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Gnetopsida

Description

Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae). Fossilized pollen attributed to a close relative of Ephedra has been dated as far back as the Early Cretaceous. Though diverse and dominant in the Paleogene and the Neogene, only three families, each containing a single genus, are still alive today. The primary difference between gnetophytes and other gymnosperms is the presence of vessel elements, a system of conduits that transport water within the plant, similar to those found in flowering plants. Because of this, gnetophytes were once thought to be the closest gymnosperm relatives to flowering plants, but more recent molecular studies have brought this hypothesis into question.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)282https://www.gbif.org/species/282
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)54804https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=54804
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Plantae : Tracheophyta : Gnetopsida
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Plantae : Gnetophyta : Gnetopsida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
kingdomPlantaeHaeckel 1866
superphylumTracheophyta
-PteridobiotinaDoweld 2001
superphylumCycadophytanaeDoweld 2001
phylumGnetophytaBessey 1907
classGnetopsidaKirpotenko 1884
Scientific NameGnetopsida
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Gnetopsidaclassbelongs to Gymnospermaestated without evidenceMabberley, 2000
Gnetopsidaclassbelongs to Gnetophytastated with evidenceDoweld, 2001
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)4
Extant Size (PBDB)1 (25%)
First Recorded Appearance247 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Primary Reference (PBDB)D.J. Mabberley. 2000. The Plant-Book, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 858 p.
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gnetopsida

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Ephedrales
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
918273 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Gnetales
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
583265 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Welwitschiales
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
0 Ma
Extant
Gontriglossa
genus
listed (PBDB)9247 Ma
Early Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Pityophyllum
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
538247 Ma
Early Triassic
112 Ma
Early Cretaceous

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1884Gnetopsida Kirpotenko pp. vii, 31
2000Gnetopsida Mabberley
2001Gnetopsida Doweld p. xix

References

Mabberley D.J. (2000) The Plant-Book, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 858 p.
Doweld A. B. (2001) Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen Systematis Plantarum Vascularium
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ruggiero M, Gordon D, Bailly N, Kirk P, Nicolson D (2012) The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th April 2012 (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Culham A., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Appeltans W., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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