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Polychaeta

Description

The Polychaeta , also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine. Each body segment has a pair of fleshy protrusions called parapodia that bear many bristles, called chaetae, which are made of chitin. As such, polychaetes are sometimes referred to as bristle worms. More than 10,000 species are described in this class. Common representatives include the lugworm (Arenicola marina) and the sandworm or clam worm Alitta.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)256https://www.gbif.org/species/256
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)7022https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=7022
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Annelida : Polychaeta
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumAnnelidaLamarck 1809
classPolychaetaGrube 1850
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NamePolychaeta
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)450
Extant Size (PBDB)175 (39%)
First Recorded Appearance520 - 516 Ma
Cambrian
Motilityactively mobile
Visionlimited
Dietdetritivore
Ecospace CommentsLIFE HISTORY: Surficial, fully motile slow, surface deposit/mining according to Bambach et al (2007).
Primary Reference (PBDB)L. C. Glenn. 1904. Pelecypoda. Maryland Geological Survey Miocene(Text):274-401
Common Name(s) Bristle Worms, Polychaetes, Polychete Worms, Polychetes, Paddle-footed Annelids
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polychaeta

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Amphinomida
order
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Echiuroidea
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eunicida
order
accepted4359 Ma
Late Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Phyllodocida
order
acceptedScale Worm117485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Sabellida
order
accepted2,113485 Ma
Cambrian
0 Ma
Extant
Spionida
order
accepted22161 Ma
Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Terebellida
order
accepted6336 Ma
Carboniferous
0 Ma
Extant
Aeolosomatidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Arenicolidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Arenicolitidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asteriomyzostomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asteromyzostomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Burgessochaetidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Canadiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Capitellidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Cossuridae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Didonidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eenymeenymyzostomatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Endomyzostomatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hadoprionidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Insilicoryphidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Keiloritidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Laetmonectidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leodicidae
family
accepted9461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Maldanidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Nerillidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Opheliidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Orbiniidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Paraonidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Parergodrilidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Peronochaetidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Phragmochaetidae
family
accepted1520 Ma
Cambrian
516 Ma
Cambrian
Polygordiidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Protodrilidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Protodriloididae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Protomyzostomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pulvinomyzostomidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Saccocirridae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Sactosomatidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Scalibregmatidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Spintheridae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Stelechopodidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephenoscolecidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Travisiidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acerrotrupa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Albertaprion
genus
accepted0
Anabarites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anhuiella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anisocerasites
genus
accepted0
Annulitubus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arabellites
genus
accepted17461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
354 Ma
Carboniferous
Arachnostega
genus
accepted6461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Archaeoprion
genus
accepted0
Archesabella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Arites
genus
accepted0
Arkonips
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Baltichaeta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Binoraphorus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brochosogenys
genus
accepted0
Bundenbachochaeta
genus
accepted0
Burgessochaeta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Campylites
genus
accepted5161 Ma
Jurassic
156 Ma
Jurassic
Canadia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caprascolex
genus
accepted155.8 Ma
Eocene
