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Annelida

Description

The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches. The species exist in and have adapted to various ecologies – some in marine environments as distinct as tidal zones and hydrothermal vents, others in fresh water, and yet others in moist terrestrial environments.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)42https://www.gbif.org/species/42
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)7021https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=7021
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Annelida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumAnnelidaLamarck 1809
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameAnnelida
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)485
Extant Size (PBDB)183 (38%)
First Recorded Appearance530 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Primary Reference (PBDB)L. C. Glenn. 1904. Pelecypoda. Maryland Geological Survey Miocene(Text):274-401
Common Name(s) Worm, Segmented Worms, European Sea Mouse, Annelids
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annelida

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Clitellata
class
accepted8315 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Polychaeta
class
accepted3,233520 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Hercolepadidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hrabeiellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepidocoelidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepidocoleidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lobatocerebridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plumulitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Turrilepadidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Adaetobdella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ambalodus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ancyrobdella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anoculobdella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bransonella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crossopodia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Democedes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Helminthodes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Idiobdella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lecthaylus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lonchosaccus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Maiabdella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Miskoia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Multidentodus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nereites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nothognathella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oligoclepsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ornataporta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeohirudo
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paltodus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polygnathodella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyupsilon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sanguisuga
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Skolekichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sphenothallus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Synprioniodina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Typhlobdella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Worthenella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Autodetus apicatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coleolus clintonensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coleolus curvatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coleolus iowensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coleolus laevis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coleolus missouriensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coleolus tenuis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Coleoprion minuta
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dysoponetus bidentatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Enchostoma serpuliforme
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Encostomata bicarinatum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Epidopatra hupferiana
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foralites americanus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hadiya clavaspina
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hidaya clavispina
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hidaya dendrospina
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Indonereis gopalai
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ovopomatus capensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parayagansia crawfordi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pheretimoides agilis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pheretimoides deceptens
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scolithus linearis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scoyenia gracilis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Skolithos ingens
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis gyrus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thalassoldrilides briani
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Canadia
genus
Not linked to GBIF7extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Ctenoscolex
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct151 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Burgessochaeta
genus
Not linked to GBIF15extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
501 Ma
Cambrian
Insolicorypha
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Peronochaeta
genus
Not linked to GBIF4extinct513 Ma
Cambrian
505 Ma
Cambrian
Stephanoscolex
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Myzostomaria
class
Not linked to GBIF0
Aphanoneura
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF0
Terebellina
genus
Not linked to GBIF3343 Ma
Carboniferous
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Chaetopoda
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0
Vermiforafacta
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct392 Ma
Middle Devonian
384 Ma
Middle Devonian
Thartharella
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct323 Ma
Carboniferous
290 Ma
Permian
Skolekichnus
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct201 Ma
Early Jurassic
191 Ma
Early Jurassic
Tubulostium
genus
Not linked to GBIF8extinct165 Ma
Middle Jurassic
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Eunicea
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Amphinomea
family
Not linked to GBIF1extinct151 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1809Annelida Lamarck
1904Annelida Martin p. 430
1998Annelida Zrzavy et al.
2002Annelida Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Annelida Kiessling
2011Annelida Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Annelida Nielsen p. 114 figs. Fig. 24.1
2015Annelida Laumer et al.

References

Glenn L. C. (1904) Pelecypoda, Maryland Geological Survey Miocene Text, 274-401
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Kiessling W. (2003) Personal data
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Laumer C. E., Bekkouche N., et al (2015) Spiralian phylogeny informs the evolution of microscopic lineages, Current Biology 25 15, 2000-2006 doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.068
Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Schiffer, Philipp H.; Robertson, Helen E.; Telford, Maximilian J. (2018). Orthonectids Are Highly Degenerate Annelid Worms. Current Biology. 28(12): 1970-1974.e3. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Rouse, Greg W.; Giribet, Gonzalo. (2016). Phylum Annelida: The Segmented (and Some Unsegmented) Worms. [edited book]. Chapt 14. p. 531-602 In Invertebrates. Third Edition. R. C. Brusca; W. Moore; S. M. Shuster. Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Schiffer, Philipp H.; Robertson, Helen E.; Telford, Maximilian J. (2018). Orthonectids Are Highly Degenerate Annelid Worms. Current Biology. 28(12): 1970-1974.e3. - via World Register of Marine Species
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
web search (AJR) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Rouse, Greg W.; Giribet, Gonzalo. (2016). Phylum Annelida: The Segmented (and Some Unsegmented) Worms. [edited book]. Chapt 14. p. 531-602 In Invertebrates. Third Edition. R. C. Brusca; W. Moore; S. M. Shuster. Sunderland, Massachusetts, Sinauer Associates. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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