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Ophiuroidea

Description

Brittle stars or ophiuroids are echinoderms in the class Ophiuroidea closely related to starfish. They crawl across the sea floor using their flexible arms for locomotion. The ophiuroids generally have five long, slender, whip-like arms which may reach up to 60 cm (24 in) in length on the largest specimens. They are also known as serpent stars; the New Latin class name Ophiuroidea is derived from the Ancient Greek ὄφις, meaning "serpent".


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)350https://www.gbif.org/species/350
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)31508https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=31508
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Echinodermata : Ophiuroidea
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
TriploblasticaLankester 1877
NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermataKlein 1754
subphylumAsterozoavon Zittel 1895
classOphiuroideaGray 1840
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameOphiuroidea
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)553
Extant Size (PBDB)96 (17%)
First Recorded Appearance485 - 477 Ma
Paleozoic
Environmentmarine
Motilityslow-moving
Visionblind
Dietdetritivore, suspension feeder
Reproductiondispersal=water,planktonic (based on Echinodermata)
Ontogenyaccretion,addition of parts (based on Echinodermata)
Ecospace Comments322; LIFE HABIT: active slow moving, surficial, generally detritivores, sometimes suspension feeding and carnivorous.
Taphonomyhigh Mg calcite
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. E. Gray. 1840. A synopsis of the genera and species of the class Hypostoma Asterias (Linn.). Annals and Magazine of Natural History 6:275-290
Common Name(s) Brittle Star, Basket Stars, Brittle Stars, Brittlestars, Snake Stars
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophiuroidea

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Amphilepidida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Euryalida
order
acceptedBasket Star923.0 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Ophiacanthida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ophioleucida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ophioscolecida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ophiurida
order
accepted688419 Ma
Early Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Acinetasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Antiquasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bdellacomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calclyridae
family
accepted0
Cheiropterasteridae
family
accepted4419 Ma
Early Devonian
343 Ma
Carboniferous
Encrinasteridae
family
accepted34456 Ma
Late Ordovician
303 Ma
Carboniferous
Eophiuridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eospondylidae
family
accepted12411 Ma
Early Devonian
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Euzonosomatidae
family
accepted2409 Ma
Early Devonian
Furcasteridae
family
accepted0
Hallasteridae
family
accepted0
Klasmuridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lapworthuridae
family
accepted6453 Ma
Late Ordovician
361 Ma
Late Devonian
Oncychasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Onychasteridae
family
accepted5372 Ma
Late Devonian
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Ophiureae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Opiuridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeophiuridae
family
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Palaeuridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phragmactinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pradesuridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protasteridae
family
accepted91466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
272 Ma
Permian
Rhopalocomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stenasteridae
family
accepted0
Calyptactis
genus
accepted1345 Ma
Carboniferous
343 Ma
Carboniferous
Lumectaster
genus
accepted1345 Ma
Carboniferous
343 Ma
Carboniferous
Ophioliassica
genus
accepted2197 Ma
Early Jurassic
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Ophiurella
genus
accepted5168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Phragmactis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Schyschcatocrinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Calclyra
genus
Not linked to GBIF7extinct359 Ma
Late Devonian
254 Ma
Permian
Stenaster
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
433 Ma
Silurian
Oegophiurida
order
Not linked to GBIF98extant466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
272 Ma
Permian
Phrynophiurida
order
Not linked to GBIF44extant411 Ma
Early Devonian
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Oegophiuridea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Ophiuridea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Oegophiuroida
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Myophiuroida
subclass
Not linked to GBIF2extant197 Ma
Early Jurassic
183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Zygophiurae
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1840Ophiuroidea Gray
1895Ophiuroidea von Zittel
1904Ophiuroidea Clark p. 433
1915Ophiuroidea Clark and Twitchell p. 23
1915Ophiuroidea Schuchert pp. 267-268
1965Ophiuroidea Owen p. 544
1966Ophiuroidea Spencer and Wright p. U78
YearName and Author
1987Ophiuroidea Squires p. 72
1998Ophiuroidea Barnes p. 310
2001Ophiuroidea Boczarowski p. 8
2002Ophiuroidea Sepkoski, Jr.
2005Ophiuroidea Dean Shackleton p. 77
2013Ophiuroidea Blake p. 355

References

Gray J. E. A synopsis of the genera and species of the class Hypostoma Asterias (Linn.), Annals and Magazine of Natural History 6, 275-290
von Zittel K. A. , Grundzuge der Palaeontologie, 1-971
Clark W. B., Twitchell M. W. (1915) The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United States, United States Geological Survey Bulletin 54, 1-341
Schuchert C. (1915) Revision of Paleozoic Stelleroidea with special reference to North American Asteroidea, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 88, 1-311
Spencer W. K., Wright C.W. (1966) Asterozoans, Moore R.C. ed, Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Echinodermata, University of Kansas Press and the Geological Society of America 3 1, U4-U107
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Boczarowski A. (2001) Isolated sclerites of Devonian nonpelmatozoan echinoderms, Palaeontologia Polonica 59, 3-220
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Dean Shackleton J. (2005) Skeletal homologies, phylogeny and classification of the earliest asterozoan echinoderms, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 3 1, 29-114
Blake D. B. (2013) Early asterozoan (Echinodermata) diversification: a paleontologic quandary, Journal of Paleontology 87 3, 353-372
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Smith, Andrew B., 1984: Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology, vol 27, pt. 3. 431-459. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 2002: null. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
WoRMS (2013) Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.eu/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, G, Samuelsson, Cedhagen & Strand (2013) Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna. Tagghudingar–svalgsträngsdjur. Echinodermata– Hemichordata. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Fell, H. B. (1961). The fauna of the Ross Sea. Part 1. Ophiuroidea. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir. 18: 1-79, 19 pls. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Koehler, R. (1904). Ophiures de l'expédition du Siboga. Part 1. Ophiures de mer profonde. In: Weber, Siboga Expeditie. M. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 45a, 1-176. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Fell, H. B. (1961). The fauna of the Ross Sea. Part 1. Ophiuroidea. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir. 18: 1-79, 19 pls. - via World Register of Marine Species
Koehler, R. (1904). Ophiures de l'expédition du Siboga. Part 1. Ophiures de mer profonde. In: Weber, Siboga Expeditie. M. E.J. Brill, Leiden. 45a, 1-176. - via World Register of Marine Species
Fell, H.B. (1960). Synoptic Keys to the Genera of Ophiuroidea, Zoology Publications, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, 26: 1-44 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Koehler, R. (1922). Ophiurans of the Philippine Seas and adjacent waters. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin. 100(5): 1-486. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Fell, H.B. (1960). Synoptic Keys to the Genera of Ophiuroidea, Zoology Publications, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, 26: 1-44 - via World Register of Marine Species
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Marine Species
Koehler, R. (1922). Ophiurans of the Philippine Seas and adjacent waters. Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin. 100(5): 1-486. - via World Register of Marine Species
Paterson, G.L.J. (1985). The deep-sea Ophiuroidea of the north Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 49(1): 1-162. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Paterson, G.L.J. (1985). The deep-sea Ophiuroidea of the north Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 49(1): 1-162. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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