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Holothuroidea

Description


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)222https://www.gbif.org/species/222
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)31227https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=31227
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Echinodermata : Holothuroidea
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
ProtostomiaGrobben 1908
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
subphylumMandibulata
Pancrustacea
superclassHexapodaLatreille 1825
CercofilataKukalová-Peck 1987
classInsectaLinnaeus 1758
Dicondylia
ParanotaliaSroka et al. 2014
subclassPterygotaBrauer 1885
NeopterygotaCrampton 1924
infraclassNeopteraMartynov 1923
Holometabola
Aparaglossata
ColeopteridaKukalová-Peck and Lawrence 2004
orderColeopteraLinnaeus 1758
suborderPolyphagaEmery 1886
infraorderCucujiformiaLameere 1938
Phytophaga
superfamilyCurculionoideaLatreille 1802
AspidapiitaeAlonso-Zarazaga 1990
ApionitaeSchonherr 1823
tribeAplemoniniKissinger 1968
PalaeotanaitaeLegalov et al. 2019
tribePalaeotanainiLegalov et al. 2019
familyCurculionidaeLatreille 1802
subfamilyBagoinaeThomson 1859
subfamilyBrachycerinaeBillberg 1820
subfamilyConoderinaeSchoenherr 1833
subfamilyCossoninaeSchoenherr 1825
subfamilyCryptorhynchinaeSchoenherr 1825
subfamilyCryptorrhynchinaeSchoenherr 1825
subfamilyCurculioninaeLatreille 1802
subfamilyCyclominaeSchoenherr 1826
subfamilyDryophthorinaeSchoenherr 1825
subfamilyEctemnorrhininae
subfamilyEntiminaeSchoenherr 1823
subfamilyErirhininaeSchoenherr 1825
subfamilyHylobiinaeThompson 1865
subfamilyHyperinaeMarseul 1863
subfamilyLixinaeSchonherr 1823
subfamilyMesoptiliinaeLacordaire 1863
subfamilyMolytinaeSchonherr 1823
subfamilyOrobitidinaeThomson 1859
tribePalaeocryptorhynchiniPoinar and Legalov 2014
subfamilyPlatypodinaeShuckard 1839
tribeRhytirhinini
subfamilyScolytinaeLatreille 1804
tribeCorthyliniLeconte 1876
tribeCryphalini
tribeCrypturginiLe Conte 1876
tribeCtenophoriniChapuis 1869
tribeCylindrobrotiniKirejtshuk et al. 2009
tribeDryocoetiniLindemann 1877
tribeHexacolini(Eichhoff 1878)
tribeHylastiniLeconte 1876
tribeHylesininiErichson 1836
HylesinitaeErichson 1836
tribeHylurginiGistel 1848
tribeXyloctonini(Eichhoff 1878)
tribeXyloteriniLe Conte 1876
TriploblasticaLankester 1877
NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermataKlein 1754
classHolothuroideade Blainville 1834
genusHolothuroideaHong and Wang 1987
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameHolothuroidea
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)756
Extant Size (PBDB)66 (8.7%)
First Recorded Appearance513 - 505 Ma
Cambrian
Environmentmarine (based on Echinodermata)
Motilityactively mobile
Visionblind
Dietdetritivore
Reproductiondispersal=water,planktonic (based on Echinodermata)
Ontogenyaccretion,addition of parts (based on Echinodermata)
Ecospace CommentsLIFE HISTORY: Multiple tiering positions (shallow infaunal, surficial epifaunal, and nektonic. Placed here in shallow infaunal.
Taphonomyhigh Mg calcite (based on Echinodermata)
Primary Reference (PBDB)H. M. D. de Blainville. 1834. Manuel d'actinologie ou de zoophytologie contenant: 1- Une histoire abrégée de cette partie de la zoologie, avec des considérations générales sur l'anatomie, la physiologie, les moeurs, les habitudes et les usages des Actinozoaires; 2- Un système général d'actinologie, tiré à la fois des animaux et de leurs parties solides ou polypiers; 3- Un catalogue des principaux auteurs qui ont écrit sur le sujet, avec un atlas de 100 planches représentant une espèce de chaque genre et sous-genre
Common Name(s) Sea Cucumbers, Sea Cucumber
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holothuroidea

