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Cardiidae

Description

A cockle is an edible, marine bivalve mollusc. Although many small edible bivalves are loosely called cockles, true cockles are species in the family Cardiidae. True cockles live in sandy, sheltered beaches throughout the world. The distinctive rounded shells are bilaterally symmetrical, and are heart-shaped when viewed from the end. Numerous radial, evenly spaced ribs are a feature of the shell in most but not all genera (for an exception, see the genus Laevicardium, the egg cockles, which have very smooth shells).


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)6858https://www.gbif.org/species/6858
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)59532https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=59532
Rankfamily
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Cardiida : Cardiidae
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-Bilateria
-EubilateriaAx 1987
-ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
-Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMolluscaLinnaeus 1758
classBivalviaLinnaeus 1758
-EubivalviaCarter 2011
subclassAutobranchia
infraclassHeteroconchia
-CardiomorphiFerussac 1822
-CardioniFerussac 1822
-CardiidiaFerussac 1822
-CardiataFerussac 1822
superorderCardiiformiiFerussac 1822
orderCardiidaFerussac 1822
suborderCardiidinaFerussac 1822
-CardioideiFerussac 1822
superfamilyCardioidea
familyCardiidaeLamarck 1809
Common Namecockle
Scientific NameCardiidae
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated with evidenceGlenn, 1904
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Pelecypodastated without evidenceClark and Arnold, 1923
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated without evidencePopenoe, 1937
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated with evidenceNewell, 1965
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Veneroidastated without evidenceRonchetti, 1970
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated with evidenceVokes, 1980
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated without evidenceDockery, 1982
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated with evidenceGliozzi and Malatesta, 1983
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated without evidenceSquires, 1984
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated with evidenceWard and Blackwelder, 1987
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardiaceastated without evidenceSquires, 1987
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Veneroidastated without evidenceSquires, 1988
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardioideastated without evidenceWard, 1992
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardioideastated with evidenceRosenberg, 2005
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardioideastated without evidenceHarzhauser et al., 2008
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Veneroidastated without evidenceScholz et al., 2008
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to CardioideaimpliedNevesskaja, 2009
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardioideastated without evidenceBouchet et al., 2010
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardioideastated with evidenceCarter et al., 2011
Cardiidaefamilybelongs to Cardioideastated without evidenceRos-Franch et al., 2014
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)662
Extant Size (PBDB)187 (28%)
First Recorded Appearance446 - 444 Ma
Paleozoic
Motilityfacultatively mobile
Visionblind (based on Bivalvia)
Dietsuspension feeder
Ecospace CommentsLIFE HISTORY: IS, MA, UN, SU according to Todd (2001).
Taphonomyaragonite (based on Bivalvia)
Primary Reference (PBDB)H. E. Vokes. 1980. Genera of the Bivalvia: a systematic and bibliographic Catalogue. Genera of the Bivalvia: a systematic and bibliographic Catalogue
Common Name(s) Cockle, Herzmuscheln, Cockle Shells, Cockles, Coques, Hartschelpen, Hjarteskjel, Hjerteskjell, Hjärtmusslor, Kokkels, ザルガイ
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiidae

