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Echinodermata

Description

Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals. The adults are recognizable by their (usually five-point) radial symmetry, and include such well-known animals as starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers, as well as the sea lilies or "stone lilies". Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the abyssal zone.The phylum contains about 7000 living species, making it the second-largest grouping of deuterostomes (a superphylum), after the chordates (which include the vertebrates, such as birds, fishes, mammals, and reptiles). Echinoderms are also the largest phylum that has no freshwater or terrestrial (land-based) representatives.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)50https://www.gbif.org/species/50
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)30739https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=30739
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Echinodermata
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
TriploblasticaLankester 1877
NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermataKlein 1754
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameEchinodermata
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)9,191
Extant Size (PBDB)833 (9.1%)
First Recorded Appearance530 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Environmentmarine
Reproductiondispersal=water,planktonic
Ontogenyaccretion,addition of parts
Taphonomyhigh Mg calcite
Primary Reference (PBDB)T. Klein. 1754. Ordre naturel des oursins de mer et fossiles, avec des observations sur les piquants des oursins de mer et quelques remarques sur les bélemnites. C.J.B. Bauche, Paris
Common Name(s) Echinoderms
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echinodermata

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Asteroidea
class
acceptedSea Star1,237485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Crinoidea
class
acceptedSea Lily12,774513 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Echinoidea
class
acceptedSea Urchin10,379470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Holothuroidea
class
acceptedSea Cucumber1,336513 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Ophiuroidea
class
acceptedBrittle Star1,043485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Achistrulidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Agelacrinitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alexandritidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Allanicytidiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ambolostomatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ampheristocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amygdalocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amygdalocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anomalocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anomalocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anomalocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Apycnodiscidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arbaciadae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archegonasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archophiactinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aristocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asteroblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Astrocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Astrocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Barroubiocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Belemnocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brachyschismatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calcancorellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calliasterellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Callocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Canisiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caryocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Catervaparmasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ceratoblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ceratocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cheirocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chiridotitesidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cholasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Codasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cothurnocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ctenocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cuniculcystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyathothecidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cystoblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dactylocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendrocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dibrachicystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diploblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echinocyctitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echinoencrinitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echinosphaeritidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Edrioasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoluidiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Etheridgellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eucladiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Felbabkacystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Girvanicystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glyptocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glyptosphaeritidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gomphocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Granatocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gyrocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hanusiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heckerocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Helicocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Helicoplacidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hemicystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Holocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Holynocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyperoblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Iowacystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Irregularia
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Isorophinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jaekelocarpidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kaliobullitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kirkocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kuehnitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lagynocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lebetodiscidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepidocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Linguaserridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lingulocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lyracystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Macrocystellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mesocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Minervaecystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mitrocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Moroccodiscidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Neoschismatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nucleocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nymphaeoblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orbitremitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orophocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palelpidiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paradoxocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paranacystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parasphaeronitiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pediculacaudinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Peltocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pentremitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Perittocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phaenoschismatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phragmactidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phyllocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Placocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plasiacystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pleurocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polydiadematidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protocrinitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Punctatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pygmaeocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhenopyrgidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhenosquamidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhombiferidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhopalocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ridersiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rotasacciidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rotiformidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rozanovicystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rutroclypeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Salenies
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schizoblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scotiaecystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Semperitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sollasinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sphaeronitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanoblastidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephanocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stichocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stromatocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sucocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Synaptellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Syringocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tornatilicrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Totiglobidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trachelocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trochocystitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Troosticrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tubocaudinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tunguskocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Turbanicystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ulrichocystidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Westgardellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zophocrinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acanthocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acentrotremites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Achradocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Adiakritocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aenigmatocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Akadocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Allanicytidium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amadeusicrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ambolostoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amygdalotheca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anartiocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anatiferocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Angioblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Angulatoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anthoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Apokryphocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Apollocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arachnocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aragocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arbucklecystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archastropecten
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arcuoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Artuschisma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ascocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asperellacystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Astrocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Astrocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ataxiacrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ateleocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Auloblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Austroblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Barrandeocarpus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Batherocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Belemnocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Belochthus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Beryllia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Billingsocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bistomiacystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Blastoidocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bolboporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Branzoviella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Breimeriblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brockocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bromidocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cadiscocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calycoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cambrocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Camptostroma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Canadocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cardiocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Castericystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cephalocinctus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ceratoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ceratocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chauvelia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cidaroblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Clavidiscus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coccocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Codonites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coelaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Columbocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Costatoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cothurnocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cotyledonocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Courtessolea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cribrellopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cribroblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crinosoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ctenoimbricata
