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Bufonidae

Description

A true toad is any member of the family Bufonidae, in the order Anura (frogs and toads). This is the only family of anurans in which all members are known as toads, although some may be called frogs (such as harlequin frogs). The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most well known.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)6727https://www.gbif.org/species/6727
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)37464https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=37464
Rankfamily
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Amphibia : Anura : Bufonidae
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Animalia : Chordata : Osteichthyes : Anura : Bufonidae
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrataLamarck 1801
superclassGnathostomataGegenbauer 1874
-Osteichthyes
-SarcopterygiiRomer 1955
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha
subclassTetrapodomorpha
-Tetrapoda
-Temnospondyli
-Lissamphibia
-Batrachia
orderSalientiaLaurenti 1768
orderAnura
-Neobatrachia
familyBufonidaeGray 1825
Common Nametoad
Scientific NameBufonidae
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to Bufoniformiastated with evidenceCope, 1875
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to Arciferastated with evidenceGadow, 1898
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to Procoelastated with evidenceKuhn, 1946
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to AnuraimpliedCarroll, 1988
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to Anuristated without evidenceHolman et al., 1990
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to Hyloideastated without evidenceSanchiz, 1998
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to Hyloideastated with evidenceHoegg et al., 2004
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to Neobatrachiastated with evidenceGissi et al., 2006
Bufonidaefamilybelongs to AnuraimpliedVenczel and Stiuca, 2008
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)32
Extant Size (PBDB)17 (53%)
First Recorded Appearance83.5 - 66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Environmentbrackish,freshwater,terrestrial (based on Tetrapoda)
Motilityactively mobile (based on Temnospondyli)
Dietcarnivore (based on Temnospondyli)
Taphonomyphosphatic (based on Vertebrata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution
Common Name(s) Echte Padden, Toad, Bufonids, Toads, Bufonidés, Crapauds, True Toads, Ob. Padda, Paddor
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bufonidae

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Adenomus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Altiphrynoides
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amazophrynella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Amietophrynus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anaxyrus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Andinophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ansonia
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Atelopus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Barbarophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bufo
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
37383.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Bufo
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bufoides
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Bufotes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Capensibufo
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Churamiti
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Crepidophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dendrophryniscus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Didynamipus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Duttaphrynus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Epidalea
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Natterjack Toad10.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Frostius
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Incilius
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Indobatrachus
genus
listed (PBDB)356.0 Ma
Paleocene
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Ingerophrynus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Laurentophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Leptophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Melanophryniscus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mertensophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Metaphryniscus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nannophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nectophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nectophrynoides
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nimbaphrynoides
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Oreophrynella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Osornophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Parapelophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pedostibes
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pelophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Peltophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Phrynoidis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Poyntonophrynus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudepidalea
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudobufo
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhaebo
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Rhinella
genus
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
106.80 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Sabahphrynus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Schismaderma
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Sclerophrys
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Truebella
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Vandijkophrynus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Werneria
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Wolterstorffina
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Xanthophryne
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anura empusa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anura fowleri
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anura peltocephala
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Poyntonophryne vertebralis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1825Bufonidae Gray
1875Bufonidae Cope p. 9
1898Bufonidae Gadow p. 15
1946Bufonidae Kuhn p. 54
1988Bufonidae Carroll
1990Bufonidae Holman et al. p. 523
YearName and Author
1996Bufonidae Frank and Ramus
1998Bufonidae Sanchiz
2004Bufonidae Hoegg et al. p. 1192
2006Bufonidae Gissi et al. p. 231
2008Bufonidae Venczel and Stiuca p. 746
2010Bufonidae Böhme p. 16

References

Carroll R. L. (1988) , Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1-698
Cope E. D. Check-list of North American Batrachia and Reptilia; with a systematic list of the higher groups, and an essay on geographical distribution. Based on the specimens contained in the U. S. National Museum, Bulletin of the United States National Museum 1, 1-109
Gadow H. , A Classification of Vertebrata Recent and Extinct, xvii-82
Kuhn O. (1946) Das System der fossilen und rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien [The system of fossil and recent amphibians and reptiles], Bericht der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bamberg 29, 49-67
Holman J. A., Bell G. L., et al (1990) A late Pleistocene herpetofauna from Bell Cave, Alabama, The Herpetological Journal 1 11, 521-529
Frank N., Ramus E. (1996) A Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Reptiles and Amphibians of the World, 1-377
Sanchiz B. (1998) Salientia, Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie 4
Hoegg S., Vences M., et al (2004) Phylogeny and comparative substitution rates of frogs inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes, Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 7, 1188-1200
Gissi C., San Mauro D., et al (2006) Mitochondrial phylogeny of Anura (Amphibia): a case study of congruent phylogenetic reconstruction using amino acid and nucleotide characters, Gene 366 2, 228-237
Venczel M., Stiuca E. (2008) Late middle Miocene amphibians and squamate reptiles from Taut, Romania, Geodiversitas 30 4, 731-763
Böhme M. (2010) Ectothermic vertebrates (Actinopterygii, Allocaudata, Urodela, Anura, Crocodylia, Squamata) from the Miocene of Sandelzhausen (Germany, Bavaria) and their implications for environment reconstruction and palaeoclimate, Paläontologische Zeitschrift 84 1, 3-41 doi:10.1007/s12542-010-0050-4
Benton, M.J. (ed). (1993). The Fossil Record 2. Chapman & Hall, London, 845 pp. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed., 1993: Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes, 2004: null. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004). - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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