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Spirorbis

Description

Spirorbis is a genus of very small (2–5 mm (0.079–0.197 in)) polychaete worms, usually with a white coiled shell. Members of the genus live in the lower littoral and sublittoral zones of rocky shores. Spirorbis worms usually live attached to seaweeds, but some species live directly on rocks, shells or other hard substrates. Spirorbis was once thought to have a fossil record extending back into the Early Paleozoic, but now all pre-Cretaceous spirorbins are known to be microconchids. The earliest members of genus appeared in the Miocene, but Oligocene finds mayalso be possible. The genus contains the following species:


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)2327769https://www.gbif.org/species/2327769
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)7229https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=7229
Rankgenus
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Spirorbis
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
(PBDB,GBIF)
RankNameAuthor
-Eukaryota
-OpisthokontaCavalier-Smith 1987
kingdomAnimalia
-Bilateria
-EubilateriaAx 1987
-ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
-Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumAnnelidaLamarck 1809
classPolychaetaGrube 1850
subclassSedentariaLamarck 1818
infraclassCanalipalpataRouse and Fauchald 1997
orderSabellidaFauchald 1977
familySerpulidaeRafinesque 1835
genusSpirorbisDaudin 1800
Scientific NameSpirorbis Daudin, 1800
Name Published InDaudin, F. M. 1800. Recueil de mémoires et de notes sur des espèces inédites ou peu connues de mollusques, de vers et de zoophytes. Fuchs; Treuttel et Wurtz, Paris.: i-xviii; 19-50; pls. 1-4.
Opinions (PBDB)
NameRankOpinionEvidenceAuthor
Spirorbisgenusbelongs to Tubicolastated with evidenceMartin, 1904
Spirorbisgenusbelongs to Serpulidaestated without evidenceGall, 1971
Spirorbisgenusbelongs to Serpulimorphasecond handSepkoski, 2002
Spirorbisgenusbelongs to Serpulidaestated with evidenceKiessling, 2009
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)10
Extant Size (PBDB)2 (20%)
First Recorded Appearance485 - 478 Ma
Paleozoic
Motilitystationary, attached, epibiont
Visionlimited (based on Polychaeta)
Dietsuspension feeder
Ecospace CommentsLIFE HISTORY: Data from Leighton (2005).
Primary Reference (PBDB)J. J. Sepkoski, Jr. 2002. A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American Paleontology 363:1-560
Common Name(s) Posthörnchenwürmer, Spiral Tubeworms
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirorbis

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Serpula omphalotes
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis africana
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis albus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis ambiguus
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
1296 Ma
Permian
296 Ma
Permian
Spirorbis ambilateralis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis ammonita
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis anguineus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis angulatus
species
listed (PBDB)
Spirorbis annulatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis annulus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis antarctica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis antillarum
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis articulatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis auricularis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis baltica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis bernardi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis bidentatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis bifurcatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis bilineatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis blairi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis calvertensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Spirorbis calypso
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis carinatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis catagraphus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis cincinnatiensis
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
2450 Ma
Late Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Spirorbis communis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis conoidea
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis corallinae
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis cornuoides
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis corrugatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis cuneatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis dagmar
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis digitus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis dorsatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis echinatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis flabellis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis focalis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis fundatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis gesae
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis globosus
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
Spirorbis glomeratus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis glossoeides
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis heliciformis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis helix
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
4260 Ma
Permian
260 Ma
Permian
Spirorbis homari
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis imbricatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis imprimus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis inaequalis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis incisus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis incongruus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis inconstans
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis incurvatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis indicus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis infundibulum
species
accepted (GBIF)
listed (PBDB)
10.13 Ma
Pleistocene
0 Ma
Extant
Spirorbis inornatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis inversus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis jiangsuensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis karaitivuensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis kronsmoorensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis labiatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis langerhansi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis laxus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis leffingwelli
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis levilatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis lineatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis lucidus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis margarita
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis marioni
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis mediokeuperinus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis mendosus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis milada
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis mirus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis montagui
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis morchi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis mutabilis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis mutsu
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis nakamurai
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis nordenskjoeldi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis nudus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis obliquiannulatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis obstinatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis omphalotes
species
listed (PBDB)8393 Ma
Early Devonian
260 Ma
Permian
Spirorbis papillatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis patagonicus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis perdepressa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis pervius
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis philorthoceras
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis phylactaema
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis placophora
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis platycrepidus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis platydiscus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis plicatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis polyoperculata
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis ponticus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis porosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis ptychopleurus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis pusilla
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis pusilloides
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis pusillus
species
listed (PBDB)1247 Ma
Early Triassic
247 Ma
Early Triassic
Spirorbis quingyani
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis racemosus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis recta
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis regalis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis rothlisbergi
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis rugatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis rugosa
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis rupestris
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis samchokensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis serratus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis simplex
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis spatulatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis spec
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis spirorbis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis strigatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis superminor
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis thirriai
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis tranluscens
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis transversus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis treadwelli
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis tridentatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis tubanella
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis tuberculatus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis tumefactus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis turnoviensis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis unicornis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis variabilis
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis vastus
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis voigti
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB
Spirorbis zelandica
species
accepted (GBIF)No associated record in PBDB

