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BETA TEST - Fossil data and pages are very much experimental and under development. Please report any problems

Rhodophyceae

Description

Red algae, or Rhodophyta (roh-DOF-it-ə, ROH-də-FY-tə; from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhodon), meaning 'rose', and φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in warmer areas. Except for two coastal cave dwelling species in the asexual class Cyanidiophyceae, that diverged from other red algae about 1.3 billion years ago, there are no terrestrial species, which may be due to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)8029077https://www.gbif.org/species/8029077
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)54185https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=54185
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Plantae : Rhodophyta : Rhodophyceae
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantaeHaeckel 1866
subkingdomBiliphytaCavalier-Smith 1981
phylumRhodophytaWettstein 1922
classRhodophyceaeRuprecht 1851
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameRhodophyceae
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)302
Extant Size (PBDB)115 (38%)
First Recorded Appearance501 - 485 Ma
Cambrian
Environmentcoastal,inner shelf,marine
Motilitystationary
Dietphotoautotroph
Taphonomyhigh Mg calcite,porous
Primary Reference (PBDB)N. P. James, J. L. Wray, and R. N. Ginsburg. 1988. Calcification of encrusting aragonitic algae Peyssonneliaceae: implications for the origin of Late Paleozoic reefs and cements. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 58(2):291-303
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodophyceae

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Aoujgaliaceae
family
accepted132359 Ma
Late Devonian
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Calcifoliaceae
family
accepted6339 Ma
Carboniferous
323 Ma
Carboniferous
Dzhulfanellaceae
family
accepted6265 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Fasciellidae
family
accepted16347 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Gymnocodiaceae
family
accepted152279 Ma
Permian
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Ungdarellaceae
family
accepted29347 Ma
Carboniferous
254 Ma
Permian

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Solenoporaceae
family
Not linked to GBIF580479 Ma
Early Ordovician
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Florideae
subclass
Not linked to GBIF35347 Ma
Carboniferous
254 Ma
Permian
Calcifoliida
order
Not linked to GBIF22extinct347 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Banigales
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1851Rhodophyceae Ruprecht
1988Rhodophyceae James et al.
1995Rhodophyceae Braga and Aguirre
2005Rhodophyceae Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1
2008Rhodophyceae Taylor et al. p. 1027

References

James N. P., Wray J. L., et al (1988) Calcification of encrusting aragonitic algae Peyssonneliaceae: implications for the origin of Late Paleozoic reefs and cements, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 58 2, 291-303
Braga J. C., Aguirre J. (1995) Taxonomy of fossil coralline algal species: Neogene Lithophylloideae (Rhodophyta, Corallinaceae) from southern Spain, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 86, 265-285
Adl S. M., Simpson A. G. B., et al (2005) The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 5, 399-451
Taylor E., Taylor T., et al (2008) Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, 1-1230
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bold, Harold C., and Michael J. Wynne, 1985: null. Introduction to the Algae: structure and reproduction, 2nd ed.. xvi + 720. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Guiry, G.M. (2011) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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