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Polyplacophora

Description

Chitons are marine molluscs of varying size in the class Polyplacophora, formerly known as Amphineura. About 940 extant and 430 fossil species are recognized.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)346https://www.gbif.org/species/346
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)8023https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=8023
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Mollusca : Polyplacophora
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMolluscaLinnaeus 1758
SerialiaGiribet et al. 2006
classPolyplacophorade Blainville 1816
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NamePolyplacophora
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)425
Extant Size (PBDB)94 (22%)
First Recorded Appearance501 - 485 Ma
Cambrian
Environmentmarine,brackish
Motilityfacultatively mobile, attached
Visionlimited
Dietgrazer
Ecospace CommentsLIFE HISTORY: Surficial, fully motile slow/facultatively motile unattached, surface deposit feeding according to Bambach et al (2007).
Taphonomyaragonite
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Chitons, Coat-of-mail Shells, Chiton
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyplacophora

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Chitonida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepidopleurida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alastegiidae
family
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Aulochitonidae
family
accepted4501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Chelodidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cobcrephoridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crassitudochitonidae
family
accepted1265 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Dycheiidae
family
accepted3501 Ma
Cambrian
485 Ma
Cambrian
Echinochitonidae
family
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Gotlandochitonidae
family
accepted12485 Ma
Cambrian
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Haeggochitonidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Helminthochitonidae
family
accepted2388 Ma
Middle Devonian
372 Ma
Late Devonian
Ivoechitonidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Litochitonidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mattheviidae
family
accepted51501 Ma
Cambrian
411 Ma
Early Devonian
Olingechitonidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Preacanthochitonidae
family
accepted6501 Ma
Cambrian
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Robustidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scanochitonidae
family
accepted383.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Septemchitonidae
family
accepted0
Strobilepidae
family
accepted6393 Ma
Early Devonian
254 Ma
Permian
Alastega
genus
accepted4461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
427 Ma
Silurian
Arctoplax
genus
accepted1431 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Cymatochiton
genus
accepted5272 Ma
Permian
254 Ma
Permian
Enetoplax
genus
accepted1431 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Heloplax
genus
accepted1431 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Homeochiton
genus
accepted1296 Ma
Permian
268 Ma
Permian
Plectrochiton
genus
accepted1431 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Polysacos
genus
accepted1359 Ma
Late Devonian
345 Ma
Carboniferous
Preacanthochiton
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Priscochiton
genus
accepted0
Prisochiton
genus
accepted2461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
443 Ma
Silurian
Probolaeum
genus
accepted0
Pterygochiton
genus
accepted5201 Ma
Early Jurassic
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Pyknochiton
genus
accepted1279 Ma
Permian
272 Ma
Permian
Gotlandiochiton hami
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Multiplacophora
order
Not linked to GBIF8393 Ma
Early Devonian
254 Ma
Permian
Paleoloricata
subclass
Not linked to GBIF95extinct501 Ma
Cambrian
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Neoloricata
order
Not linked to GBIF447extant466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Mesoplacophora
suborder
Not linked to GBIF0
Oligochiton
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct28.1 Ma
Oligocene
23.0 Ma
Miocene

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1816Polyplacophora de Blainville
1904Polyplacophora Martin p. 270
1998Polyplacophora Barnes
2001Polyplacophora Wells and Houston p. 19
2002Polyplacophora Sepkoski, Jr.
2006Polyplacophora Giribet et al. p. 7725

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Wells A., Houston W. W. K. (2001) , Zoological Catalogue of Australia: Mollusca 17 2
Giribet G., Okusu A., et al (2006) Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 20, 7723-7728
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1985). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 1. Order Neoloricata: Lepidopleurina. E. J. Brill/W. Backhuys eds. Leiden 244 pp.: - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1987). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 3: Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Chaetopleurinae, & Ischnochitonidae (pars). Additions to Vols 1 & 2.. * E. J. Brill/W. Backhuys eds. Leiden 302 pp.: - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1990). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 4. Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Ischnochitoninae (continued). Additions to Vols 1, 2 and 3. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 298 p. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1994). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 5. Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Ischnochitoninae (concluded), Callistoplacinae; Mopaliidae. Additions to Volumes 1-4. E. J. Brill, Leiden. 402 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (2002) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
An outline for the classification of Phylum Mollusca in taxonomic databases [report elaborated by WoRMS editors for internal use, june 2010] - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bergenhayn J. R. M. (1955). Die fossilen schwedischen Loricaten nebst einer vorlafigen Revision der ganzen Klasse Loricata. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sallskapets Handlingar, Lund N.F. 66(8): 1-44 pl. 1-2 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1985). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 2. Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Schizoplacinae, Callochitoninae & Lepidochitoninae. E. J. Brill/W. Backhuys eds. Leiden, 198 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kaas P., Van Belle R.A. & Strack H. 2006. Monograph of living chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacaphora); volume 6: Suborder Ischnochitonina (concluded); Schizochitonidae & Chitonidae, additions to volumes 1-5. Brill, Leiden, 464 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kaas, P. & Van Belle, R. A. (1998). Catalogue of living chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora). second, revised edition. 1-204; Backhyus Publishers Leiden. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al., 1998: Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed.. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1985). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 1. Order Neoloricata: Lepidopleurina. E. J. Brill/W. Backhuys eds. Leiden 244 pp.: - via World Register of Marine Species
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1987). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 3: Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Chaetopleurinae, & Ischnochitonidae (pars). Additions to Vols 1 & 2.. * E. J. Brill/W. Backhuys eds. Leiden 302 pp.: - via World Register of Marine Species
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1990). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 4. Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Ischnochitoninae (continued). Additions to Vols 1, 2 and 3. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 298 p. - via World Register of Marine Species
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1994). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 5. Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Ischnochitoninae (concluded), Callistoplacinae; Mopaliidae. Additions to Volumes 1-4. E. J. Brill, Leiden. 402 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Higo, Shun'ichi, Paul Callomon, and Yoshihiro Goto, 1999: null. Catalogue and Bibliography of the Marine Shell-bearing Mollusca of Japan: Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda. 749. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Abbott, Robert Tucker, 1974: null. American Seashells: The Marine Mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of North America. 2nd ed.. 663. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Vaught, K. C. / Abbott, Robert T. and Kenneth J. Boss, 1989: null. A classification of the living Mollusca. xii+195. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
An outline for the classification of Phylum Mollusca in taxonomic databases [report elaborated by WoRMS editors for internal use, june 2010] - via World Register of Marine Species
Bergenhayn J. R. M. (1955). Die fossilen schwedischen Loricaten nebst einer vorlafigen Revision der ganzen Klasse Loricata. Kungliga Fysiografiska Sallskapets Handlingar, Lund N.F. 66(8): 1-44 pl. 1-2 - via World Register of Marine Species
Kaas P. & Van Belle R. A. (1985). Monograph of living Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora). Vol. 2. Suborder Ischnochitonina. Ischnochitonidae: Schizoplacinae, Callochitoninae & Lepidochitoninae. E. J. Brill/W. Backhuys eds. Leiden, 198 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Kaas P., Van Belle R.A. & Strack H. 2006. Monograph of living chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacaphora); volume 6: Suborder Ischnochitonina (concluded); Schizochitonidae & Chitonidae, additions to volumes 1-5. Brill, Leiden, 464 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Kaas, P. & Van Belle, R. A. (1998). Catalogue of living chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora). second, revised edition. 1-204; Backhyus Publishers Leiden. - via World Register of Marine Species
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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