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Arachnida

Description

Arachnida is a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata. Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions, ticks, mites, harvestmen, and solifuges. In 2019, a molecular phylogenetic study also placed horseshoe crabs in Arachnida.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)367https://www.gbif.org/species/367
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)19008https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=19008
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Arthropoda : Arachnida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
subphylumChelicerataHeymons 1901
EuchelicerataWeygoldt and Paulus 1979
ProsomapodaLamsdell 2013
classXiphosuraLatreille 1802
orderXiphosuridaLatreille 1802
PlanatergaLamsdell 2013
DekatriataLamsdell 2013
SclerophorataKamenz et al. 2011
classArachnidaLamarck 1801
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameArachnida
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)3,505
Extant Size (PBDB)776 (22%)
First Recorded Appearance439 - 433 Ma
Silurian
Environmentterrestrial
Motilityactively mobile
Visionlimited (based on Xiphosurida)
Dietcarnivore (based on Xiphosura)
Taphonomychitin
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Arachnids
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachnida

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Amblypygi
order
acceptedWhip Spider19315 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Araneae
order
acceptedSpider2,537323 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Astigmata
order
accepted738.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Holothyrida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ixodida
order
acceptedTick699.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Mesostigmata
order
accepted1038.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Opilioacarida
order
accepted238.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Opiliones
order
acceptedHarvestman89411 Ma
Early Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Palpigradi
order
acceptedMicrowhip Scorpion299.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Prostigmata
order
accepted59411 Ma
Early Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Pseudoscorpiones
order
acceptedPseudoscorpion81388 Ma
Middle Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Ricinulei
order
acceptedHooded Tickspider30318 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Sarcoptiformes
order
accepted109411 Ma
Early Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Schizomida
order
acceptedShort-tailed Whip-scorpion999.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Scorpiones
order
acceptedScorpion243439 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Solifugae
order
acceptedCamel Spider14311 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Trombidiformes
order
accepted66411 Ma
Early Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Uropygi
order
acceptedWhip Scorpion20318 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Acucapitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aleureodamaeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amphotrombiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anthracomartidae
family
accepted61339 Ma
Carboniferous
296 Ma
Permian
Anthracosironidae
family
accepted14419 Ma
Early Devonian
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Aphantomartidae
family
accepted20409 Ma
Early Devonian
296 Ma
Permian
Archaeomartidae
family
accepted3411 Ma
Early Devonian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Archaeorchestidae
family
accepted17105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Archeonothridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Architarbidae
family
accepted42336 Ma
Carboniferous
301 Ma
Carboniferous
Archoplophoridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Areozetidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bimichaeliidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Birobatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Borhidiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brazilobatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Campbellobatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Carbolohmanniidae
family
accepted1315 Ma
Carboniferous
311 Ma
Carboniferous
Ceresellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chaunoproctidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chaviniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cocceupodidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassoribatulidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Devonacaridae
family
accepted1393 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Devonotarbidae
family
accepted6411 Ma
Early Devonian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Enantioppiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eophrynidae
family
accepted16345 Ma
Carboniferous
304 Ma
Carboniferous
Eupatrellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fenicheliidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Grandjeanicidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gretacaridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hammeriellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heterotarbidae
family
accepted1311 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Hexoppiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Idiodamaeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kreischeriidae
family
accepted5318 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Lissomartidae
family
accepted1311 Ma
Carboniferous
307 Ma
Carboniferous
Luxtoniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lyrifissiellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Maorizetidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nacunansellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nasutiacaridae
family
accepted193.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
89.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Nilotoniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nooliodidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Onychobatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Opiliotarbidae
family
accepted2311 Ma
Carboniferous
296 Ma
Permian
Oribatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeocharinidae
family
accepted28411 Ma
Early Devonian
361 Ma
Late Devonian
Parallonothridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phalangiotarbidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plesiosironidae
family
accepted7318 Ma
Carboniferous
315 Ma
Carboniferous
Proteonematalycidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proterorhagiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protochthoniidae
family
accepted1393 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Psammochthoniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pterozetidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ramsayellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rioppiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sellnickiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stelechobatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Temburongiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tikizetidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triasacaridae
family
accepted4237 Ma
Middle Triassic
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Trichthoniidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trigonomartidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trigonotarbidae
