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Calcarea

Description

The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite. While the spicules in most species have three points, in some species they have either two or four points.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)308https://www.gbif.org/species/308
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)3603https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=3603
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Porifera : Calcarea
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
phylumPoriferaGrant 1836
classCalcareaBowerbank 1864
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameCalcarea
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)227
Extant Size (PBDB)17 (7.5%)
First Recorded Appearance520 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Motilitystationary, attached
Visionblind
Dietsuspension feeder
Ecospace CommentsECOSPACE CODE: 261. LIFE HISTORY: Erect and surficial, non-motile attached, suspension feeding according to Bambach et al. (2007); typically around 7-10 cm in height, therefore intermediate-level epifauna. MINERALOGY: Although modern Calcarea have both aragonitic and calcitic spicules, the hypercalcified Mesozoic Calcarea were most probably aragonitic
Taphonomyaragonite
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Calcareous Sponges, Calcareous Sponge
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcarea

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Baerida
order
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Clathrinida
order
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Leucosolenida
order
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Lithonida
order
accepted59516 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Murrayonida
order
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Amphorithalamiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Angullongiidae
family
accepted6461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
444 Ma
Silurian
Annaecoeliidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ascosymplegmatidae
family
accepted0
Astraeospongiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Barroisiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cystauletidae
family
accepted0
Eiffeliidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Endostomatidae
family
accepted74272 Ma
Permian
72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Fahriyeidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Peronidellidae
family
accepted0
Phragmocoeliidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pisothalamiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyactinellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyedridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polysolothiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polytholosiidae
family
accepted15228 Ma
Late Triassic
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Sphaerocoeliidae
family
accepted22161 Ma
Jurassic
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Sphaeroverticillitidae
family
accepted0
Spicidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stellispongiidae
family
accepted371279 Ma
Permian
47.8 Ma
Eocene
Stromatocoeliidae
family
accepted0
Wewokellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Alaskaspongia
genus
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Bellidispongia
genus
accepted1242 Ma
Middle Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Cheilosporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Conwaymorrisispongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cornuaspongia
genus
accepted4228 Ma
Late Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Corynospongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gaspespongia
genus
accepted0
Guangxispongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hoeverella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Intrasporeocoelia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jawonya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Madonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paramblysiphonella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polycystothalamia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyedra
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polysiphon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polysiphonella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polythalamia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protocoelia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoimperatoria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoporefieldia
genus
accepted2466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
444 Ma
Silurian
Radicispongia
genus
accepted10168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Ramospongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sarsteinia
genus
accepted2157 Ma
Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Scaphiomanon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinocoelia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thalamopora
genus
accepted5161 Ma
Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Toquimiella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tubispongia
genus
accepted2156 Ma
Jurassic
151 Ma
Late Jurassic
Uranosphaera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Uvacoelia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Uvothalamia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vermispongia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wagima
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wienbergia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Calcaronea
order
Not linked to GBIF538extant516 Ma
Cambrian
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Pharetronida
order
Not linked to GBIF65extant242 Ma
Middle Triassic
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Blastulospongia
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct520 Ma
Cambrian
513 Ma
Cambrian
Porata
order
Not linked to GBIF25extinct466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Aporata
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Cystothalamiidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Aspiculata
order
Not linked to GBIF3157 Ma
Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Calcinea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1864Calcarea Bowerbank
2002Calcarea Sepkoski, Jr.
2004Calcarea Finks et al. p. 8
2006Calcarea Skovsted p. 1098
2011Calcarea Edgecombe et al. p. 153 figs. Fig. 1
2012Calcarea Nielsen p. 27 figs. Fig. 4.2
2012Calcarea Worheide et al. p. 42 figs. Fig. 1.1

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Finks R. M., Reid R. E. H., et al (2004) Porifera (Demospongea, Hexactinellida, Heteractinida, Calcarea), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part E, Revised E 3, 1-872
Skovsted C. B. (2006) Small shelly fauna from the upper Lower Cambrian Bastion and Ella Island Formations, North-East Greenland, Journal of Paleontology 80 6, 1087-1112
Edgecombe G. D., Giribet G., et al (2011) Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions, Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11 2, 151-172 doi:10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Worheide G., Dohrmann M., et al (2012) Deep phylogeny and evolution of sponges (Phylum Porifera), Advances in Marine Biology 61, 1-78
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2018) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Borojevic, R. (1979). Evolution des spongiaires Calcarea. In: Lévi C, Boury-Esnault N (eds) Biologie des Spongiaires. Sponge Biology. Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique, Paris. 291, 527-530. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bowerbank, J.S. (1864). A Monograph of the British Spongiadae.Volume 1. (Ray Society: London): i-xx, 1-290, pls I-XXXVII. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bowerbank, J. S. (1862). On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Spongiadae. Part II. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 152(2): 747-829, pls XXVII-XXXV. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Manuel, M. (2006). Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 84: 225–241. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Manuel, M.; Borojevic, R.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Vacelet, J. (2002). Class Calcarea Bowerbank, 1864, in: Hooper, J.N.A.; Van Soest, R.W.M. (Ed.) (2002). Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of sponges. pp. 1103-1110 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hooper, John N. A., and Rob W. M. van Soest, eds., 2002: null. Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. xlviii + 1708. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Borojevic, R. (1979). Evolution des spongiaires Calcarea. In: Lévi C, Boury-Esnault N (eds) Biologie des Spongiaires. Sponge Biology. Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherché Scientifique, Paris. 291, 527-530. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bowerbank, J.S. (1864). A Monograph of the British Spongiadae.Volume 1. (Ray Society: London): i-xx, 1-290, pls I-XXXVII. - via World Register of Marine Species
Bowerbank, J. S. (1862). On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Spongiadae. Part II. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 152(2): 747-829, pls XXVII-XXXV. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (2002) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Manuel, M. (2006). Phylogeny and evolution of calcareous sponges. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 84: 225–241. - via World Register of Marine Species
Manuel, M.; Borojevic, R.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Vacelet, J. (2002). Class Calcarea Bowerbank, 1864, in: Hooper, J.N.A.; Van Soest, R.W.M. (Ed.) (2002). Systema Porifera: a guide to the classification of sponges. pp. 1103-1110 - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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