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Scaphopoda

Description

The tusk shells or tooth shells, often referred to by the more-technical term scaphopods (From Ancient Greek, σκᾰ́φης (skáphē) "boat", and πούς (poús) "foot"), are members of a class of shelled marine mollusc with worldwide distribution, and are the only class of exclusively infaunal marine molluscs. Shells of species within this class range from about 0.5 to 15 cm in length. Members of the order Dentaliida tend to be significantly larger than those of the order Gadilida.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)276https://www.gbif.org/species/276
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)8166https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=8166
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Mollusca : Scaphopoda
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-Bilateria
-EubilateriaAx 1987
-ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
-Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMolluscaLinnaeus 1758
classScaphopodaBronn 1862
Common Nametusk shell
Scientific NameScaphopoda
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Scaphopodaclassbelongs to Molluscastated with evidenceStanton, 1895
Scaphopodaclassbelongs to Molluscastated without evidenceSquires, 1984
Scaphopodaclassbelongs to Molluscastated with evidenceWard and Blackwelder, 1987
Scaphopodaclassbelongs to Molluscastated without evidenceSquires, 1987
Scaphopodaclassbelongs to MolluscaimpliedWells and Houston, 2001
Scaphopodaclassbelongs to Molluscasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Scaphopodaclassbelongs to Molluscastated without evidenceGiribet et al., 2006
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)248
Extant Size (PBDB)92 (37%)
First Recorded Appearance461 - 450 Ma
Ordovician
Motilityslow-moving
Visionblind
Dietdeposit feeder
Ecospace CommentsECOSPACE: 523. LIFE HISTORY: Predator, mainly Foraminifera, but also other micro-prey, according to Kiel & Goedert (2006); shallow infaunal, slow, miner according to Bambach et al. (2007).
Taphonomyaragonite
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Tusk Shell, Elefanttänder, Tandsnäckor, Tusk Shells, Scaphopodes, Dentálio, Scafópode, Grabfüßer, Kahnfüßer, Scaphopoden, Escafópodos, Olifantstandjes, Scaphopodians, Scaphopods, Spade-footed Mollusks, Stoottandjes, Tooth Shells, 掘足
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaphopoda

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Dentaliida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2,549461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Dentalioida
order
listed (PBDB)0 Ma
Extant
Dentaloidea
order
listed (PBDB)
Gadilida
order
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
613290 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Solenoconchia
order
listed (PBDB)
Cadulidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Episiphonidae
family
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Entalis
genus
listed (PBDB)26336 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Throopella
genus
doubtful (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Detnalium zephyrinum
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Ditrupa dentalinum
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Phyloblatta prosseri
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1862Scaphopoda Bronn
1895Scaphopoda Stanton
1984Scaphopoda Squires p. 15
1987Scaphopoda Squires p. 20
1987Scaphopoda Ward and Blackwelder p. 131
1988Scaphopoda Squires p. 7
2001Scaphopoda Wells and Houston p. 85
2002Scaphopoda Sepkoski, Jr.
2006Scaphopoda Giribet et al. p. 7724

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Stanton T. W. Contributions to the Cretaceous paleontology of the Pacific coast. : The fauna of the Knoxville, Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 133, 1-132 doi:10.3133/b133
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Ward L. W., Blackwelder B.W. (1987) Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Mollusca from the James City and Chowan River Formations at Lee Creek Mine, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 61, 113-283
Squires R. L. (1988) Eocene Macropaleontology of Northern Lockwood Valley, Ventura County, California, Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 398, 1-23
Wells A., Houston W. W. K. (2001) , Zoological Catalogue of Australia: Mollusca 17 2
Giribet G., Okusu A., et al (2006) Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 20, 7723-7728
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al., 1998: Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed.. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Steiner, Gerhard, and Alan R. Kabat, 2001: Catalogue of supraspecific taxa of Scaphopoda (Mollusca). Zoosystema, vol. 23, no. 3. 433-460. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Vaught, K. C. / Abbott, Robert T. and Kenneth J. Boss, 1989: null. A classification of the living Mollusca. xii+195. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gudmundsson, G.; Engelstad, K.; Steiner, G.; Svavarsson, J. (2003). Diets of four deep-water scaphopod species (Mollusca) in the North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas. Marine Biology. 142(6): 1103-1112. - via World Register of Marine Species
Steiner, G.; Kabat, A. R. (2001). Catalogue of supraspecific taxa of Scaphopoda (Mollusca). Zoosystema. 23(3): 433-460. - via World Register of Marine Species
An outline for the classification of Phylum Mollusca in taxonomic databases [report elaborated by WoRMS editors for internal use, june 2010] - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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