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Caulostrepsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cheiridogenys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Clavulites
genus
accepted0
Cloudina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Contramyzostoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crinincaminus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cubiculovinea
genus
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Cyclocirra
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Delosites
genus
accepted0
Dicrocerus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Didontogaster
genus
accepted0
Diopatraites
genus
accepted1388 Ma
Middle Devonian
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Diopatrichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diploconcha
genus
accepted983.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Ditrupula
genus
accepted0
Drilonereisites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Drilonereistes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dryptoscolex
genus
accepted0
Elleriprion
genus
accepted0
Entalis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eotomopteris
genus
accepted0
Eotrophonia
genus
accepted0
Ethmonaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eulalites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eunicites
genus
accepted9461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Fastuoscolex
genus
accepted0
Fissurituba
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Flabetheca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fletcheria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fomitchella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fossundecima
genus
accepted0
Gotlandites
genus
accepted2433 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Haileyia
genus
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
458 Ma
Late Ordovician
Hemicanalis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hicetes
genus
accepted1393 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Himalayaia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hindenites
genus
accepted8433 Ma
Silurian
423 Ma
Silurian
Hindeoprion
genus
accepted0
Homaphrodite
genus
accepted1247 Ma
Early Triassic
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Huainanella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyolithellus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyolithes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hystriciola
genus
accepted0
Indocera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Insolicorypha
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Iubarenicola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jereminella
genus
accepted0
Jospilopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kalloprion
genus
accepted0
Keilorites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kenostrychus
genus
accepted1433 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Kettnerites
genus
accepted83445 Ma
Late Ordovician
419 Ma
Early Devonian
Kielanoprion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kootenayscolex
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Koslowskisyrinx
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kozlowskiprion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lacinituba
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lanceolatites
genus
accepted7439 Ma
Silurian
423 Ma
Silurian
Langeites
genus
accepted2426 Ma
Silurian
423 Ma
Silurian
Lapispecus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lapworthella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leodicites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leogenys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leptoprion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lophos
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lumbriconereites
genus
accepted3446 Ma
Late Ordovician
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Lunoprionella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Maeandropolydora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Maldeotaia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Manotes
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marleneites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marlenites
genus
accepted0
Martina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Marywadea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Melanoraphia
genus
accepted1197 Ma
Early Jurassic
190 Ma
Early Jurassic
Menogenys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Meringosoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microconchus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mobyprion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mochtyella
genus
accepted15452 Ma
Late Ordovician
423 Ma
Silurian
Monocraterion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Multiprion
genus
accepted0
Myoscolex
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nereidavus
genus
accepted13461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
326 Ma
Carboniferous
Nereigenys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nothrites
genus
accepted0
Oblongiprion
genus
accepted0
Omasaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Onuphionella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ornatovinea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Orthoconorca
genus
accepted0
Orthopelta
genus
accepted0
Osedacoides
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ottawina
genus
accepted0
Palaeopelyx
genus
accepted0
Palaeoscolex
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Palaeotubus
genus
accepted1269 Ma
Permian
265 Ma
Permian
