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Chlorophyta

Description

Chlorophyta or Prasinophyta is a taxon of green algae informally called chlorophytes. The name is used in two very different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants (Viridiplantae) and thus includes about 7,000 species of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it refers to the sister of the streptophytes/charophytes. The clade Streptophyta consists of the Charophyta in which the Embryophyta emerged. In this sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species. About 90% of all known species live in freshwater.Like the land plants (bryophytes and tracheophytes), green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch in their plastids.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)36https://www.gbif.org/species/36
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)54811https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=54811
Rankphylum
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Plantae : Chlorophyta
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Chlorophyta
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
Life
EukaryotaChatton 1925
Archaeplastida
Chloroplastida
phylumChlorophytaReichenbach 1834
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameChlorophyta
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)303
Extant Size (PBDB)30 (9.9%)
First Recorded Appearance2,300 - 2,050 Ma
Paleoproterozoic
Environmentlagoonal,coastal,inner shelf,marine,brackish,freshwater
Motilitystationary, attached
Dietphotoautotroph
Primary Reference (PBDB)W. Kiessling. 2003. Personal data.
Common Name(s) Green Algae
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorophyta

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Chlorodendrophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chlorophyceae
class
accepted509488 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Chloropicophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mamiellophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nephroselmidophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pedinophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Picocystophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pleurastrophyceae
class
accepted0
Prasinophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pyramimonadophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trebouxiophyceae
class
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ulvophyceae
class
accepted68485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Distomataceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monostysisyrinaceae
family
accepted1269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Palaeoberesellidae
family
accepted1343 Ma
Carboniferous
339 Ma
Carboniferous
Calocylindrus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chaetetes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chaetocladus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Girvanella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Grypania
genus
accepted62,300 Ma
Paleoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Lanceoforma
genus
accepted11,000 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Leda
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeomastigocladus
genus
accepted189.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Paramastix
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proterotainia
genus
accepted21,000 Ma
Neoproterozoic
541 Ma
Cambrian
Pseudolatochara
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schizosporis
genus
accepted77252 Ma
Permian
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Sinophyllum
genus
accepted1269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Sphaeroporella
genus
accepted3347 Ma
Carboniferous
265 Ma
Permian
Temnogyra
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thaumatoporella
genus
accepted147247 Ma
Early Triassic
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Verticillopora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Yuknessia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conferva intricata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conferva major
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cyanostylon banyolense
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oncobyrsa adriatica
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Bryopsidophyceae
class
Not linked to GBIF516extant516 Ma
Cambrian
Dasycladophyceae
class
Not linked to GBIF1,633extant485 Ma
Cambrian
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Thaumatoporellales
order
Not linked to GBIF179extinct247 Ma
Early Triassic
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Microfasta
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Caulerpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extant13.8 Ma
Miocene
7.25 Ma
Miocene

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1834Chlorophyta Reichenbach
1996Chlorophyta Margulis p. 1074
2003Chlorophyta Kiessling
2005Chlorophyta Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1
2008Chlorophyta Taylor et al. p. 1027

References

Kiessling W. (2003) Personal data
Margulis L. (1996) Archaeal-eubacterialmergers intheoriginofEukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 1071-1076
Adl S. M., Simpson A. G. B., et al (2005) The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52 5, 399-451
Taylor E., Taylor T., et al (2008) Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, 1-1230
Guiry, G.M. (2012) AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
Greuter, W., J. McNeill, F. Barrie, H. Burdet, V. Demoulin, T. Filgueiras, D. Nicolson, et al., 2000: International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Saint Louis Code). Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 138. xviii + 474. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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