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Spirirbis Bush, 1910GBIFgenusAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Spirirbis
Spirorbus Hall, 1859GBIFgenusAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Spirorbus
Spirorba Lamarck, 1838GBIFgenusAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Spirorba
Spirobis Verrill, 1882GBIFgenusAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Spirobis
Gyromyces H.R.Göppert, 1853GBIFgenusAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Gyromyces
Spinorbis Guérin-Ménéville, 1844GBIFgenusAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Spinorbis
Gyromices Etheridge, 1880GBIFgenusAnimalia : Annelida : Polychaeta : Sabellida : Serpulidae : Gyromices

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1800Spirorbis Daudin
1904Spirorbis Martin p. 430
1971Spirorbis Gall
1999Spirorbis Wienrich p. 280
2002Spirorbis Sepkoski, Jr.
2009Spirorbis Kiessling

References

Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Gall J.-C. (1971) Faunes et paysages du Grès à Voltzia du Nord des Vosges: Essai paléoécologique sur le Buntsandstein supérieur, Mémoires Service de la Carta Géologique d’Alsace et de Lorraine 34, 1-318
Wienrich G. (1999) Die Fauna des marinen Miozäns von Kevelaer (Niederrhein). Band 2 Bivalvia, Scaphopoda, Cephalopoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Brachiopoda, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden 2, 188-384
Kiessling W. (2009) Taxonomic vetting of messy data in the Paleobiology Database
Brunel, P.; Bosse, L.; Lamarche, G. (1998). Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Day, J. H. (1967). [Sedentaria] A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 2. Sedentaria. British Museum (Natural History), London. pp. 459–842. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series. 28:1-188. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Glasby, C.J.; Read, G.B.; Lee, K.E.; Blakemore, R.J.; Fraser, P.M.; Pinder, A.M.; Erséus, C.; Moser, W.E.; Burreson, E.M.; Govedich, F.R.; Davies, R.W.; Dawson, E.W. (2009). Phylum Annelida: bristleworms, earthworms, leeches, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 312-358. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Daudin, François Marie. (1800). Receuil de mémoires et de notes sur des espèces inédites ou peu connues de Mollusques, de vers et de zoophytes. xviii & 19-50. Fuchs & Treuttel et Wurtz. Paris. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hansson, H.G. (1998) NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): South Scandinavian marine Annelida Check-List. Internet pdf Ed., Aug. 1998: http://www.tmbl.gu.se/libdb/taxon/neat_pdf/NEAT*Annelida.pdf - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Bellan, G. (2001). Polychaeta, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. 50: 214-231. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hermann Augener. 1922. Litorale Polychaeten von Juan Fernández. En: C. Skottsberg (ed.): The Natural History of Juan Fernández and Easter Island, 3: 161-218 - via Poliquetos de Juan Fernández (Chile)
CoL2006 - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Nomenclator Zoologicus. A list of the names of genera and subgenera in zoology from the tenth edition of Linnaeus, 1758 to the end of 2004. Digitised by uBio from vols. 1-9 of Neave (ed.), 1939-1996 plus supplementary digital-only volume. http://ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus (as at 2006). - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Rec. Mém. Moll. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
WoRMS (Mar 2013) - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
SN2000/Hartmann-Schröder, 1996, PaleoDB - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Bieler, R.; Petit, R. E. (2011). Catalogue of Recent and fossil “worm-snail” taxa of the families Vermetidae, Siliquariidae, and Turritellidae (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda). Zootaxa. 2948, 1-103. - via World Register of Marine Species
Wilson et al 2003 - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Lamarck, J. B. (1801). Système des animaux sans vertèbres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d'apres la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation, et suivant l'arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, parmi leurs dépouilles conservées; Précédé du discours d'ouverture du Cours de Zoologie, donné dans le Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle l'an 8 de la République. Published by the author and Deterville, Paris: viii + 432 pp. - via World Register of Marine Species
SN2000/Hartmann-Schröder, 1996 - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Brunel, P.; Bosse, L.; Lamarche, G. (1998). Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p. - via World Register of Marine Species
Day, J. H. (1967). [Sedentaria] A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 2. Sedentaria. British Museum (Natural History), London. pp. 459–842. - via World Register of Marine Species
Fauchald, K. (1977). The polychaete worms, definitions and keys to the orders, families and genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County: Los Angeles, CA (USA), Science Series. 28:1-188. - via World Register of Marine Species
Glasby, C.J.; Read, G.B.; Lee, K.E.; Blakemore, R.J.; Fraser, P.M.; Pinder, A.M.; Erséus, C.; Moser, W.E.; Burreson, E.M.; Govedich, F.R.; Davies, R.W.; Dawson, E.W. (2009). Phylum Annelida: bristleworms, earthworms, leeches, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 312-358. - via World Register of Marine Species
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). - via World Register of Marine Species
Daudin, François Marie. (1800). Receuil de mémoires et de notes sur des espèces inédites ou peu connues de Mollusques, de vers et de zoophytes. xviii & 19-50. Fuchs & Treuttel et Wurtz. Paris. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1996) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Bellan, G. (2001). Polychaeta, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. 50: 214-231. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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