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Tracheophyta

Description

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea), form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta, Tracheobionta and Equisetopsida sensu lato. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)7707728https://www.gbif.org/species/7707728
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)55150https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=55150
Rankphylum (GBIF)
superphylum (PBDB)
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Plantae : Tracheophyta
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantaeHaeckel 1866
superphylumTracheophyta
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameTracheophyta
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)1,321
Extant Size (PBDB)175 (13%)
First Recorded Appearance443 - 423 Ma
Silurian
Primary Reference (PBDB)P. Kenrick and P.R. Crane. 1997. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: a Cladistic Study
Common Name(s) Vascular Plants, Tracheophytes
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tracheophyta

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Cycadopsida
class
acceptedCycads2,154290 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Ginkgoopsida
class
accepted4,732384 Ma
Middle Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Gnetopsida
class
accepted547247 Ma
Early Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Liliopsida
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lycopodiopsida
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Magnoliopsida
class
accepted21,984433 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Pinopsida
class
accepted9,718383 Ma
Late Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Polypodiopsida
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aneurophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Angaropeltidaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arberiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archaeopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Austrocalyxaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Autuniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Barinophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Breyteniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calathiopsidaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Callistophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cardiolepidaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cecropsidaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cheirocladaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Codonospermaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Colpospermaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cooksoniaceae
family
accepted3426 Ma
Silurian
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Denkaniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dicranophyllaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dictyopteridiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Discinitaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Discopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Emplectopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eospermataceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Erdtmanithecaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eurystomataceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gigantopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gnetopsidaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gosslingiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hexapterospermaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hsuaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jurinodendraceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Langiophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leclercqiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leuthardtiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lidgettoniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lyginopteridaceae
family
accepted0
Lyonophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Moresnetiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neomariopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Noeggerathiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pachytestaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parthaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Peltaspermaceae
family
accepted744359 Ma
Late Devonian
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Petriellaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phasmatocycadaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Physostomaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polylophospermaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protopityaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psygmophyllaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pullarithecaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Renaliaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhyniaceae
family
accepted8408 Ma
Early Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Rigbyaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sawdoniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Simplothecaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spermopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sporophyllitaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Steloxylaceae
family
accepted0
Stephanospermaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Taeniocradaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tetrastichiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tingiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tingyostachyaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trichopityaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trimerophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Umkomasiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yarraviaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zosterophyllaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Achradosporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Adiantites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alcicornopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Andreisporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aneimites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anotopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Apiculatasporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Araucariapollenites
genus
accepted0
Archaeopteridium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archangelskya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arnoldella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aspleniopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asteropollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Auriculiidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Auriculopollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Auritulinasporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Baculatisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bacumorphomonocolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Balanopollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Belonopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brevicolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calamopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calamospora
genus
accepted357443 Ma
Silurian
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Canipa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cardioangulina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cathaysioxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Charliea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cibotiumspora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cicatricososporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cingulatisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cladites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Clavatasporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Clavatisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Concavissimisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Constructipollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Converrucosisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cornetipollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassitriapertites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassitricolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassoretitriletes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crossopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crusafontites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyatheites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyathidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cycadeanoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cycadopites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Delnortea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Deltoidospora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Derbyella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dichotangium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diichnia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diplopteridium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Divisisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dolerophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Drepanolepis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Duplexisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dzungaropteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echinatisporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eltovaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eogaspesiea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Euanthus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fetura
genus
accepted5260 Ma
Permian
251 Ma
Early Triassic
Filicites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foveasporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foveogleicheniidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foveotricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fraxinoipollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gabonisporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Girtya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glenopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glockeria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gymnocaulus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hermanophyton
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heterangium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hicklingia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Holkopollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Impardecispora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Imparipteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inaperturotetradites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Intrareticulitis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ischyosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jugella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kaulangiophyton
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kraeuselisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lacoea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Laevigatosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lametatriletes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Laricoidites
genus
accepted6113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Leckenbya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leptolepidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Linopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lomatopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lonchopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lycospora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lygodiidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Macroglossopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Magnastriatites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marattisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Matonisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megalopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megatheca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesopityoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microfoveolatosporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microfoveotriporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monocolpopollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monolites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Multiporopollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Muricingulisporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Murospora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neuralethopteris
genus
accepted56359 Ma
Late Devonian
299 Ma
Carboniferous
Neurocallipteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nevropteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nothorhacopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orthonucella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Osmundacidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ovalipollis
genus
accepted25252 Ma
Permian
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pediculisporis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Penetetrapites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Periastron
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Peromonolites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phimopollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pilosisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polycingulatisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polypodiaceoisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyporotetradites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protophyllocladoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protophyllocladus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prototaxoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protrudodiporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudodanaeopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilabrevitricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilabrevitricolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilastephanocolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilastephanocolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilatriletes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Radforthia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ranunculacidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reimannia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retibrevitricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reticulisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reticuloidosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reticulopitys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retipollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retistephanocolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retistephanoporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retisyncolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retitrescolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhacopteris
genus
accepted26372 Ma
Late Devonian
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Rhynchogonium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ruflorinia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Salpingostoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schopfitheca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schrankipollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scopus
genus
accepted4254 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Sennicaulis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Singhia
genus
accepted6130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Sphenopteridium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanoporopollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Striatriporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Styxisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Supaia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sutcliffia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Syncrama
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Telangium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thuringia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ticoa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tinsleya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Todisporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trifossapollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triletes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trilites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trilobosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triphyllopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triplanosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triporotetradites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tuberculatosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tuberositriletes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tyliosperma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Uesuguipollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Uvaesporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Velosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Verreticulisporis
genus
accepted0
Verrustephanocolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Verrutricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Warsteinia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xylopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Abietetes brevifolius
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chondrophyllum obovatum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chondrophyllum reticulatum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Confervites dubius
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Embothriosis presagita
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fraxinopsis major
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fraxinopsis minor
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Furcillopteris aquilae
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Musaphyllum tenuinervis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeoxyris appendiculata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeoxyris prendelii
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phaea wilmattae
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phoeicopsis elongatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdocarpon acuminatum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdocarpon apiculatum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdocarpon costatum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdocarpon danai
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdocarpon laeve
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thuyites meriani
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tillaephyllum dubium
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Rhyniopsida
class
Not linked to GBIF7extinct426 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Lycophytina
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF97443 Ma
Silurian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Euphyllophytina
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF1,774419 Ma
Early Devonian
61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Filices
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF0
Sphenopsida
class
Not linked to GBIF747443 Ma
Silurian
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pteropsida
class
Not linked to GBIF1,257359 Ma
Late Devonian
11.1 Ma
Miocene
Gymnospermopsida
class
Not linked to GBIF145359 Ma
Late Devonian
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Pteridobiotina
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF20,937extant393 Ma
Early Devonian
Bryobiotina
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Lycopodiobiotina
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF1extant365 Ma
Late Devonian
361 Ma
Late Devonian

