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Squamata

Description

Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians (worm lizards), which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles. With over 10,000 species, it is also the second-largest order of extant (living) vertebrates, after the perciform fish, and roughly equal in number to the Saurischia (one of the two major groups of dinosaurs). Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shields. They also possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the neurocranium. This is particularly visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths very wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. Squamata is the most variably sized order of reptiles, ranging from the 16 mm (0.63 in) dwarf gecko (Sphaerodactylus ariasae) to the 5.21 m (17.1 ft) green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) and the now-extinct mosasaurs, which reached lengths of over 14 m (46 ft).


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)715https://www.gbif.org/species/715
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)36379https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=36379
Rankorder
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-ReptiliomorphaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-AnthracosauriaSäve-Söderbergh 1934
-Batrachosauria
-Cotylosauria
-AmniotaHaeckel 1866
-SauropsidaHuxley 1864
classReptiliaLaurenti 1768
subclassEureptilia
-RomeriidaGauthier et al. 1988
-Diapsida
-Eosuchia
-NeodiapsidaBenton 1985
-SauriaGauthier 1984
-Lepidosauromorpha
superorderLepidosauria
orderSquamataOppel 1811
Common Namesquamates
Scientific NameSquamata
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Squamataunranked cladebelongs to Monopnoastated without evidenceFitzinger, 1826
Squamatasuborderbelongs to Sauristated without evidenceQuenstedt, 1882
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceWoodward, 1898
Squamataorderbelongs to Diapsidastated with evidenceOsborn, 1903
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceAndrews, 1906
Squamatasubclasssubjective synonym of Lyognathastated with evidenceJaekel, 1910
Squamataordersubjective synonym of Lyognathistated without evidenceJaekel, 1911
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceSwinton, 1934
Squamataorderbelongs to Parapsidastated without evidenceRoxo, 1937
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated with evidenceKuhn, 1946
Squamataorderbelongs to Neosauromorphastated without evidenceHuene, 1954
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated with evidenceKuhn, 1966
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceSchatzinger, 1980
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated without evidenceThurmond and Jones, 1981
Squamataorderbelongs to LepidosauriaimpliedCarroll, 1982
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated with evidenceGardiner, 1982
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated with evidenceHolman, 1982
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated without evidenceStritzke, 1983
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated with evidenceBenton, 1985
Squamatasuperorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated without evidenceSullivan, 1986
Squamataorderbelongs to LepidosauriaimpliedCarroll, 1988
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated with evidenceEstes et al., 1988
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceHolman et al., 1991
Squamataunranked cladebelongs to Lepidosauriastated without evidenceNorell and de Queiroz, 1991
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated with evidenceLingham-Soliar, 1995
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated with evidenceGao and Fox, 1996
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceFrank and Ramus, 1996
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated without evidencePeng et al., 2001
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Squamataunranked cladebelongs to Lepidosauriastated without evidenceNicholls and Meckert, 2002
Squamataorderbelongs to ReptiliaimpliedVenczel and Stiuca, 2008
Squamataorderbelongs to Lepidosauriastated without evidenceEvans and Wang, 2012
Squamataorderbelongs to Reptiliastated without evidenceFernicola and Albino, 2012
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)2,625
Extant Size (PBDB)1,048 (40%)
First Recorded Appearance247 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Environmentterrestrial (based on Diapsida)
Motilityactively mobile (based on Osteichthyes)
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)M. Oppel. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodom einer Naturgeschichte Derselben. Joseph Lindauer, München
Common Name(s) Amphisbaenians, Lizards, Snakes, Amphisbènes, Lézards, Serpents, Fjällbärande Kräldjur, Lizard, Лускаті, 有鱗
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squamata

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Gekkonomorpha
suborder
listed (PBDB)157168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Lacertilia
suborder
listed (PBDB)Lizard540228 Ma
Late Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Ophidia
suborder
listed (PBDB)Snake3,166168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Amphisbaenia
infraorder
listed (PBDB)Worm Lizard217125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Scincoidea
superfamily
listed (PBDB)374168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Acontiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Acrochordidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
616.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Agamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8399.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Aigialosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
14140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Alopoglossidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amblycephalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Ameivoidea
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Amphisbaenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Worm Lizard9083.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Anelytropidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Anguidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
991125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Aniliidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pipe Snake5885.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Anniellidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Anolidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Anomalepidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anomalepididae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Anomalophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
147.8 Ma
Eocene
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Anomalophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anomochilidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Archaeophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Archaeophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ardeosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Arretosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
648.6 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Atractaspididae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Bainguidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Barbatteiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
272.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Bavarisauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Bipedidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
256.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Blanidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1655.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Boidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Boa42172.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Bolyeridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bolyeriidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Broilisauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cadeidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Calabariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Candoiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carolinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carphodactylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Carusiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
383.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Causidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Chamaeleonidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chamaeleontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chamopsiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12793.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
56.8 Ma
Paleocene
Changjiangidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Changjiangosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
748.6 Ma
Eocene
