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Hemichordata

Description

Hemichordata is a phylum of marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of the echinoderms. They appear in the Lower or Middle Cambrian and include two main classes: Enteropneusta (acorn worms), and Pterobranchia. A third class, Planctosphaeroidea, is known only from the larva of a single species, Planctosphaera pelagica. The extinct class Graptolithina is closely related to the pterobranchs.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)75https://www.gbif.org/species/75
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)33518https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=33518
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Hemichordata
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
TriploblasticaLankester 1877
NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
Ambulacraria
phylumHemichordataBateson 1885
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameHemichordata
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)618
Extant Size (PBDB)11 (1.8%)
First Recorded Appearance520 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Taphonomyno hard parts
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Hemichordates, Acorn Worm
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemichordata

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Enteropneusta
class
accepted4315 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Pterobranchia
class
acceptedPterobranch7,221520 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Acanthograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anisograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Atubaridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Azygograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bithecocamaridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Corynoididae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyclograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyrtograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cysticamaridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dichograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dicranograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dimorphograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dithecodendridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoglyptograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glossograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glyptograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hormograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Idiotubidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Isograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kinnegraptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lasiograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leptograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nemagraptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ordosograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orthograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parvitubidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plectograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoclimacograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudotrigonograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ptilograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Reteograptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhabdinoporidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sigmagraptidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tubidendridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wimanicrustidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Callodendrograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Corymbites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dyadograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ensigraptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Estoniocaulis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gymnograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Licnograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marsipograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nephelograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orthoretiograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ovetograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ptilograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ramulograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhadinograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinoretiograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sotograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stelechograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Streptograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thallograptus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chaumograptus irregularis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dawsonia tridens
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Huishea flexa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inocaulis arborescens
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inocaulis arbuscula
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inocaulis diffusus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inocaulis pristinus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inocaulis problematicus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inocaulis simplex
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inocaulis thallosus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Klakesia simplex
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Logonograptus multibrachiatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neocraterellina johnsoni
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neocraterellina magnum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Odontocaulis occidentalis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Syndograptus bridgei
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yuknessia stephenensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1885Hemichordata Bateson
1998Hemichordata Zrzavy et al.
2002Hemichordata Sepkoski, Jr.
2011Hemichordata Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Hemichordata Nielsen p. 335

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Harmer, Sidney F., 1905: The Pterobranchia of the Siboga-Expedition with an account of other species. Siboga-Expeditie Monographie 26. 1-132. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Benito, Jesus / Parker, Sybil P. ed., 1982: Hemichordata. Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, vol. 2. 819-821. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Hyman, Libbie Henrietta, 1959: Smaller Coelomate Groups, Chaetognatha, Hemichordata, Pogonophora, Phoronida, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda, Sipunculida, The coelomate Bilateria. The Invertebrates, vol. 5. viii + 783. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Dawydoff, Constantin / Grassé, P. P., ed., 1948: Embranchement des Stomocordés. Traité de Zoologie, vol. 11. 365-532. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (2002) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Benito, Jesús, and Fernando Pardos / Harrison, Frederick W., and Edward E. Ruppert, eds., 1997: Hemichordata. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 15. Hemichordata, Chaetognatha, and Invertebrate Chordates. 15-101. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Tassia, M. G.; Cannon, J. T.; Konikoff, C. E.; Shenkar, N.; Halanych, K. M.; Swalla, B. J. (2016). The Global Diversity of Hemichordata. PLOS ONE. 11(10): e0162564. - via World Register of Marine Species
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Bateson W (1885) The later stages in the development of Balanoglossus kowalevskii, with a suggestion as to the affinities of the Enteropneusta. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 25: 81-122. - via World Register of Marine Species
Cameron C (2005) A phylogeny of the hemichordates based on morphological characters. Canadian Journal of Zoology: 196-215. - via World Register of Marine Species
Cannon JT, Rychel AL, Eccleston H, Halanych KM, Swalla BJ (2009) Molecular phylogeny of hemichordata, with updated status of deep-sea enteropneusts. Mol Phylogenet Evol 52(1): 17-24. - via World Register of Marine Species
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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