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Coniferophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Coniferophyta
Psilophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Psilophyta
Ginkgophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Ginkgophyta
Pterophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Pterophyta
Polypodiophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Polypodiophyta
Psilotophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Psilotophyta
Magnoliophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Magnoliophyta
Pteridophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Pteridophyta
Arthrophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Arthrophyta
Lycopodiophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Lycopodiophyta
Gnetophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Gnetophyta
Microphyllophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Microphyllophyta
Equisetophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Equisetophyta
Cycadophyta GBIFphylumPlantae : Cycadophyta

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1997Tracheophyta Kenrick and Crane
2001Tracheophyta Doweld
2011Tracheophyta Jud

References

Kenrick P., Crane P.R. (1997) , The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: a Cladistic Study
Doweld A. B. (2001) Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen Systematis Plantarum Vascularium
Jud N. A. (2011) Unpublished taxonomic opinions
van Nieukerken, M. (2010) Embryophyta - Landplanten. In J. Noordijk, R.M.J.C. Kleukers, E.J. van Nieukerken & A.J. van Loon (eds.), De Nederlandse Biodiversiteit. Nederlandse Fauna 10: 68. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Guiry, G.M. (2012) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Kenrick, P.R. (1997) The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2019). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. - via World Register of Marine Species
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2019). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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