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Cherminsauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Colubridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Colubrid Snake1,44656.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Coniophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Contogeniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cordylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Spinytail Lizard5883.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Corytophanidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Casque-head Lizard156.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Crotalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Pit Viper31323.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Crotaphytidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
24.90 Ma
Pliocene
0 Ma
Extant
Cylindrophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Asian Pipe Snake0 Ma
Extant
Dactyloidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dibamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
233.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Dinilysiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Diplodactylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Diploglossidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dipsadidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dolichosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
46101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Dorsetisauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Draconoidea
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Eichstaettisauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1152 Ma
Late Jurassic
152 Ma
Late Jurassic
Elapidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9555.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Erycidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Eublepharidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
130.8 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Euposauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Feyliniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Fulengidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Gekkonidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Gecko12659.2 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Gerrhopilidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Gerrhosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Plated Lizard10.01 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Gilmoreteiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Globauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1283.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
63.3 Ma
Paleocene
Gymnophthalmidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Helodermatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2683.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Hodzhakuliidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Homalopsidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hoplocercidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
383.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hydrophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hyporhinidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
337.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Iguanidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
28599.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Ilysiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Isodontosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Kuehneosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
19251 Ma
Early Triassic
164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Lacertidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
433136 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Lamprophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lanthanotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Lanthonotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lapparantophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lapparentopheidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Laticaudidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leiocephalidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leiosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leptotyphlopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Lichanuridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Liolaemidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Loxocemidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Mexican Burrowing Snake2246.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Macrocephalosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Macrocnemidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Madtsoiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9999.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Mosasauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Mosasaur636156 Ma
Jurassic
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Natricidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Necrosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7885.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Nigeropheidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1066.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Nigerophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1099.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
38.0 Ma
Eocene
Oligodontosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
263.3 Ma
Paleocene
61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Opluridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Madagascar Iguana10.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Pachyophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pachyophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Palaeophidae
family
listed (PBDB)
Palaeophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
11083.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Paliguanidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1252 Ma
Permian
252 Ma
Permian
Paramacellodidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
63168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Parasaniwidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
293.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
58.7 Ma
Paleocene
Paravaranidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pareatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pareidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phrynosomatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
483.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Phyllodactylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Piramicephalosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
283.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Placosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Polychrotidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5155.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Polyglyphanodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
70105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Polyodontobaenidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
366.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
58.7 Ma
Paleocene
Priscagamidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
25125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Psammophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Pseudoxenodontidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pygopodidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Pythonidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Python5928.4 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Rhabdosomidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Rhineuridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4863.3 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Russellopheidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
141.3 Ma
Eocene
41.3 Ma
Eocene
Russellophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1383.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Russelophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sanziniidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Saurosternidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Scincidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Skink13985.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Shinisauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
155.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Simoliopheidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Simoliophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Slavoiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Sphaerodactylidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Teiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
111130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Trachelosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1247 Ma
Early Triassic
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Trogonophidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
