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Cycadopsida

Description
For the insect, see Cicada.

Cycads are seed plants with a very long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today. They typically have a stout and woody (ligneous) trunk with a crown of large, hard and stiff, evergreen leaves. They usually have pinnate leaves. The individual plants are either all male or all female (dioecious). Cycads vary in size from having trunks only a few centimeters to several meters tall. They typically grow very slowly and live very long, with some specimens known to be as much as 1,000 years old. Because of their superficial resemblance, they are sometimes mistaken for palms or ferns, but they are not closely related to either group.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)228https://www.gbif.org/species/228
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)54800https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=54800
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Plantae : Tracheophyta : Cycadopsida
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Plantae : Cycadophyta : Cycadopsida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantaeHaeckel 1866
subkingdomEmbryophytaCrane et al. 2004
phylumCycadophytaBessey 1907
classCycadopsidaBrongniart 1843
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameCycadopsida
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)154
Extant Size (PBDB)18 (12%)
First Recorded Appearance290 - 279 Ma
Permian
Primary Reference (PBDB)D.J. Mabberley. 2000. The Plant-Book, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 858 p.
Common Name(s) Cycads
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cycadopsida

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Cycadales
order
accepted1,570290 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Buteoxylaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cycadeoideaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nilssoniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sturianthaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Taeniopteridaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Westersheimiaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Williamsoniaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Williamsoniellaceae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anomozamites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dictyozamites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nageiopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Nilssoniopteris
genus
accepted128242 Ma
Middle Triassic
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Otozamites
genus
accepted386252 Ma
Permian
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Palaeanthus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pterophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sahnioxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Sphenolepis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tysonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Boweniaceae
family
Not linked to GBIF0
Stangeriaceae
family
Not linked to GBIF0
Lagenostomales
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Trigonocarpales
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Gnetales
order
Not linked to GBIF583extant265 Ma
Permian
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Welwitschiales
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Dioales
order
Not linked to GBIF1extant56.0 Ma
Paleocene
33.9 Ma
Oligocene

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1843Cycadopsida Brongniart pp. xxxii, 136
1984Cycadopsida Meyen p. 89
1985Cycadopsida Lapasha and Miller
2000Cycadopsida Mabberley
2001Cycadopsida Doweld p. iii

References

Mabberley D.J. (2000) The Plant-Book, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 858 p.
Meyen S. V. (1984) Basic features of gymnosperm systematics and phylogeny as evidenced by the fossil record, Botanical Review 50 1, 1-111
Lapasha C. A., Miller C. N. (1985) Flora of the Early Cretaceous Kootenai Formation in Montana, Bryophytes and Tracheophytes Excluding Conifers, Palaeontographica Abteilung B 196, 111-145
Doweld A. B. (2001) Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen Systematis Plantarum Vascularium
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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