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Polypodiopsida

Description

A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta) is a member of a group of vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. They differ from mosses by being vascular, i.e., having specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients and in having life cycles in which the sporophyte is the dominant phase. Ferns have complex leaves called megaphylls, that are more complex than the microphylls of clubmosses. Most ferns are leptosporangiate ferns, sometimes referred to as true ferns. They produce coiled fiddleheads that uncoil and expand into fronds. The group includes about 10,560 known extant species. Ferns are defined here in the broad sense, being all of the Polypodiopsida, comprising both the leptosporangiate (Polypodiidae) and eusporangiate ferns, the latter itself comprising ferns other than those denominated true ferns, including horsetails or scouring rushes, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, and ophioglossoid ferns.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)7228684https://www.gbif.org/species/7228684
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Scientific NamePolypodiopsida
Common Name(s) Leptosporangiate Ferns
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polypodiopsida

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Cyatheales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Equisetales
order
accepted1,754359 Ma
Late Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Gleicheniales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hymenophyllales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marattiales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ophioglossales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Osmundales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polypodiales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilotales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Salviniales
order
accepted659201 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Schizaeales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Botryopteridiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cladoxylaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eviostachyaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hamatophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyeniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Iridopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kaplanopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psalixochlaenaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoborniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhacophytaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sermayaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Skaaripteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sorocaulaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sphenophyllaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stauropteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tedeleaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zygopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aculea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anomalofilicites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aphlebia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aphlebiopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arthroxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calamariophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Callipteridium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Carolopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chacassopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chlamidostachys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Culmites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cuyenopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dactylopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Danaeites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dichopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Equisetina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gordonopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Haplocalamus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kaloxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Litostrobus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Macrostachya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Manebachia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megalorhachis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mertensides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microzygia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monoscalitheca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neriopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oncylogonatum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Otidophyton
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Padgettia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pietzschia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyxylon
genus
accepted1372 Ma
Late Devonian
359 Ma
Late Devonian
Prosseria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protocalamites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rachiopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Raniganjia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Raphaelia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schizopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stereopteris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Szecalamitina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Teilhardia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trochophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vertebraria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

References

Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
Smith, A.R., Pryer, K.M., Schuettpelz, E., Korall, P., Schneider, H. & Wolf, P.G. (2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon 55 (3) August 2006: 705–731 - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Ruggiero M, Gordon D, Bailly N, Kirk P, Nicolson D (2012) The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th April 2012 (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Culham A., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Appeltans W., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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