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Artiodactyla

Description

The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla, from Ancient Greek ἄρτιος, ártios, meaning 'even', and δάκτυλος, dáktylos, meaning 'finger / toe') are ungulates – hoofed animals – which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of the five toes: their third and fourth toes. The other three toes are either present, absent, vestigial, or pointing posteriorly. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates bear weight on one (an odd number) of the five toes: the third toe. Another difference between the two is that even-toed ungulates digest plant cellulose in one or more stomach chambers rather than in their intestine as the odd-toed ungulates do.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)731https://www.gbif.org/species/731
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)42307https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=42307
Rankorder
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SynapsidaOsborn 1903
-Therapsida
infraorderCynodontia
-EpicynodontiaHopson and Kitching 2001
infraorderEucynodontiaKemp 1982
-ProbainognathiaHopson 1990
-MammaliamorphaRowe 1988
-MammaliaformesRowe 1988
classMammaliaLinnaeus 1758
subclassTribosphenida
infraclassEutheria
orderUngulata
orderArtiodactylaOwen 1848
Common Nameeven-toed ungulate
Scientific NameArtiodactyla
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Ungulatastated without evidenceOwen, 1848
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated with evidenceLeidy, 1873
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Ungulatastated without evidenceFlower, 1883
Artiodactylasuborderbelongs to Diplarthrastated without evidenceCope, 1889
Artiodactylasuborderbelongs to Ungulatastated without evidenceFlower and Lydekker, 1891
Artiodactylasuborderbelongs to Ungulatastated with evidenceGadow, 1898
Artiodactylasuborderbelongs to Ungulatastated without evidenceHay, 1902
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Paraxoniastated without evidenceGregory, 1910
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Ungulatastated without evidenceThorpe, 1937
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceFerrusquia-Villafranca, 1969
Artiodactylaunranked cladebelongs to Eparctocyonastated without evidenceMcKenna, 1975
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceHamilton, 1978
Artiodactylaunranked cladebelongs to Eutheriastated without evidenceHooker, 1986
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to EutheriaimpliedCarroll, 1988
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceShoshani et al., 1989
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to EutheriaimpliedNowak, 1991
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceMontgelard et al., 1997
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceLucas et al., 1998
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Ungulatastated without evidenceArchibald, 1998
Artiodactylaunranked cladesubjective synonym of Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceWaddell et al., 1999
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to MammaliaimpliedWeston, 2000
Artiodactylaunranked cladesubjective synonym of Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceUrsing et al., 2000
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceThewissen et al., 2001
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to MammaliaimpliedBoisserie et al., 2003
Artiodactylaorderinvalid subgroup of Cetartiodactylastated with evidenceBoisserie et al., 2005
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to MammaliaimpliedHulbert and Whitmore, 2006
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceFerrusquía-Villafranca, 2006
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Artiodactylamorphastated without evidenceSpaulding et al., 2009
Artiodactylaunranked cladebelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceMorgan et al., 2009
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Euungulatastated without evidenceAsher and Helgen, 2010
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to Mammaliastated without evidenceLander and Lindsay, 2011
Artiodactylaunranked cladesubjective synonym of Cetartiodactylastated without evidenceBoisserie et al., 2011
Artiodactylaorderbelongs to EutheriaimpliedVianey-Liaud et al., 2014
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)2,893
Extant Size (PBDB)462 (16%)
First Recorded Appearance61.7 - 56.8 Ma
Paleocene
Environmentterrestrial
Motilityactively mobile (based on Osteichthyes)
Dietgrazer, browser
Ecospace Commentslife habit and diet based on Nowak 1999
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)R. Owen. 1848. Description of teeth and portions of jaws of two extinct Anthracotherioid quadrupeds (Hyopotamus vectianus and Hyop. bovinus) discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings in the Eocene deposits on the NW coast of the Isle of Wight: with an attempt to develope Cuvier's idea of the Classification of Pachyderms by the number of their toes. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 4:103-141
Common Name(s) Artiodactyls, Cloven-hoofed Ungulates, Even-toed Ungulates, Porco Do Mato, Veado, Even-toed Ungulate, Partåiga Hovdjur, Evenhoevigen
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artiodactyla