Paleocampa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paleoenonites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paleorhynchus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paliurus
genus
accepted259.2 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Palurites
genus
accepted0
Paradrilonereigenys
genus
accepted0
Paraglycerites
genus
accepted0
Paragnathites
genus
accepted0
Parapatraites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pararamphoprion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pararenicola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parasabellidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Patagonichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paulinites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pedarites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pedivillus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Peronochaeta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pieckonia
genus
accepted0
Polychaetura
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polykladichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Praelumbrinereis
genus
accepted1247 Ma
Early Triassic
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Processoprion
genus
accepted0
Prokopitraea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pronereites
genus
accepted0
Proterebella
genus
accepted0
Protoarenicola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Protonympha
genus
accepted0
Pseudoarenicola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudocirratulus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudoethmonaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudopolydorites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudorthotheca
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pterogenys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pteropelta
genus
accepted6452 Ma
Late Ordovician
446 Ma
Late Ordovician
Pygocirrus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ramesses
genus
accepted1326 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Rhamphegenys
genus
accepted0
Rhaphidiophorus
genus
accepted0
Rotulispira
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ruedemannella
genus
accepted0
Rushtonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rutellifrons
genus
accepted0
Sabellidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sactosoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sanbongicola
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sciotoprion
genus
accepted0
Scoleciellus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Serpularia
genus
accepted0
Serratula
genus
accepted0
Siluropelta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Simplotubus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinotubulites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sinugenys
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Skalenoprion
genus
accepted0
Soris
genus
accepted1326 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Spinocera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spirocavites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spriggina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Staurocephalites
genus
accepted2461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
161 Ma
Jurassic
Stelechopus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stephenoscolex
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Synclinophora
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Terebellina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Terebellites
genus
accepted0
Tibikoia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Titahia
genus
accepted0
Torellella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Torlessia
genus
accepted0
Trentonia
genus
accepted0
Tubicotomaculum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tubulella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Uncinogenys
genus
accepted0
Ungulites
genus
accepted0
Vermiforafacta
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vetustovermis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Volborthella
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Websteroprion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wiwaxia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Xanioprion
genus
accepted3452 Ma
Late Ordovician
446 Ma
Late Ordovician
Xanthoprion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hesiorura japonica
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Amphinomorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Eunicemorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF196extant461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Phyllodocemorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF5extant443 Ma
Silurian
190 Ma
Early Jurassic
Spiomorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF2extant133 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Drilomorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Terebellomorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF45extant323 Ma
Carboniferous
Flabelligerimorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Serpulimorpha
order
Not linked to GBIF580extant485 Ma
Cambrian
Spiroglyphus
genus
Not linked to GBIF24extant66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Aciculata
subclass
Not linked to GBIF122extant485 Ma
Cambrian
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Tubicola
suborder
Not linked to GBIF0
Sedentarida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Pyllodocida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Scolecida
infraorder
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Palpata
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Sedentaria
