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Radiozoa

Description

The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm. The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica. They are found as zooplankton throughout the ocean, and their skeletal remains make up a large part of the cover of the ocean floor as siliceous ooze. Due to their rapid change as species, they represent an important diagnostic fossil found from the Cambrian onwards. Some common radiolarian fossils include Actinomma, Heliosphaera and Hexadoridium.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)
Edited by
7231714https://www.gbif.org/species/7231714
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)4https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=4
Rankphylum (GBIF)
class (PBDB)
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Chromista : Radiozoa
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Retaria : Radiozoa
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-Rhizaria
phylumRetariaCavalier-Smith 1999
phylumRadiozoaMüller 1858
Common Nameradiolarian
Scientific NameRadiozoa
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Radiolariaclassbelongs to Actinopodastated without evidenceBuckman and Aitchison, 2001
Radiolariaclassbelongs to Actinopodasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Radiolariaclassbelongs to Actinopodastated without evidenceWang et al., 2003
Radiolariaclassbelongs to Rhizariastated without evidenceAdl et al., 2005
Radiolariaclassbelongs to Actinopodastated without evidenceMaletz and Bruton, 2008
Radiolariaclassbelongs to Retariastated without evidenceIshitani et al., 2011
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)3,984
Extant Size (PBDB)577 (14%)
First Recorded Appearance513 - 507 Ma
Cambrian
Environmentmarine (based on Radiolaria)
Motilitypassively mobile (based on Radiolaria)
Dietomnivore (based on Radiolaria)
Taphonomysilica (based on Radiolaria)
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiozoa

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Polycystina
class
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
48,883513 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Pheodaria
suborder
listed (PBDB)
Rotasphaeracea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)
Cadiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amphicraspedum
genus
listed (PBDB)859.2 Ma
Paleocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Copiconica
genus
listed (PBDB)17254 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Gyrosphaera
genus
listed (PBDB)2443 Ma
Silurian
443 Ma
Silurian
Labyrinthosphaera
genus
listed (PBDB)1443 Ma
Silurian
443 Ma
Silurian
Pentinastrum
genus
listed (PBDB)386.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
86.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Spongosphaera
genus
listed (PBDB)
Sticholonche
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stylotrochus
genus
listed (PBDB)486.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
85.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Triactiscus
genus
listed (PBDB)386.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
85.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Tuscaridium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Veles
genus
listed (PBDB)2237 Ma
Middle Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1858Radiolaria Müller
2001Radiolaria Buckman and Aitchison p. 363
2002Radiolaria Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Radiolaria Wang et al. p. 130
2005Radiolaria Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1
2008Radiolaria Maletz and Bruton p. 1186
2011Radiolaria Ishitani et al. p. 38

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Buckman S., Aitchison J. C. (2001) Middle Ordovician (Llandeilan) Radiolarians from West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, Micropaleontology 47 4, 359-367
Wang Y., Aitchison J. C., et al (2003) Devonian radiolarian faunas from South China, Micropaleontology 49 2, 127-145
Adl S. M., Simpson A. G. B., et al (2005) The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 5, 399-451
Maletz J., Bruton D. L. (2008) The Middle Ordovician Proventocitum procerulum radiolarian assemnblage of Spitsbergen and its biostratigraphic correlation 51 5, 1181-1200
Ishitani Y., Ishikawa S. A., et al (2011) Multigene phylogenetic analyses including diverse radiolarian species support the “Retaria” hypothesis — The sister relationship of Radiolaria and Foraminifera, Marine Micropaleontology 81, 32-42
NOMAC (2016) "Excel document ""NOMAC_higher_taxonomy_25_Nov_2016_final.xlsx"" sent to Johan Liljeblad by Bengt Karlson via e-mail on 2017-01-19. NOMAC=NOrdic Micro Algae Committee" - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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