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Pterobranchia

Description

Pterobranchia is a clade of small worm-shaped animals. They belong to the Hemichordata, and live in secreted tubes on the ocean floor. Pterobranchia feed by filtering plankton out of the water with the help of cilia attached to tentacles. There are about 30 known living species in the group.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)278https://www.gbif.org/species/278
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)33521https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=33521
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Hemichordata : Pterobranchia
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-TriploblasticaLankester 1877
-NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
-DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
-Ambulacraria
phylumHemichordataBateson 1885
classPterobranchiaLankester 1877
Common Namepterobranch
Scientific NamePterobranchia
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Pterobranchiaclassbelongs to Hemichordatastated without evidenceZrzavy et al., 1998
Pterobranchiaclassbelongs to Hemichordatasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Pterobranchiaclassbelongs to Hemichordatastated without evidenceNielsen, 2012
Pterobranchiaclassbelongs to Hemichordatastated with evidenceMitchell et al., 2013
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)609
Extant Size (PBDB)6 (0.99%)
First Recorded Appearance520 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Taphonomyno hard parts (based on Hemichordata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Pterobranch, Flügelkiemer, Fjädermaskar, Pterobranchs, Sea Angels, フサカツギ
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterobranchia

External Images

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Graptolithina
class
listed (PBDB)Graptolite7,221520 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Cephalodiscida
order
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Rhabdopleurida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2520 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Abrograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Atubariidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Cephalodiscidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dendrograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
299505 Ma
Cambrian
345 Ma
Carboniferous
Didymograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Diplograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
898485 Ma
Cambrian
423 Ma
Silurian
Eocephalodiscidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Monograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
975461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
409 Ma
Early Devonian
Neodiplograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nephelograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Normalograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phyllograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Retiolitidae
family
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
378479 Ma
Early Ordovician
423 Ma
Silurian
Sinograptidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Stolonodendridae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Anomalograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Arachniograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Atopograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Azygograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Calamograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Chaunograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Crinocaulis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Dicaulograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Euclimacograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hallograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Haplograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Hustedograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Koremagraptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Lasiograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Maeandrograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Mastigograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Melanostrophus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Neurograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Nymphograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Orthoretiolites
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Paraorthograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Paraplegmatograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Plegmatograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudamplexograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudoclimacograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Pseudomonoclimacis
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ptiograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Syndyograptus
genus
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1877Pterobranchia Lankester
1998Pterobranchia Zrzavy et al.
2002Pterobranchia Sepkoski, Jr.
2012Pterobranchia Nielsen p. 343
2013Pterobranchia Mitchell et al.

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Nielsen C. (2012) Animal Evolution : Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 1-402
Mitchell C. E., Melchin M. J., et al (2013) Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Rhabdopleura is an extant graptolite, Lethaia 46, 34-56 doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2012.00319.x
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species (2017 version), available online at http://www.marinespecies.org. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
ITIS report (2015) http://www.itis.gov/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO). - via World Register of Marine Species
Harmer, Sidney F., 1905: The Pterobranchia of the Siboga-Expedition with an account of other species. Siboga-Expeditie Monographie 26. 1-132. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Mitchell, Charles E., Michael J. Melchin, Chris B. Cameron, and Jörg Maletz, 2013: Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Rhabdopleura is an extant graptolite. Lethaia, vol. 46, no. 1. 34-56. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Cannon, Johanna T., Amanda L. Rychel, Heather Eccleston, Kenneth M. Halanych, and Billie J. Swalla, 2009: Molecular phylogeny of hemichordata, with updated status of deep-sea enteropneusts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 52, no. 1. 17-24. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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