subclass
Not linked to GBIF2,142extant485 Ma
Cambrian

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Lysareunicidae GBIFfamilyAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Lysareunicidae

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1842Geophilus proavus Germar p. 89 figs. Pl 9, fig 9
1850Polychaeta Grube pp. 249-364
1869Geophilus proavus Ehlers p. 154
1904Polychaeta Martin p. 430
1984Polychaetia Squires p. 15
1987Polychaeta Squires p. 19
YearName and Author
1988Polychaeta Squires p. 7
1998Polychaeta Barnes
1998Polychaeta Zrzavy et al.
2002Polychaeta Sepkoski, Jr.
2019Polychaeta Parry et al. p. 4 fig. 4

References

Glenn L. C. (1904) Pelecypoda, Maryland Geological Survey Miocene Text, 274-401
Germar E. F. Beschreibung einiger neuen fossilen Insecten I. in den lithographischen Schiefern von Bayern und II. im Schieferthon des Steinkohlen-Gebirges von Wettin, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 5, 79-94
Ehlers E. Ueber fossile Würmer aus dem lithographischen Schiefer in Bayern, Palaeontolographica 17, 145-174
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Squires R. L. (1988) Eocene Macropaleontology of Northern Lockwood Valley, Ventura County, California, Contributions in Science (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County) 398, 1-23
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Parry L. A., Edgecombe G. D., et al (2019) Jaw elements in Plumulites bengtsoni confirm that machaeridians are extinct armoured scaleworms, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 286 1907, 1-8
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (2002) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Timm, T. (1999) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1996) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series. 28:1-188. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hartman, O. 1968. Atlas of the errantiate polychaetous annelids from California. 1-828. Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California. Los Angeles. - via World Register of Marine Species
Kirkegaard, J. B. (1995). Bathyal and abyssal polychaetes (errant species). Galathea Report. 17: 7-56. - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Zrzavý, J.; Xíha, P.; Piálek, L.; Janouškovec, J. (2009). Phylogeny of Annelida (Lophotrochozoa): total-evidence analysis of morphology and six genes - art. no. 189. Bmc Evolutionary Biology 9: 189-189. - via World Register of Marine Species
Mikac, Barbara. (2015). A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea. Zootaxa. 3943(1): 1-172. - via World Register of Marine Species
Blake, J.A. 1994. Introduction to the Polychaeta, in J.A. Blake and B. Hilbig eds., Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel: Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, p. 39-113. - via World Register of Marine Species
Fauchald, K. (1972). Benthic polychaetous annelids from deep water off western Mexico and adjacent areas in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology. 7: 1-575. - via World Register of Marine Species
Fauvel, P. (1927). Polychètes sédentaires. Addenda aux errantes, Arachiannélides, Myzostomaires. Faune de France Volume 16. Paul Lechevalier. Paris. 1-494. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1996). Annelida, Borstenwürmer, Polychaeta [Annelida, bristleworms, Polychaeta]. 2nd revised ed. The fauna of Germany and adjacent seas with their characteristics and ecology, 58. Gustav Fischer: Jena, Germany. ISBN 3-437-35038-2. 648 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Knox, G. A. and Cameron, D. B. 1998. The Marina Fauna of the Ross Sea: Polychaeta. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 108: 1-125. - via World Register of Marine Species
Wilson, Robin S.; Hutchings Pat, A.; Glasby, C. J. 2003. Polychaetes: An Interactive Identification Guide. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. - via World Register of Marine Species
Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Aerts, Andrea; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S. 2012. Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes. Nature advance online publication - via World Register of Marine Species
Seaver, Elaine C. (2014). Variation in spiralian development: insights from polychaetes. The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 58(6-7-8): 457-467. - via World Register of Marine Species
Fauchald, K., and G. W. Rouse, 1997: Polychaete systematics: Past and present. Zoologica Scripta, vol. 26, no. 2. 71-138. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Bakken, Torkild; Sneli, Jon-Arne. 2009. Obituary Torleif Holthe (1946-2007). Zoosymposia 2: 13-16 - via World Register of Marine Species
Brusca R.C. & Brusca G.J. (2003). Invertabrates. 2nd ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, p. 936. - via World Register of Marine Species
Day, J.H. (1967). A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. British Museum (Natural History). London. vol 1 & vol 2, 1-878. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hartman, O.; Fauchald, K. (1971). Deep-water benthic polychaetous annelids off New England to Bermuda and other North Atlantic Areas. Part II. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology. 6: 1-327. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hartman, Olga. (1965). Deep-water benthic polychaetous annelids off New England to Bermuda and other North Atlantic areas. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation. 28: 1-384. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hartman, Olga. (1967). Polychaetous annelids collected by the USNS Eltanin and Staten Island cruises, chiefly from Antarctic Seas. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology. 2: 1-387. - via World Register of Marine Species