family
accepted8409 Ma
Early Devonian
303 Ma
Carboniferous
Uchidastygacaridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vatacaridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Walchiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xylobatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yurebillidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zetorchellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acanthodon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Admirala
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aenicteques
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aenigmatarbus
genus
accepted1303 Ma
Carboniferous
301 Ma
Carboniferous
Afromyobia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anacontium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anacudorsum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anamosa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anoka
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ascalus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ataulfo
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bobineus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caligonus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caseola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chemmis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chimerarachne
genus
accepted199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Cinetomorpha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Clythia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cretopilio
genus
accepted199.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Dendricon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dictynina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dictynoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dictyolathys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dynamius
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ecchosis
genus
accepted1388 Ma
Middle Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Eotarbus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Epinga
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eremattus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Escambia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eutychuroides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Geotrecha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Geraeocormobius
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Grauhara
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Halonoproctus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hamillus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Heraclea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hilke
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Homalattoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Idmonarachne
genus
accepted1305 Ma
Carboniferous
303 Ma
Carboniferous
Jasoda
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jelskia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kakamasia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Labdacus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Limuludichnulus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Liroaspis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lombardiniella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marsupipterus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marxia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Maturna
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Megameropsis
genus
accepted128.1 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Melbournopterus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mettus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Midamus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monclova
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mossamedessa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Namopsilus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Namurotarbus
genus
accepted1318 Ma
Carboniferous
315 Ma
Carboniferous
Nidivalvata
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Omanohydracarus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palestrina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palmichnium
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parauximus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parogovia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pedanostethus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Permotarbus
genus
accepted1296 Ma
Permian
279 Ma
Permian
Poikilomorphia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Posisus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Poultonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Prostygnidius
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudopachygnathus
genus
accepted128.1 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene
Sadala
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schneidarachne
genus
accepted1339 Ma
Carboniferous
336 Ma
Carboniferous
Scorpius
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Serpenticola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Shira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spiropalpus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thargalia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trachycilliba
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triptolemus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trispinibunus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tynecotarbus
genus
accepted1315 Ma
Carboniferous
311 Ma
Carboniferous
Volvella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wala
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Willibaldia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xenarachne
genus
accepted1409 Ma
Early Devonian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Kaurema albifrons
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paleopisthacanthus mazonensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polychera glabra
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Pseudoscorpionida
order
Not linked to GBIF1extant59.2 Ma
Paleocene
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Parasitiformes
order
Not linked to GBIF18extant99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Notaspis
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Phalangiotarbida
order
Not linked to GBIF54extinct411 Ma
Early Devonian
296 Ma
Permian
Stomothecata
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF332extant439 Ma
Silurian
Haplocnemata
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF82extant388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Pantetrapulmonata
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF2,780extant423 Ma
Silurian
Poecilophysidea
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF189extant411 Ma
Early Devonian
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Caulogastra
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1801Arachnida Lamarck
1817Acari Leach
1822Acarus resinosus Presl p. 210
1862Cecidomyia dubia von Heyden p. 80 figs. Pl 10, fig 4
1885Ixodes tertiarius Scudder
1890Acarina Scudder p. 46
1890Ixodes tertiarius Scudder p. 47 figs. Pl 6 fig 12
1895Podurites Matthew p. 273
1895Podurites saltator Matthew p. 273 figs. Pl 2, fig 10
1899Arthrolycosa prolifera Fritsch p. 61 figs. Pl 153, figs 1-3; text-fig 366
1904Pleurolycosa Fritsch p. 23
YearName and Author
1904Pleurolycosa prolifera Fritsch p. 23 fig. 29
1908Acarina Cockerell
1957Acaromorpha Dubinin
2002Arachnida Sepkoski, Jr.