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Laevicardiinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)522145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Lahilliinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)86201 Ma
Early Jurassic
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Protocardiinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)1,211237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Trachycardiinae
subfamily
listed (PBDB)988113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Acanthocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
22689.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Acrosterigma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
5223.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Adacna
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
20.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Afrocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
611.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Agnocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Americardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7947.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Anechinocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2966.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Apiocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Austrocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
972.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Avicularium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
237.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Brevicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bucardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1385.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Byssocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Cardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cerastoderma
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15866.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Chesacardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7423.0 Ma
Miocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Chrysocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
137.2 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Ciliatocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8655.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Clinocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
16256.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Corculum
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
272.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Ctenocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1511.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Dallocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
22037.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Didacna
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1011.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Dinocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
12941.3 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Discors
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3556.0 Ma
Paleocene
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Dochmocardia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
193.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Ethmocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
3283.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Europicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1523.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Fragum
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6789.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Freneixicardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Frigidocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Fulvia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1833.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Goethemia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
80.78 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Goniocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Granocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
410125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
58.7 Ma
Paleocene
Habecardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hedecardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7361.6 Ma
Paleocene
13.7 Ma
Miocene
Hemicardium
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
938.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Hippopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
711.6 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Indocardium
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Integricardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
51183 Ma
Early Jurassic
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Jurassicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
7168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Keenaea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Keenocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Laevicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lahillia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
8385.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Lophocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Loxocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4066.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Lunulicardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
423.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Lunulicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
216.0 Ma
Miocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Lyrocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Maoricardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
15.33 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Microcardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2237.2 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Microfragum
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Monodacna
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Nemocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
498242 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Neodidacnomya
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Obsoletiforma
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1216.0 Ma
Miocene
12.7 Ma
Miocene
Obsoletiformes
genus
listed (PBDB)112.7 Ma
Miocene
12.7 Ma
Miocene
Omanidacna
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
328.1 Ma
Oligocene
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Orthocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2956.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Pachycardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Papillicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
233.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Papyridea
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4741.3 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Paradacna
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
411.6 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Parvicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
19466.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Parvidacna
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
17.25 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene
Pascoella
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Patagonicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
533.9 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Perucardia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
272.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Plagiocardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
6266.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Planicardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
35.33 Ma
Miocene
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Pleuriocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
75140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Pratulum
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Procardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Protocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1,160237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0.78 Ma
Pleistocene
Pseudofulvia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ringicardium
genus
listed (PBDB)1647.8 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Sawkinsia
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
537.2 Ma
Eocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Schedocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2266.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Septocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
96242 Ma
Middle Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Serripes
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
9733.9 Ma
Oligocene
0 Ma
Extant
Trachycardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
716113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Tridacna
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Trifaricardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Trigoniocardia
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
39138.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Vasticardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Vepricardium
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1383.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Granocardium pendens
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Isocardia washita
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Neocardium fulvum
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Neocardiids
unranked clade
listed (PBDB)2,623446 Ma
Late Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Lymnocardiidae GBIFfamilyAnimalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Cardiida : Lymnocardiidae
Chametracheidae GBIFfamilyAnimalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Cardiida : Chametracheidae

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1809Cardiidae Lamarck
1904Cardiidae Glenn p. 319
1923Cardiidae Clark and Arnold p. 145
1937Cardiidae Popenoe p. 388
1965Cardiidae Newell p. 20
1970Cardiidae Ronchetti p. 61
1979Goniocardiidae Scarlato and Starobogatov
1980Cardiidae Vokes p. 126
1982Cardiidae Dockery p. 69
1983Cardiidae Gliozzi and Malatesta p. 96
1984Cardiidae Squires p. 49
1987Cardiidae Squires p. 65
1987Cardiidae Ward and Blackwelder p. 130
1988Cardiidae Squires p. 19
YearName and Author
1992Cardiidae Ward p. 88
1999Cardiidae Squires p. 25
2000Cardiidae Coan et al. p. 259
2001Cardiidae Todd
2005Cardiidae Rosenberg
2006Cardiidae Rosenberg et al.
2008Cardiidae Harzhauser et al. p. 200
2008Cardiidae Scholz et al.
2009Cardiidae Nevesskaja
2009Goniocardiidae Nevesskaja
2010Cardiidae Bouchet et al.
2011Cardiidae Carter et al. p. 15
2014Cardiidae Ros-Franch et al.
2015Cardiidae Hickman p. 18

