum radiolarian assemnblage of Spitsbergen and its biostratigraphic correlation 51 5, 1181-1200
Takahashi O., Miyake Y. (2014) Radiolarians, Olenekian (Early Triassic) stratigraphy and fossil assemblages in northeastern Vietnam. National Museum of Nature and Science Monographs 45, 278-294
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Zavodnik, D; Kovacic, M. (2000). Index of marine Fauna in Rijeka Bay (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Nat. Croat. 9(4): 297-379. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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