928.4 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Tropidophiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Dwarf Boa4366.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Tropiduridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Ground Lizard637.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Typhlopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Blind Snake1228.1 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Ungaliopheidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Uropeltidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Shieldtail Snake0 Ma
Extant
Uroplatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Varanidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Monitor Lizard11886.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Viperidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Viper4728.4 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Xantusiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Night Lizard46125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Xenodermatidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Xenodermidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Xenopeltidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Xenophidiidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Xenosauridae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
29129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Xenotyphlopidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Zanclodontidae
family
listed (PBDB)1209 Ma
Late Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Zonuridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Adriosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
599.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Aiolosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Altanteius
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Anchaurosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
283.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Anhuisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
161.7 Ma
Paleocene
61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Anomalophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Anqingosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Aphanizocnemus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Apsgnathus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Araeosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Arcanosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Ardeosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4156 Ma
Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Asagaolacerta
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Australophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Southern Snake283.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Baabdasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Balnealacerta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Barungoia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Bavarisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1152 Ma
Late Jurassic
152 Ma
Late Jurassic
Bellairsia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Bharatagama
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1183 Ma
Early Jurassic
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Bothriagenys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Brasiliguana
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Buckantaus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
193.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Carlesia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cemeterius
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
272.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cerberophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
170.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Chamaeleognathus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Changjiangosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Chianghsia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
170.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Chromatogenys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
186.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
86.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Chthonophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
166.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cnodontosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Conantophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.3 Ma
Oligocene
33.3 Ma
Oligocene
Coprophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Costasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1112 Ma
Early Cretaceous
112 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Cretagama
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cuencasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Cyclurasia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Dakotaseps
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Dalinghosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Dimekodontosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Dinilysia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
686.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Durotrigia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3172 Ma
Middle Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Dzhadochtosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Eichstaettisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3151 Ma
Late Jurassic
112 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Eolacerta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2059.2 Ma
Paleocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Eoxanta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
383.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Estesia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
483.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Flaviagama
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Foliesaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
133.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Globaura
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
683.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Gobekko
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Gobiderma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
683.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Goinophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
330.8 Ma
Oligocene
26.3 Ma
Oligocene
Gurvansaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
283.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hakuseps
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Headonophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
137.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Helagras
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
366.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Hodzhakulia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hongshanxi
genus
listed (PBDB)1161 Ma
Jurassic
161 Ma
Jurassic
Hoyalacerta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Huehuecuetzpalli
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Hugueneysaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
328.4 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Hymenosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Igua
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Isodontosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
783.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Itaboraiophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
158.7 Ma
Paleocene
58.7 Ma
Paleocene
Jeddaherdan
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Jeholacerta
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Jucaraseps
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Judeasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Kaganaias
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Kleskunsaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Komensaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Kuroyuriella
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Kuwajimalla
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Lacertipus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lamiasaura
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
170.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Liaoningolacerta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Litakis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
383.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Liushusaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Lonchisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
170.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Lowesaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
233.9 Ma
Oligocene
33.3 Ma
Oligocene
Magnuviator
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Megachirella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1247 Ma
Early Triassic
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Merkurosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
428.4 Ma
Oligocene
20.0 Ma
Miocene
Mesoleptos