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Ancodonta
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Hyodonta
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Nonruminantia
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Omnivora
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Suiformes
suborder
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Tylopoda
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2,41948.6 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Booidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Cainotherioidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)10056.0 Ma
Paleocene
13.7 Ma
Miocene
Choeropotamoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)9056.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Dichobunoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)51556.0 Ma
Paleocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Entelodontoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Merycoidodontoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Pantolestoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)161.7 Ma
Paleocene
61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Suoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)2,66746.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Achaenodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
346.2 Ma
Eocene
46.2 Ma
Eocene
Aglaocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Agriochoeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Agriochoerid17146.2 Ma
Eocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Amphimerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4948.6 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Anoplotheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10147.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Anthracotheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Anthracothere42056.0 Ma
Paleocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Antiacodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Antilocapridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pronghorn67228.4 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Bovidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Antelope5,73433.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Bunomerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Caenotheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Cainotheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9256.0 Ma
Paleocene
13.7 Ma
Miocene
Camelidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Camel1,89746.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cebochoeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6255.8 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Cervidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Deer1,96637.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Choeropotamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9056.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Climacoceratidae
family
listed (PBDB)1023.0 Ma
Miocene
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Climacoceridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dacrytheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Diacodexeidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
59356.0 Ma
Paleocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Dichobunidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15056.0 Ma
Paleocene
28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Diorocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dromomerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Entelodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
14648.6 Ma
Eocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Entolodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eurytheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Gelocidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9941.3 Ma
Eocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Giraffidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Giraffe72523.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Haplobunodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Helohyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
648.6 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Hippopotamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Hippopotamus67723.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Hippopotamyidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Homacodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
16356.0 Ma
Paleocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Hoplitomerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hypertragulidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12546.2 Ma
Eocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Lagomerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9823.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Leptochoeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8455.8 Ma
Eocene
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Leptomerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
21546.2 Ma
Eocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Lophiomerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6248.6 Ma
Eocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Merycoidodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Oreodont1,33046.2 Ma
Eocene
10.3 Ma
Miocene
Mixtotheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2148.6 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Moschidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Musk Deer19930.8 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Oromerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7346.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Pakicetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1556.0 Ma
Paleocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Palaeochoeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Palaeomerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
37556.0 Ma
Paleocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Pelocetidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Protoceratidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Protoceratid25546.2 Ma
Eocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Raoellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2556.0 Ma
Paleocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Sanitheriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1533.9 Ma
Oligocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Suidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pig1,92937.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Tayassuidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Peccary68046.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Tragulidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Chevrotain23237.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Triceromerycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Xiphodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12748.6 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Antiacodontinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)246.2 Ma
Eocene
46.2 Ma
Eocene
Helohyinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)146.2 Ma
Eocene
46.2 Ma
Eocene
Leptochoerinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)233.3 Ma
Oligocene
33.3 Ma
Oligocene
Apriculus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
146.2 Ma
Eocene
46.2 Ma
Eocene
Babameryx
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
228.4 Ma
Oligocene
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Boreameryx
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15.33 Ma
Miocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Daeodon
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
330.8 Ma
Oligocene
28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Eocoileus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Eolantianus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Gervachoerus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1148.6 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Hsanotherium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
141.3 Ma
Eocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Huaxiachoerus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
237.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Krabitherium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
237.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Myanmarius
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
141.3 Ma
Eocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Orthostonyx
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Praetragulus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
537.2 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Progenitohyus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
137.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Raphenacodus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Siamochoerus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
337.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Thandaungia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
141.3 Ma
Eocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Tragulohyus
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Cetancodonta
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)1,14356.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cetancodontamorpha
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)15948.6 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cetruminantia
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Neoselenodontia
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Ruminantiamorpha
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)11,01456.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Whippomorpha
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1848Artiodactyla Owen p. 131
1873Artiodactyla Leidy p. 317
1883Artiodactyla Flower p. 184
1889Artiodactyla Cope p. 876
1891Artiodactyla Flower and Lydekker p. 89
1898Artiodactyla Gadow p. 48
1902Artiodactyla Hay p. 647
1906Artiodactyla Andrews p. 178
1908Artiodactyla Lambe
1910Artiodactyla Gregory p. 466
1937Artiodactyla Thorpe p. 31
1947Nothokemadidae White p. 508
1969Artiodactyla Ferrusquia-Villafranca
1975Artiodactyla McKenna p. 43
1978Artiodactyla Hamilton p. 168
1981Artiodactyla Thurmond and Jones p. 187
1986Artiodactyla Hooker p. 376
1988Artiodactyla Carroll
1989Artiodactyla Shoshani et al. p. 436
1989Artiodactyla Stuenes p. 243
1991Artiodactyla Nowak
1997Cetartiodactyla Montgelard et al.
1997Artiodactyla Montgelard et al. p. 555
1997Cetartiodactyla Montgelard et al. p. 556
YearName and Author
1998Artiodactyla Archibald
1998Artiodactyla Lucas et al. p. 426
1999Cetartiodactyla Waddell et al. p. 3
2000Artiodactyla Weston p. 177
2001Cetartiodactyla Madsen et al. p. 610
2001Artiodactyla Thewissen et al. p. suppl.
2001Cetartiodactyla Thewissen et al. p. suppl.
2001Cetartiodactyla Waddell et al. p. 148
2003Artiodactyla Boisserie et al. p. 16
2004Cetartiodactyla Uhen p. 11
2005Artiodactyla Boisserie p. 12
2006Artiodactyla Ferrusquía-Villafranca p. 993
2006Artiodactyla Hulbert and Whitmore p. 6
2008Cetartiodactyla Bisconti p. 162
2008Artiodactyla Prothero
2008Artiodactyla Prothero and Liter
2009Artiodactyla Morgan et al.
2009Artiodactyla Spaulding et al.
2010Artiodactyla Asher and Helgen p. 3
2010Cetartiodactyla Weston and Boisserie p. 853
2011Artiodactyla Lander and Lindsay p. 221
2011Artiodactyla Uhen et al. p. 957
2014Artiodactyla Vianey-Liaud et al. p. 606