2007Acari Shultz
2007Acaromorpha Shultz
2008Pleurolycosa prolifera Štamberg and Zajíc p. 57 fig. 36
2009Acari Arillo et al. p. 322
2012Arachnida Nielsen p. 244 figs. Fig. 44.2
2013Arachnida Lamsdell p. 20

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Presl J. S. Additamenta ad faunam protogaem, sistens descriptiones aliquot animalium in succino inclusorum, Deliciae Pragenses, Historiam Naturalem Spectantes, 191-210
von Heyden C. Gliederthiere aus der Braunkohle des Niederrhein's, der Wetterau und der Röhn, Palaeontographica 10, 62-82
Scudder S. H. The Tertiary Insects of North America, Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories XIII, 1-734
Scudder S. H. The Tertiary Insects of North America, Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories XIII, 1-734
Matthew G. F. Organic remains of the Little River Group, no. IV, Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Second Series 1, 273-279
Matthew G. F. Organic remains of the Little River Group, no. IV, Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Second Series 1, 273-279
Fritsch A. , Fauna der Gaskohle und der Kalksteine der Permformation Böhmens. Vierter Band, Heft II. Myriopoda pars II. Arachnoidea, 33-64
Fritsch A. (1904) , Palaeozoische Arachniden, 1-85
Fritsch A. (1904) , Palaeozoische Arachniden, 1-85
Cockerell T. D. A. (1908) Fossil Insects from Florissant, Colorado, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 24, 59-69
Shultz J. W. (2007) A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150, 221-265
Shultz J. W. (2007) A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150, 221-265
Štamberg S., Zajíc J. (2008) , Carboniferous and Permian Faunas and their Occurrence in the Limnic Basins of the Czech Republic, 1-224
Arillo A., Subías L. S., et al (2009) A new fossil species of oribatid mite, Ametroproctus valeriae sp. nov. (Acariformes, Oribatida, Ametroproctidae), from the Lower Cretaceous amber of San Just, Teruel Province, Spain, Cretaceous Research 30 2, 322-324 doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2008.07.013
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Lamsdell J. C. (2013) Revised systematics of Palaeozoic 'horseshoe crabs' and the myth of monophyletic Xiphosura, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 167, 1-27
Koch, Ludwig (1871) Die Arachniden Australiens, nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Cokendolpher, James C,Enríquez, Tamara: A new species and records of Pseudocellus (Arachnida: Ricinulei: Ricinoididae) from caves in Yucatán, Mexico and Belize - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Medina, Francisco J: A new species of Cupiennius (Araneae, Ctenidae) coexisting with Cupiennius salei in a Mexican mangrove forest - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Platnick, Norman I,Shadab, Mohammad U: A revision of the spider genus Cesonia (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F,Trujillo, Rony E: A new species of the genus Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Guatemala - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lourenço, Wilson R: Biogéographie des espèces du groupe naturel « Tityus clathratus » (Chelicerata, Scorpiones, Buthidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Galiano, María E: New species of Lyssomanes Hentz, 1845 (Araneae, Salticidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Platnick, Norman I: On a New Guatemalan Pseudocellus (Arachnida, Ricinulei) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Galiano, María E: Revisión del género Lyssomanes Hentz, 1845 (Araneae, Salticidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Bonaldo, Alexandre: Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae) nas regiões Neotropica e Neárctica - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W: The American orb-weaver genera Cyclosa, Metazygia and Eustala north of Mexico (Araneae, Araneidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Butler, Arthur G.: A monograph of the genus Thelyphonus - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Gertsch, Willis J: A report on cave spiders from Mexico and Central America - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Muma, Martin H: A study of the spider family Selenopidae in North and Central America and the West Indies - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lourenço, Wilson R: Additions to the scorpion fauna of Panama and Costa Rica - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Strand, Embrik: Arachnologica varia - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F: Aracnidos de Nicaragua. 