Jirkov, I.A. (2001). [Polychaeta of the Arctic Ocean] (In Russian) Polikhety severnogo Ledovitogo Okeana. Yanus-K Press, Moscow, 632 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Kirkegaard, J. B. (1996). Bathyal and Abyssal Polychaetes (sedentary species I). Galathea Report. 17: 57-77. - via World Register of Marine Species
Nygren, A; Hall, R.; Pleijel, F. (2013). Bestämningsnyckel till och presentation av svenska familjer av havsborstmaskar. 89 pp. [Determination Key to polychaetes and presentation of Swedish families of polychaetes.] - via World Register of Marine Species
Struck, T. H. 2011. Direction of evolution within Annelida and the definition of Pleistoannelida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49(4): 340-345 - via World Register of Marine Species
Fauchald, K.; Rouse, G.W. (1997). Polychaete systematics: past and present. Zoologica Scripta. 26(2), 71-138. - via World Register of Marine Species
Rouse, G.W.; Fauchald, K. (1997). Cladistics and polychaetes. Zoologica Scripta. 26(2), 139-204. - via World Register of Marine Species
Salazar-Vallejo, S. I.; Carrera-Parra, L. F.; Muir, A. I.; De León-González, J. A.; Piotrowski, C.; Sato, M. (2014). Polychaete species (Annelida) described from the Philippine and China Seas. Zootaxa. 3842(1): 1-68. - via World Register of Marine Species
Blake, James A.; Ruff, R. Eugene (2007). Polychaeta. In: Carlton, J.T. (ed.). The Light and Smith Manual. Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon, pp. 309-410. University of California Press, Berkeley. - via World Register of Marine Species
Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny. 2009. Obituary Jorgen Bagger Kirkegaard (1920-2006). Zoosymposia 2: 17-20 - via World Register of Marine Species
Fauvel, P. (1923). Polychètes errantes. Faune de France. Librairie de la Faculte des Sciences. Paris. 5: 1-488. - via World Register of Marine Species
Glasby, Christopher J.; Hutchings, Patricia A. ; Fauchald, Kristian; Paxton, Hannelore; Rouse, Gregory W.; Watson Russell, Charlotte; Wilson, Robin S. (2000). Class Polychaeta. In: Beesley, P.L.; Ross, G.B.; Glasby, C.J. (eds). Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. [Book]. p. 1-296. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A. - via World Register of Marine Species
Grube, Adolf Eduard. (1850). Die Familien der Anneliden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin. 16(1): 249-364. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hartman, O. (1969). Atlas of the sedentariate polychaetous annelids from California. 1-812. Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California. Los Angeles. - via World Register of Marine Species
Monro, C. C. A. (1930). Polychaete worms. Discovery Reports, Cambridge. 2: 1-222. - via World Register of Marine Species
Rouse, G. W.; Pleijel, F. (2001). Polychaetes. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK [etc.]. ISBN 0-19-850608-2. 354 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Uebelacker, Joan M.; Johnson, Paul G. (eds). (1984). Taxonomic guide to the polychaetes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Final report to the Minerals Management Service, contract 14-12-001-29091. Volumes 1-7, Barry M. Vittor & Associates. Mobile, Alabama. - via World Register of Marine Species
Pamungkas, Joko; Glasby, Christopher J.; Read, Geoffrey B.; Wilson, Simon P.; Costello, Mark J. (2019). Progress and perspectives in the discovery of polychaete worms (Annelida) of the world. Helgoland Marine Research. 73(4): [1-10]. - via World Register of Marine Species
Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series. 28:1-188. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hartman, O. 1968. Atlas of the errantiate polychaetous annelids from California. 1-828. Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California. Los Angeles. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kirkegaard, J. B. (1995). Bathyal and abyssal polychaetes (errant species). Galathea Report. 17: 7-56. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Monro, Charles Carmichael Arthur. (1930). Polychaete worms. Discovery Reports, Cambridge. 2: 1-222. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Zrzavý, J.; Xíha, P.; Piálek, L.; Janouškovec, J. (2009). Phylogeny of Annelida (Lophotrochozoa): total-evidence analysis of morphology and six genes - art. no. 189. Bmc Evolutionary Biology 9: 189-189. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Mikac, Barbara. (2015). A sea of worms: polychaete checklist of the Adriatic Sea. Zootaxa. 3943(1): 1-172. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Blake, J.A. 1994. Introduction to the Polychaeta, in J.A. Blake and B. Hilbig eds., Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel: Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, p. 39-113. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Fauchald, K. (1972). Benthic polychaetous annelids from deep water off western Mexico and adjacent areas in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology. 7: 1-575. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Fauvel, P. (1927). Polychètes sédentaires. Addenda aux errantes, Arachiannélides, Myzostomaires. Faune de France Volume 16. Paul Lechevalier. Paris. 1-494. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1996). Annelida, Borstenwürmer, Polychaeta [Annelida, bristleworms, Polychaeta]. 2nd revised ed. The fauna of Germany and adjacent seas with their characteristics and ecology, 58. Gustav Fischer: Jena, Germany. ISBN 3-437-35038-2. 