References

Vokes H. E. (1980) Genera of the Bivalvia: a systematic and bibliographic Catalogue, Genera of the Bivalvia: a systematic and bibliographic Catalogue
Glenn L. C. (1904) Pelecypoda, Maryland Geological Survey Miocene Text, 274-401
Clark B. L., Arnold R. (1923) Fauna of the Sooke Formation Vancouver Island, University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences 14 5, 123-234
Popenoe W. P. (1937) Upper Cretaceous Mollusca from Southern California, Journal of Paleontology 11 5, 379-402
Newell N. D. (1965) Classification of the Bivalvia, American Museum Novitates 2206, 1-25
Ronchetti C. R. (1970) New contributions to the knowledge of the Jurassic fauna of Karkar (Northeast Afghanistan), Ital. Expedit., Karakorum (K2) Hindu Kush, Scientific Reports IV, Paleontology – Zoology – Botany 2, 43-74
Dockery D. T. (1982) Lower Oligocene Bivalvia of the Vicksburg Group in Mississippi, Mississippi Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Geology 123, 1-261
Gliozzi E., Malatesta A. (1983) I molluschi del Paleocene di Baixa Chinhauanine nel bacino del Rio Massintonto (Maputo - Mozambico), Geologica Romana 22, 85-145
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Ward L. W., Blackwelder B.W. (1987) Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Mollusca from the James City and Chowan River Formations at Lee Creek Mine, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 61, 113-283
Squires R. L. (1988) Eocene Macropaleontology of Northern Lockwood Valley, Ventura County, California, Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 398, 1-23
Ward L. W. (1992) Molluscan biostratigraphy of the Miocene Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America, Virginia Museum of Natural History 2
Coan E. V., Scott P. V., et al (2000) Bivalve seashells of western North America, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural history Monographs 2, 1-764
Todd J. A. (2001) Systematic list of bivalves in the Panama Paleontology Project collections, [http://eusmilia.geology.uiowa.edu/database/bivalves/systemat/bivaltax.htm#list]
Rosenberg G. (2005) Malacolog 4.0: A database of Western Atlantic marine Mollusca, [WWW database (version 4.1.0)] URL http://data.acnatsci.org/wasp
Rosenberg G., Ponder W., et al (2006) A Biotic Database of Indo-Pacific Marine Mollusks doi:http://data.acnatsci.org/obis
Harzhauser M., Mandic O., et al (2008) Tracing back the origin of the Indo-Pacific mollusc fauna: Basal Tridacninae from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Sultanate of Oman, Palaeontology 51 1, 199-213
Scholz A., Aberhan M., et al (2008) Early Jurassic bivalves of the Antimonio terrane (Sonora, NW Mexico): Taxonomy, biogeography, and paleogeographic implications, Geological Society of America Special Paper 442, 269-312
Nevesskaja L. A. (2009) Principles of Systematics and the System of Bivalves, Paleontological Journal 43 1, 1-11 doi:10.1134/S0031030109010018
Bouchet P., Rocroi J.-P., et al (2010) Nomenclator of Bivalve Families with a Classification of Bivalve Families, Malacologia 52 2, 1-184 doi:10.4002/040.052.0201
Carter J. G., Altaba C. R., et al (2011) A Synoptical Classification of the Bivalvia (Mollusca), University of Kansas Paleontological Institute Paleontological Contributions 4, 1-47
Ros-Franch S., Márquez-Aliaga A., et al (2014) Comprehensive database on Induan (Lower Triassic) to Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) marine bivalve genera and their paleobiogeographic record, Paleontological Contributions 8, 1-219
Hickman C. S. (2015) Paleogene marine bivalves of the deep-water Keasey Formation in Oregon, Part III: The heteroconchs, PaleoBios 32, 1-44
Benton, M.J. (ed). (1993). The Fossil Record 2. Chapman & Hall, London, 845 pp. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
WoRMS (Mar 2013) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al., 1998: Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed.. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Millard, V., 1997: null. Classification of Mollusca: A classification of world wide Mollusca. 1-544. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Vaught, K. C. / Abbott, Robert T. and Kenneth J. Boss, 1989: null. A classification of the living Mollusca. xii+195. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Coan, E. V.; Valentich-Scott, P. (2012). Bivalve seashells of tropical West America. Marine bivalve mollusks from Baja California to northern Peru. 2 vols, 1258 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bieler R., Carter J.G. & Coan E.V. (2010). Classification of Bivalve families. Pp. 113-133, in: Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (2010), Nomenclator of Bivalve Families. Malacologia 52(2): 1-184. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Poorten, J.J. ter, 2005. Outline of a systematic index - Recent Cardiidae (Lamarck, 1809). VISAYA net. (Updated 2009 for WoRMS) - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Herrera, N.D.; Ter Poorten, J.J.; Bieler, R.; Mikkelsen, P.M.; Strong, E.E.; Jablonski, D.; Steppan, S.J. (2015). Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography amid shifting continents in the cockles and giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 93: 94-106. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Poorten, J.J. ter, 2005. Outline of a systematic index - Recent Cardiidae (Lamarck, 1809). VISAYA net. (Updated 2009 for WoRMS) - via World Register of Marine Species
Herrera, N.D.; Ter Poorten, J.J.; Bieler, R.; Mikkelsen, P.M.; Strong, E.E.; Jablonski, D.; Steppan, S.J. (2015). Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography amid shifting continents in the cockles and giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 93: 94-106. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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