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cupressocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Curvitriordo
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyclocinctus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cymbionites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dalejocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dallonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Decacystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Decemoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Deliablastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dendrocystoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dentiblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diamphidiocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diploblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dolichoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Domfrontia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Drepanocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Drepanocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echinasterella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echinospatagus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eldonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eleutherocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Elliptocinctus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Emuhablastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eugeniacrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eumitrocystella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Euryoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eustypocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eutretocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Flabellicystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foerstecystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Galliaecystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gibbaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Giganticlavus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Girvanicystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Globoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glyptaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glyptocystella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gongyloblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Goniasteroidocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gonioclypeus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Grabauicrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hadrocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Haimacystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Haptocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hemipalaeaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hesperocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hypsiclavus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyptiocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Idiocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Imperatoria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Inyoaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jaekelaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jonkerocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Julieticrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Katoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kopficystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lanxocolumnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Latocolumnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leiocorys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepidocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leptoschisma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leucaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lignanicystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lipsanocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Llanocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lobocarpus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lobocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lodanella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Macurdablastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mariacrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marjumicystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mastoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Meristoschisma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Metablastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Micropocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mitrocystella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Myeinocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nolichuckia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oanducystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ocellothuria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oklahomacystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Olivanites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ophiurus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orbiblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orbitremites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orthechinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Osculocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pachyblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paracodaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paranacystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pareocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pentablastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pentadelocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pentremoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Perittoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Petalocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phaenoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phyllocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pirocystella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Placocystella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Placocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Platycystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pogocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polydeltoideus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prochauvelicystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Promitrocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protorophus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prototiara
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudocupressocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pterotoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ptychoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pyramiblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ranunculocolumnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rectitriordo
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Regnellicystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhenocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhipidocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Saccoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sarsella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schizotremites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scoteinocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scotiaecystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scyphocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Shumardocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinclairocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinopetaloblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinorbitremites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Solacolumnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spiraclavus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Springerocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Squamaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stemmatocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stribalocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Strimplecystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Strobilocystites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Strongyloblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Talanterocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tanaoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tanaocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tanaocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Teratocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tetraster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thoralaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Torquerisediscus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Totiglobus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trimerocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tripoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trochocinctus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trochocystoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tylocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tympanoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ubaghsicystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ulrichocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Willmanocystis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wudingeocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xenobasis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xenoblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xyeleblastus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xystocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yunnanechinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zeacrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zygiosocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caryocrinus hammelli
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caryocrinus persculptus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Camptostromoidea
class
Not linked to GBIF3516 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Edrioasteroidea
class
Not linked to GBIF264extinct516 Ma
Cambrian
272 Ma
Permian
Helicoplacoidea
class
Not linked to GBIF5extinct530 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Diploporita
class
Not linked to GBIF309extant485 Ma
Cambrian
392 Ma
Middle Devonian
Ctenocystoidea
class
Not linked to GBIF30extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
453 Ma
Late Ordovician
Homostelea
class
Not linked to GBIF0
Cincta
class
Not linked to GBIF76extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Homoiostelea
class
Not linked to GBIF2513 Ma
Cambrian
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Stylophora
class
Not linked to GBIF214extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
315 Ma
Carboniferous
Pelmatozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF94extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Iheringiana
genus
Not linked to GBIF0
Asterozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF2,364extant488 Ma
Cambrian
Cyclocystoidea
class
Not linked to GBIF103extinct472 Ma
Early Ordovician
380 Ma
Late Devonian
Scutellidae
family
Not linked to GBIF9extant23.0 Ma
Miocene
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Scutellinidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Blastozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF1,760extant530 Ma
Cambrian
251 Ma
Early Triassic
Echinoconus
genus
Not linked to GBIF5extinct105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Discoidea
genus
Not linked to GBIF11extinct172 Ma
Middle Jurassic
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Peripneustes
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Echinozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF10,390extant470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Scoteinocystis
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Semperitidae
family
Not linked to GBIF8extinct269 Ma
Permian
199 Ma
Early Jurassic
Eleutherozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF66extant433 Ma
Silurian
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pediculacaudinidae
family
Not linked to GBIF1extinct269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Tubocaudinidae
family
Not linked to GBIF1extinct269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Ctenoimbricata
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Helicocystitidae
family
Not linked to GBIF3extinct516 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Carpoidea
class
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Paracrinozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Mesocrinus
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Crinozoa
subphylum
Not linked to GBIF12,777extant513 Ma
Cambrian
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1754Echinodermata Klein
1998Echinodermata Zrzavy et al.
2002Echinodermata Sepkoski, Jr.
2011Echinodermata Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Echinodermata Nielsen p. 321

References

Klein T. Ordre naturel des oursins de mer et fossiles, avec des observations sur les piquants des oursins de mer et quelques remarques sur les bélemnites, C.J.B. Bauche, Paris, 1-235
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Fell, F. Julian / Parker, Sybil P., ed., 1982: Echinodermata. Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, vol. 2. 785-813. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Leeuwis, Rob (2002) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 2002: null. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Wolff, W.J. (1975) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2013) Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.eu/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, G, Samuelsson, Cedhagen & Strand (2013) Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna. Tagghudingar–svalgsträngsdjur. Echinodermata– Hemichordata. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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