648 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Knox, G. A. and Cameron, D. B. 1998. The Marina Fauna of the Ross Sea: Polychaeta. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 108: 1-125. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Wilson, Robin S.; Hutchings Pat, A.; Glasby, C. J. 2003. Polychaetes: An Interactive Identification Guide. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Aerts, Andrea; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S. 2012. Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes. Nature advance online publication - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Seaver, Elaine C. (2014). Variation in spiralian development: insights from polychaetes. The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 58(6-7-8): 457-467. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Bakken, Torkild; Sneli, Jon-Arne. 2009. Obituary Torleif Holthe (1946-2007). Zoosymposia 2: 13-16 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Brusca R.C. & Brusca G.J. (2003). Invertabrates. 2nd ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, p. 936. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Day, J.H. (1967). A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. British Museum (Natural History). London. vol 1 & vol 2, 1-878. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hartman, O.; Fauchald, K. (1971). Deep-water benthic polychaetous annelids off New England to Bermuda and other North Atlantic Areas. Part II. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology. 6: 1-327. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hartman, Olga. (1965). Deep-water benthic polychaetous annelids off New England to Bermuda and other North Atlantic areas. Occasional Papers of the Allan Hancock Foundation. 28: 1-384. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hartman, Olga. (1967). Polychaetous annelids collected by the USNS Eltanin and Staten Island cruises, chiefly from Antarctic Seas. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology. 2: 1-387. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Jirkov, I.A. (2001). [Polychaeta of the Arctic Ocean] (In Russian) Polikhety severnogo Ledovitogo Okeana. Yanus-K Press, Moscow, 632 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kirkegaard, J. B. (1996). Bathyal and Abyssal Polychaetes (sedentary species I). Galathea Report. 17: 57-77. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Nygren, A; Hall, R.; Pleijel, F. (2013). Bestämningsnyckel till och presentation av svenska familjer av havsborstmaskar. 89 pp. [Determination Key to polychaetes and presentation of Swedish families of polychaetes.] - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Struck, T. H. 2011. Direction of evolution within Annelida and the definition of Pleistoannelida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 49(4): 340-345 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Fauchald, K.; Rouse, G.W. (1997). Polychaete systematics: past and present. Zoologica Scripta. 26(2), 71-138. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Rouse, G.W.; Fauchald, K. (1997). Cladistics and polychaetes. Zoologica Scripta. 26(2), 139-204. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Salazar-Vallejo, S. I.; Carrera-Parra, L. F.; Muir, A. I.; De León-González, J. A.; Piotrowski, C.; Sato, M. (2014). Polychaete species (Annelida) described from the Philippine and China Seas. Zootaxa. 3842(1): 1-68. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Blake, James A.; Ruff, R. Eugene (2007). Polychaeta. In: Carlton, J.T. (ed.). The Light and Smith Manual. Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon, pp. 309-410. University of California Press, Berkeley. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny. 2009. Obituary Jorgen Bagger Kirkegaard (1920-2006). Zoosymposia 2: 17-20 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Fauvel, P. (1923). Polychètes errantes. Faune de France. Librairie de la Faculte des Sciences. Paris. 5: 1-488. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Glasby, Christopher J.; Hutchings, Patricia A. ; Fauchald, Kristian; Paxton, Hannelore; Rouse, Gregory W.; Watson Russell, Charlotte; Wilson, Robin S. (2000). Class Polychaeta. In: Beesley, P.L.; Ross, G.B.; Glasby, C.J. (eds). Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. [Book]. p. 1-296. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Grube, Adolf Eduard. (1850). Die Familien der Anneliden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin. 16(1): 249-364. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hartman, O. (1969). Atlas of the sedentariate polychaetous annelids from California. 1-812. Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California. Los Angeles. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Rouse, G. W.; Pleijel, F. (2001). Polychaetes. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK [etc.]. ISBN 0-19-850608-2. 354 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Uebelacker, Joan M.; Johnson, Paul G. (eds). (1984). Taxonomic guide to the polychaetes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Final report to the Minerals Management Service, contract 14-12-001-29091. Volumes 1-7, Barry M. Vittor & Associates. Mobile, Alabama. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Pamungkas, Joko; Glasby, Christopher J.; Read, Geoffrey B.; Wilson, Simon P.; Costello, Mark J. (2019). Progress and perspectives in the discovery of polychaete worms (Annelida) of the world. Helgoland Marine Research. 73(4): [1-10]. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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