4. Nuevos solpugidos (Solpugida: Ammotrechidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Hentz, Nicholas M: Descriptions and figures of the araneides of the United States - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F,Miranda, Roberto J,Víquez, Carlos (31/12/2012) First record of the genus Charinus (Amblypygi: Charinidae) from Panama - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Šilhavý, Vladimir: Further cavernicolous opilionids from Mexico. Subterranean fauna of Mexico part III - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F,Víquez, Carlos: Nuevos Hubbardiidae (Arachnida: Schizomida) de América Central - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Fage, Louis: Quelques arachnides provenant de fourmilieres ou de termitieres du Costa Rica - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Mullinex, Carolyn L: Revision of Paraphrynus Moreno (Amblypygida: Phrynidae) for North America and the Antilles - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Dondale, Charles D,Redner, James H: Revision of the milvina group of the wolf spider genus Pardosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Vogel, Beatrice R: Taxonomy and morphology of the sternalis and falcifera species groups of Pardosa (Araneida: Lycosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W: The Neotropical orb-weaver genera Edricus and Wagneriana (Araneae: Araneidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F,Francke, Oscar F,Guzmán, Alí A: Una especie nueva de Phrynus (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) de México - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Vogel, Beatrice R: A review of the spider genera Pardosa and Acantholycosa (Araneae, Lycosidae) of the 48 contiguous United States - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Crews, Sarah C: A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lourenço, Wilson R: Tityus cerroazul, nouvelle espèce de Scorpion de Panama (Scorpiones, Buthidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Godman, Ducane,Salvin, Osbert,Pickard-Cambridge, Octavius (1897) Biologia Centrali-Americana - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Muma, Martin H: A synoptic review of North American, Central American, and West Indian Solpugida (Arthropoda, Arachnida) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lourenço, Wilson R: Confirmation of a new species of Chactas (Scorpiones, Chactidae) to Panama and Costa Rica - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Gertsch, Willis J: On two ricinuleids from the Yucatan peninsula (Arachnida, Ricinulei) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro: Phylogeny of the spider genus Ixchela Huber, 2000 (Araneae: Pholcidae) based on morphological and molecular evidence (CO1 and 16S), with a hypothesized diversification in the Pleistocene - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F,Víquez, Carlos: Primer registro del género Piaroa Villarreal, Giupponi et Tourinho, 2008 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) en Centroamérica, con la descripción de una especie nueva de Costa Rica - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Huber, Bernhard A: Report on some pholcid spiders collected in Guatemala and Honduras (Araneae, Pholcidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Platnick, Norman I,Murphy, John A: Studies on Malagasy spiders, 3. The zelotine Gnaphosidae (Araneae, Gnaphosoidea), with a review of the genus Camillina - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W: The American orb weavers Hypognatha, Encyosaccus, Xylethrus, Gasteracantha, and Enacrosoma (Araneae, Araneidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Ruiz, Gustavo R S,Maddison, Wayne P,Bustamante, Abel A: The jumping spider genus Thiodina Simon, 1900 reinterpreted, and revalidation of Colonus F.O.P-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Amycoida) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Goodnight, Clarence J,Goodnight, Marie L: The opilionid fauna of Chiapas, Mexico. and adjacent areas (Arachnoidea, Opiliones_ - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W.: The orb-weaver genera Verrucosa, Acanthepeira, Wagneriana, Acacesia, Wixia, Scoloderus and Alpaida north of Mexico - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Ramírez, Martin J.,Grismado, Christian J.: The world goblin spiders of the new genus Neotrops (Araneae: Oonopidae), part 1 - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Banks, Nathan: A list of the spiders of Long Island; with descriptions of new species - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Gertsch, Willis J: A new genus in the Pholcidae - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Chamberlin, Ralph V: A new solpugid from Panama - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Glueck, Susan: A taxonomic revision of the orb weaver genus Acacesia (Araneae: Araneidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F: Ampliación del área de distribución de algunos Phrynus (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) y Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae) de América Central y las Antillas - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Pocock, Reginald I: Fifteen new species and two new genera of tropical southern Opiliones - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Keyserling, Eugen G: Neue Spinnen aus America. VII - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W,Santos, Adalberto J: New synonymies and a revalidation in the spider genera Eustala and Micrathena (Araneae: Araneidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Archer, Allan F: Studies in the orbweaving spiders (Argiopidae). 1. - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Chickering, Arthur M: The Gnaphosidae of Panama - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Goodnight, Clarence J,Goodnight, Marie L: Three new phalangids from Tropical America - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Zhang, Jun-Xia,Maddison, Wayne P: Genera of euophryine jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), with a combined molecular-morphological phylogeny. - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Shear, William A: New species and records of ortholasmatine harvestmen from México, Honduras, and the western United States (Opiliones, Nemastomatidae, Ortholasmatinae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Quintero-Arias, Diomedes (1979) Sobre Paraphrynus emaciatus Mullinex, Paraphrynus leptus Mullinex (Amblypygi: Phrynidae) y el dimorfismo sexual en los amblypygidos - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Keyserling, Eugen G (1891) Die Spinnen Amerikas. Brasilianische Spinnen - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lehtinen, Pekka T: Evolution of the Scytodoidea - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Longhorn, Stuart J,Santibáñez-López, Carlos E,Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O.: A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Miranda, Roberto J,Arizala, Stephany C,Cambra, Roberto A: A new species of Neocteniza (Araneae: Idiopidae) from Coiba island, Panama, with observations on parasitism by Euplaniceps varia Bradley, 1944 (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lourenço, Wilson R: A review of the geographical distribution of the genus Ananteris Thorell (Scorpiones: Buthidae), with description of a new species - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Coyle, Frederick A: A revision of the funnelweb mygalomorph spider subfamily Ischnothelinae (Araneae, Dipluridae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lourenço, Wilson R,Fé, Nelson F: Description of a new species of Opisthacanthus Peters (Scorpiones, Liochelidae) to Brazilian Amazonia - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Rowland, J. Mark: New species of schizomids (Arachnida, Schizomida) from Mexican caves - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Šilhavý, Vladimir: Opilionids of the suborder Gonyleptomorphi from the American caves, collected by Dr. Pierre Strinati - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Goodnight, Clarence J,Goodnight, Marie L: Phalangida from Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Marusik, Y.M.,Logunov, Dimitri V: Taxonomic and faunistic notes on Chinoscopus Simon, 1900 and Lyssomanes Hentz, 1845 from the Neotropical region (Araneae, Salticidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Gertsch, Willis J,Ennik, Franklin: The spider genus Loxosceles in North America, Central America, and the West Indies (Araneae, Loxoscelidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Platnick, Norman I,Shadab, Mohammad U: Two new species of the mygalomorph spider genus Neocteniza (Araneae, Actinopodidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Santos, Adalberto J: A revision of the Neotropical nursery-web spider genus Architis (Araneae: Pisauridae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Bryant, Elizabeth B: Acanthepeira venusta (Banks) (Araneae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Mello-Leitão, Cândido F: Contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna araneológica das Guianas - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W: Orb-webs and phylogeny of orb-weavers - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Goodnight, Clarence J,Goodnight, Marie L: Phalangids from Central America and the Carribean - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Francke, Oscar F,Zárate-Gálvez, Kaleb: Redescription of Plesiochactas mitchelli (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae): a rare scorpion from Central America - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Peckham, George W,Peckham, Elizabeth G: Spiders of the Homalattus group of the family Attidae - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Opell, Brent D,Beatty, Joseph A: The Nearctic Hahniidae (Arachnida: Araneae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Ramírez, Martin J.: The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Arameomorphae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W: The neotropical orb-weaving spiders of the genus Alpaida (Araneae: Araneidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Valerio, Carlos E: The spider genus Drymusa in the New World (Araneae: Scytodidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Dondale, Charles D,Redner, James H: The wolf spider genus Allocosa in North and Central America (Araneae: Lycosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Simon, Eugène (1897) Histoire naturelle des araignées - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Platnick, Norman I,Shadab, Mohammad U: A new genus of the spider family