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
399.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Mimeosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
883.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Monocnemodon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
285.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
85.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Morunasius
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Myrmecodaptria
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Norisophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Obamadon
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
270.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Olindalacerta
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1122 Ma
Early Cretaceous
122 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Ophidium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Ornatocephalus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
148.6 Ma
Eocene
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Oxia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Oxiella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Pachygenys
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
112 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Pachyvaranus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
983.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Parameiva
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Paraplacosauriops
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
456.0 Ma
Paleocene
38.0 Ma
Eocene
Paraprionosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
150.3 Ma
Eocene
50.3 Ma
Eocene
Parasaurillus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4145 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Pariguana
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
170.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Parmeosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
483.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Parviderma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Parviraptor
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Paulacoutophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
158.7 Ma
Paleocene
58.7 Ma
Paleocene
Pedrerasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Phrynosomimus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
483.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Polrussia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
283.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Primaderma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Procerophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
256.0 Ma
Paleocene
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Prodenteia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Protagras
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
150.3 Ma
Eocene
50.3 Ma
Eocene
Pseudosaurillus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4145 Ma
Late Jurassic
105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Purbicella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1145 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Pyrenasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
238.0 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Saichangurvel
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
183.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Sakurasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Scandensia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Schillerosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1157 Ma
Jurassic
157 Ma
Jurassic
Scincoideus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
466.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Seismophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Stypodontosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
170.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Tarratosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2152 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Tedorosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Teilhardosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Tepexisaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Tethysaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
193.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Tetrapodophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1122 Ma
Early Cretaceous
122 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Thaumastophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
256.0 Ma
Paleocene
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Tijubina
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Tikiguania
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Todrasaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
159.2 Ma
Paleocene
59.2 Ma
Paleocene
Vectophis
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
337.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Vialovophis
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Webbsaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Xianglong
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Yabeinosaurus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8130 Ma
Early Cretaceous
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Episquamata
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)2,971168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Iguanomorpha
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)549183 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Lacertibaenia
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Scincogekkonomorpha
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)1129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Scleroglossa
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)9145 Ma
Late Jurassic
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1811Squamata Oppel p. 14
1826Squamata Fitzinger p. 4
1842Iguana haueri Meyer
1882Squamati Quenstedt p. 155
1898Squamata Woodward p. 141
1899Saniwa australis Ameghino
1902Squamata Hay p. 463
1903Squamata Osborn p. 276
1904Squamata Osborn p. 114
1906Squamata Andrews p. 306
1908Squamata Lambe
1928Harpagosaurus excedens Gilmore p. 157 fig. 98
1934Squamata Swinton p. 16
1937Squamata Roxo p. 43
1942Haplodontosaurus Gilmore p. 164
1942Haplodontosaurus excedens Gilmore p. 164
1946Squamata Kuhn p. 60
1954Squamata Huene p. 61
1964Yabeinosaurus youngi Hoffstetter
1966Squamata Kuhn p. 44
1978Acanthurus haueri Schultz p. 213
1980Squamata Schatzinger
1981Squamata Thurmond and Jones p. 148
1982Squamata Carroll p. 183
1982Squamata Gardiner p. 228
1982Squamata Holman
1983Haplodontosaurus Estes
YearName and Author
1983Yabeinosaurus youngi Estes p. 63
1983Squamata Stritzke
1985Squamata Benton p. 157
1986Squamata Sullivan p. 109
1986Paikasisaurus Yadagiri pp. 92-93 figs. 1r, s
1986Paikasisaurus indicus Yadagiri pp. 92-93 figs. 1r, s
1988Haplodontosaurus Carroll
1988Squamata Carroll
1988Squamata Estes et al.
1991Squamata Holman et al.
1991Squamata Norell and de Queiroz
1995Squamata Lingham-Soliar
1996Squamata Frank and Ramus
1996Squamata Gao and Fox p. 13
2001Squamata Peng et al. p. 26
2002Squamata Nicholls and Meckert p. 1593
2002Squamata Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Squamata Krause et al. p. 843
2003Squamata Meyer and Zardoya
2006Squamata Datta and Ray p. 795
2008Squamata Venczel and Stiuca p. 750
2010Squamata Böhme p. 18
2012Squamata Evans and Wang
2012Squamata Fernicola and Albino
2012Squamata Konishi et al.
2013Squamata Palci et al.

References

Oppel M. , Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien als Prodom einer Naturgeschichte Derselben. Joseph Lindauer, München, xii-86
Fitzinger L. I. Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren Natürlichen Verwandtschaften. Einer Verwandtschafts-Tafel und einem Verzeichnisse der Reptilien-Sammlung des K. K. Zoologischen Museum’s zu Wien [New Classification of Reptiles According to their Natural Relationships. A Kinship Panel and a Directory of the Reptile Collection of the K. K. Zoological Museum in Vienna], 1-66
Hay O. P. (1902) , Bibliography and Catalogue of the Fossil Vertebrata of North America. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 179, 1-868
Osborn H. F. (1903) On the primary division of the Reptilia into two sub-classes, Synapsida and Diapsida, Science 17 424, 275-276
Andrews C. W. (1906) , A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of Fayum, Egypt, 1-324
Lambe L. M. (1908) The Vertebrata of the Oligocene of the Cypress Hills, Saskatchewan, Contributions to Canadian Palaeontology 3 4, 1-65 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.61444
Gilmore C. W. (1928) Fossil lizards of North America, Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 22 3, 1-201
Swinton W. E. (1934) , A Guide to the Fossil Birds, Reptiles, and Amphibians in the Department of Geology and Paleontology in the British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, London, S.W. 7, xii-87
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Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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