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Gymnolaemata

Description

Gymnolaemata are a class of Bryozoans. Gymnolaemata are sessile, mostly marine organisms and grow on the surfaces of rocks, kelp, and in some cases on animals, like fish. Zooids are cylindrical or flattened. The lophophore is protruded by action of muscles pulling on the frontal wall. This order includes the majority of living bryozoan species.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)252https://www.gbif.org/species/252
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)25682https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=25682
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Bryozoa : Gymnolaemata
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Spiralia
Polyzoa
phylumBryozoaEhrenberg 1831
classGymnolaemataAllman 1856
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameGymnolaemata
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)1,870
Extant Size (PBDB)734 (39%)
First Recorded Appearance485 - 478 Ma
Paleozoic
Motilitystationary, attached (based on Bryozoa)
Visionblind
Dietsuspension feeder (based on Bryozoa)
Taphonomylow Mg calcite, aragonite
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Gymnolaemates, Naked Throat Bryozoans, Marine Bryozoans, Tubular Bryozoans
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnolaemata

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Cheilostomatida
order
accepted4538.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Ctenostomatida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aedonidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Calweliidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Diedroporidae
family
accepted155.8 Ma
Eocene
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Electrinidae
family
accepted75113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Euthyridellidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepraliidae
family
accepted1066.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Opesiulidae
family
accepted1338.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Phylactelliporidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spiroporinidae
family
accepted1838.0 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Tubucellariidae
family
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Waterisporidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Biaviculigera
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eohippothoa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Keratostoma
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Simplicidium
genus
accepted1168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
166 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Amplexopora dendroidea
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Costicellaria cuspidata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gulabranchus cellulanus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Newportopora typicalis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nicholsonella pulchra
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parsmittina bimucronata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parvohallopora spissata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rhampostomella costata
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rynchozoon fulgidum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Ctenostomata
order
Not linked to GBIF115extant485 Ma
Cambrian
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Cheilostomata
order
Not linked to GBIF5,160extant461 Ma
Middle Ordovician

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1856Gymnolaemata Allman
1987Gymnolaemata Boardman and Cheetham p. 507
1994Gymnolaemata Gordon et al.
1997Gymnolaemata Lee et al.
1998Gymnolaemata Zrzavy et al.
2002Gymnolaemata Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Gymnolaemata Schmidt
2007Gymnolaemata Guha and Gipikrishna p. 804
2007Gymnolaemata Guha and Gopikrishna p. 122

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Boardman R. S., Cheetham A. H. (1987) Phylum Bryozoa, Fossil Invertebrates, 497-549
Gordon D. P., Stuart I. G., et al (1994) Bryozoan fauna of the Kaipuke Siltstone, northwest Nelson: a Miocene homologue of the modern Tasman Bay coralline bryozoan grounds, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 37 3, 239-247 doi:10.1080/00288306.1994.9514619
Lee D. E., Scholz J., et al (1997) Paleoecology of a Late Eocene Mobile Rockground Biota from North Otago, New Zealand, Palaios 12 6, 568-581 doi:10.2307/3515412
Zrzavy J., Mihulka S., et al (1998) Phylogeny of the Metazoa based on morphological and 18S ribosomal DNA evidence, Cladistics 14, 249-285
Schmidt R. (2003) Eocene bryozoa of the St. Vincent Basin, south Australia – taxonomy, biogeography and palaeoenvironments, 1-343
Guha A. K., Gipikrishna K. (2007) New fossil steginoporellid and schizoporellid species (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the Tertiary sequences of western Kachchh, Gujarat and their significance, Journal of the Geological Society of India 69, 803-812
Guha A. K., Gopikrishna K. (2007) New calloporid (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) species from Tertiary sequences of western Kachchh, Gujarat, Journal of the Geological Society of India 70, 121-130
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2016) Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1982). Five Kingdoms : an illustrated guide to the phyla of life on earth. Second edition. Freeman. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Clarke, A.; Johnston, N.M. (2003). Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review. 41: 47-114. - via World Register of Marine Species
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1982). Five Kingdoms : an illustrated guide to the phyla of life on earth. Second edition. Freeman. - via World Register of Marine Species
Margulis, L.; Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms: an illustrated guide to the Phyla of life on earth. 3rd edition. Freeman: New York, NY (USA). ISBN 0-7167-3027-8. xx, 520 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
Reverter Gil, Oscar - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Reverter Gil, Oscar - via World Register of Marine Species
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Wood, T.S. & Okamura, B. (2005) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 1990: null. Invertebrates. xiii + 992. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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