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Apodida
order
accepted475408 Ma
Early Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Arthrochirotida
order
accepted11409 Ma
Early Devonian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Dendrochirotida
order
accepted305461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
0 Ma
Extant
Elasipodida
order
accepted42419 Ma
Early Devonian
0 Ma
Extant
Holothuriida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Molpadida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Persiculida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Synallactida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kozurellidae
family
accepted2237 Ma
Middle Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Punctatitidae
family
accepted30272 Ma
Permian
174 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Rotasaccidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stichopitidae
family
accepted65247 Ma
Early Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Volchoviidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acanthocaudina
genus
accepted0
Alexandrites
genus
accepted0
Arkarua
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bathysynactites
genus
accepted1242 Ma
Middle Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Calclyra
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Oesolcucumaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ornaticannula
genus
accepted4164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
157 Ma
Jurassic
Pararotasaccus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parvispina
genus
accepted2299 Ma
Carboniferous
296 Ma
Permian
Sclerothurites
genus
accepted1164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
157 Ma
Jurassic
Semperites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Staurocumites
genus
accepted24269 Ma
Permian
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Triradites
genus
accepted2237 Ma
Middle Triassic
209 Ma
Late Triassic
Uniramosa
genus
accepted2237 Ma
Middle Triassic
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Enyplastes ecalcarea
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pristopedatus frizzeli
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psychrelpida discrepans
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Stereodema munita
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Trochodonta dunedinensis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Aspidochirotida
order
Not linked to GBIF34extant450 Ma
Late Ordovician
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Molpadiida
order
Not linked to GBIF25extant237 Ma
Middle Triassic
28.1 Ma
Oligocene
Dactylochirotida
order
Not linked to GBIF2extant201 Ma
Early Jurassic
191 Ma
Early Jurassic
Laetmophasma
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Ancistrum
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Arthrochirota
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Etheridgellidae
family
Not linked to GBIF11extinct315 Ma
Carboniferous
166 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Alexandritidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Protocaudinidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Kaliobullitidae
family
Not linked to GBIF1extinct242 Ma
Middle Triassic
237 Ma
Middle Triassic
Calcancorellidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Dendrochirotacea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Aspidochirotacea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Apodacea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Palelpidiidae
family
Not linked to GBIF2extinct237 Ma
Middle Triassic
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Canisiidae
family
Not linked to GBIF3extinct237 Ma
Middle Triassic
206 Ma
Late Triassic
Ocellothuria
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct408 Ma
Early Devonian
384 Ma
Middle Devonian
Kuehnitidae
family
Not linked to GBIF20extinct247 Ma
Early Triassic
201 Ma
Early Jurassic
Rotiformidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Synaptellidae
family
Not linked to GBIF3extinct164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
157 Ma
Jurassic
Achistrulidae
family
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Paractinopoda
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct

Obsolete Names

NameSourceTaxon RankTaxonomy
Protocaudinidae GBIFfamilyAnimalia : Echinodermata : Holothuroidea : Protocaudinidae

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1915Holothuroidea Clark and Twitchell p. 177
1966Holothuroidea Frizzell and Exline p. U641
1998Holothuroidea Barnes p. 313
2001Holothuroidea Boczarowski p. 117
2002Holothuroidea Sepkoski, Jr.
2010Holothuroidea Jell p. 30

References

de Blainville H. M. D. , Manuel d'actinologie ou de zoophytologie contenant: 1- Une histoire abrégée de cette partie de la zoologie, avec des considérations générales sur l'anatomie, la physiologie, les moeurs, les habitudes et les usages des Actinozoaires; 2- Un système général d'actinologie, tiré à la fois des animaux et de leurs parties solides ou polypiers; 3- Un catalogue des principaux auteurs qui ont écrit sur le sujet, avec un atlas de 100 planches représentant une espèce de chaque genre et sous-genre, 1-695
Clark W. B., Twitchell M. W. (1915) The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United States, United States Geological Survey Bulletin 54, 1-341
Frizzell D. L., Exline H. (1966) Holothuroidea - Fossil Record, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part U. Echinodermata 3. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press 2, U646-U672
Boczarowski A. (2001) Isolated sclerites of Devonian nonpelmatozoan echinoderms, Palaeontologia Polonica 59, 3-220
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Jell P. A. (2010) Late Silurian echinoderms from the Yass Basin, New South Wales - the earliest holothurian body fossil and two diploporitan cystoids (Sphaeronitidae and Holocystitidae), Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists 39, 27-41
Miller, Allison K., A. M. Kerr, G. Paulay, M. Riech, N. G. Wilson, J. I. Carvajal, and G. W. Rouse, 2017: Molecular phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea (Echinodermata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 111. 110-131. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Frizell, Don L., Harriet Exline, et al. / Durham, J. Wyatt, et al. / Moore, Raymond C., ed., 1966: Holothurians. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part U, Echinodermata 3, vol. 2. U641-U646. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 2002: null. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Marine Species
Purcell, S.W., Samyn, Y. & Conand, C. (2013). Commercially important sea cucumbers of the world. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 6. Rome, FAO. 2012. 150 pp. 30 colour plates - via World Register of Marine Species
Reich, M. (2013). How many species of fossil holothurians are there ? In: Johnson, C., ed.: Echinoderms in a Changing World. Boca Raton / London / New York / Leiden: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 23-51. - via World Register of Marine Species
Reich, M. (2014). Supplement to: ‘How many species of fossil holothurians are there ?'. Göttingen Contributions to Geosciences. 77: 161-162. - via World Register of Marine Species
Reich, M. (2015). Supplement 2 to “How many species of fossil holothurians are there?”. Zitteliana A. 55: 121-122. - via World Register of Marine Species
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
WoRMS (2013) Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.eu/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, G, Samuelsson, Cedhagen & Strand (2013) Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna. Tagghudingar–svalgsträngsdjur. Echinodermata– Hemichordata. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Purcell, S.W., Samyn, Y. & Conand, C. (2013). Commercially important sea cucumbers of the world. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 6. Rome, FAO. 2012. 150 pp. 30 colour plates - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Reich, M. (2013). How many species of fossil holothurians are there ? In: Johnson, C., ed.: Echinoderms in a Changing World. Boca Raton / London / New York / Leiden: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 23-51. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Reich, M. (2014). Supplement to: ‘How many species of fossil holothurians are there ?'. Göttingen Contributions to Geosciences. 77: 161-162. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Reich, M. (2015). Supplement 2 to “How many species of fossil holothurians are there?”. Zitteliana A. 55: 121-122. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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