Gnaphosidae (Arachnida, Araneae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Santos, Adalberto J: A phylogenetic analysis of the nursery-web spider family Pisauridae, with emphasis on the genera Architis and Staberius (Araneae: Lycosoidea) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Platnick, Norman I,Shadab, Mohammad U: A revision of the American spiders of the genus Camillina (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Platnick, Norman I: A revision of the spider genus Eilica (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Leister, Matthew,Miller, Kelly B: Description of a new tracheline spider, Trachelas mombachensis sp. n., in the T. bispinosus species group from the Mombacho Volcano in Nicaragua (Araneae: Trachelidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F,Miranda, Roberto J,Víquez, Carlos: First record of the genus Piaroa Villarreal, Giupponi & Tourinho, 2008 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) from Panama - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Levi, Herbert W: Keys to the genera of araneid orbweavers (Araneae, Araneidae) of the Americas - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Framenau, Volker W,Scharff, Nicolaj,Levi, Herbert W: Not from "down under": new synonymies and combinations for orb-weaving spiders (Araneae: Araneidae) erroneously reported from Australia - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Víquez, Carlos,Prendini, Lorenzo,Huff, Jeremy C: Redescription of Mimoscorpius pugnator (Butler, 1872) (Arachnida: Thelyphonida), with first description of the female - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Brady, Allen R: The Lynx spiders of North america, North of Mexico (Araneae: Oxyopidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Gertsch, Willis J: The spider genus Loxosceles in North America, Central America, and the West Indies - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Gertsch, Willis J: The spider genus Loxosceles in South America (Araneae, Scytodidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Brady, Allen R: The spider genus Sosippus in North America, Mexico, and Central America (Araneae, Lycosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Chickering, Arthur M: The spider genus Trachelas (Araneae, Clubionidae) in the West Indies - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Di Caporiacco, Lodovico: Araignées de la Guyane Française du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Soares, B.A.M.,Camargo, H.F. de A.: Aranhas coligidas pela Fundação Brasil-Central (Arachnida-Araneae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Mello-Leitão, Cândido F: Catalogo das aranhas da Colombia - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Pocock, Reginald I: Contribution to our knowledge of the arthropod fauna of the West Indies. Part II. Supplement on the Pedipalpi of the West Indies - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Lourenço, Wilson R,Méndez, E: Inventario preliminar sobre la fauna de escorpiones de Panamá con algunas consideraciones taxonómicas y biogeograficas - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Taczanowski, L: Les Aranéides du Pérou central - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Goodnight, Clarence J,Goodnight, Marie L: Phalangida from Mexico - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Goodnight, Clarence J,Goodnight, Marie L: The genus Stygnomma (Phalangida) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Ausserer, Anton: Zweiter Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Arachniden-Familie der Territelariae Thorell (Mygalidae Autor) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Chickering, Arthur M: The genus Corinna (Araneae, Clubionidae) in Panama - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Vetter, Richard S,Richman, David B: A review of the spider genus Thiodina (Araneae, Salticidae) in the United States - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Tourinho, Ana L M,Kury, Adriano B: Notes on Holcobunus Roewer, 1910, with two new generic synonymies (Arachnida, Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
de Armas, Luis F,Miranda, Roberto J,Murgas, Dennisse A,Murgas, Ingrid (31/12/2014) Sobre la presencia de Centruroides margaritatus e Isometrus maculatus en Panamá (Scorpiones: Buthidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Brady, Allen R: Sosippus revisited: review of a web-building wolf spider genus from the Americas (Araneae, Lycosidae) - via Arácnidos de Centroamérica
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, H. (2004). North East Atlantic Taxa (NEAT): Nematoda. Internet pdf Ed. Aug 1998. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hansson, H. (2004). North East Atlantic Taxa (NEAT): Nematoda. Internet pdf Ed. Aug 1998. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Harvey, Mark S., 2002: The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller arachnid orders?. The Journal of Arachnology, vol. 30, no. 2. 357-372. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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