References

Owen R. Description of teeth and portions of jaws of two extinct Anthracotherioid quadrupeds (Hyopotamus vectianus and Hyop. bovinus) discovered by the Marchioness of Hastings in the Eocene deposits on the NW coast of the Isle of Wight: with an attempt to develope Cuvier's idea of the Classification of Pachyderms by the number of their toes, Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 4, 103-141
Leidy J. Part I. Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the western territories, Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories 1, 1-358
Flower W. H. On the arrangement of the Orders and Families of existing Mammalia, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1883, 178-186
Cope E. D. Synopsis of the families of Vertebrata, The American Naturalist 23, 1-29
Gadow H. , A Classification of Vertebrata Recent and Extinct, xvii-82
Hay O. P. (1902) , Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 179, 1-868
Andrews C. W. (1906) , A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of Fayum, Egypt, 1-324
Lambe L. M. (1908) The Vertebrata of the Oligocene of the Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan, Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology 3 4, 1-65 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.61444
Gregory W. K. (1910) The orders of mammals, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 27, 1-524
Thorpe M. R. (1937) The Merycoidodontidae, an extinct group of ruminant mammals, Peabody Museum of Natural History Memoir 3 4, 1-428
White T. E. (1947) Additions to the Miocene fauna of north Florida, Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 99 4, 497-515
Ferrusquia-Villafranca I. (1969) Rancho Gaitan Local Fauna, Early Chadronian, Northeastern Chihuahua, Boletín de la Sociedad Geologica Mexicana 33 2, 99-138
McKenna M. C. (1975) Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalia, Phylogeny of the Primates, Plenum Publishing, New York, 21-46
Hamilton W. R. (1978) Fossil giraffes from the Miocene of Africa and a revision of the phylogeny of the Giraffoidea, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B 283 996, 165-229
Thurmond J. T., Jones D. E. (1981) , Fossil Vertebrates of Alabama, 1-244
Hooker J. J. (1986) Mammals from the Bartonian (middle/late Eocene) of the Hampshire Basin, southern England, Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 39 4, 191-478
Carroll R. L. (1988) , Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1-698
Shoshani J., Fisher D. C., et al (1989) The Shelton Mastodon Site: Multidisciplinary study of a late Pleistocene (Twocreekan) locality in Southeastern Michigan, Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 27 14, 393-436
Stuenes S. (1989) Taxonomy, Habits, and Relationships of the Subfossil Madagascan Hippopotami Hippopotamus lemerlei and H. madagascariensis, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9 3, 241-268
Nowak R. M. (1991) Walker's Mammals of the World, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press (edited volume) II
Archibald J. D. (1998) Archaic ungulates ("Condylarthra"), Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America 1, 292-331
Lucas S. G., Emry R. J., et al (1998) Taxonomy and distribution of Daeodon, an Oligocene-Miocene entelodont (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from North America, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111 2, 425-435
Waddell P. J., Okada N., et al (1999) Towards resolving the interordinal relationships of placental mammals, Systematic Biology 48 1, 1-5
Weston E. M. (2000) A new species of hippopotamus Hexaptrotodon lothagamensis (Mammalia: Hippopotamidae) from the late Miocene of Kenya, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20 1, 177-185
Thewissen J. G. M, Williams E. M., et al (2001) Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls, Nature 413, 277-281
Boisserie J.-R., Brunet M., et al (2003) Hippopotamids from the Djurab Pliocene faunas, Chad, Central Africa, Journal of African Earth Sciences 36, 15-27
Uhen M. D. (2004) Form, Function, and Anatomy of Dorudon atrox (Mammalia, Cetacea): An Archaeocete from the Middle to Late Eocene of Egypt, University of Michigan Papers on Paleontology 34, 1-222
Boisserie J.-R. (2005) The phylogeny and taxonomy of Hippopotamidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla): a review based on morphology and cladistic analysis, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 143, 1-26
Ferrusquía-Villafranca I. (2006) The first Paleogene mammal record of Middle America: Simojovelhyus pocitosense (Helohyidae, Artiodactyla), Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 4, 989-1001
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Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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