登录注册
主页关于 MindatMindat手册Mindat的历史版权Who We Are联系我们于 Mindat.org刊登广告
捐赠给 MindatCorporate Sponsorship赞助板页已赞助的板页在 Mindat刊登 广告的广告商于 Mindat.org刊登广告
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe Elements书籍及杂志
搜索矿物的性质搜索矿物的化学Advanced Locality Search随意显示任何一 种矿物Random Locality使用minID搜索邻近产地Search Articles搜索词汇表更多搜索选项
搜索:
矿物名称:
地区产地名称:
关键字:
 
Mindat手册添加新照片Rate Photos产区编辑报告Coordinate Completion Report添加词汇表项目
Mining Companies统计会员列表Mineral Museums矿物展及活动The Mindat目录表设备设置
照片搜索Photo Galleries今天最新的照片昨天最新的照片用户照片相集过去每日精选照片相集Mineral Photography
BETA TEST - Fossil data and pages are very much experimental and under development. Please report any problems

Echinoidea

Description

Sea urchins, are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea. About 950 species live on the seabed, inhabiting all oceans and depth zones from the intertidal to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft; 2,700 fathoms). Their tests (hard shells) are round and spiny, typically from 3 to 10 cm (1 to 4 in) across. Sea urchins move slowly, crawling with their tube feet, and sometimes pushing themselves with their spines. They feed primarily on algae but also eat slow-moving or sessile animals. Their predators include sea otters, starfish, wolf eels, triggerfish, and humans.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)221https://www.gbif.org/species/221
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)32733https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=32733
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
TriploblasticaLankester 1877
NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermataKlein 1754
subphylumEchinozoavon Zittel 1895
classEchinoideaLeske 1778
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameEchinoidea
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)2,687
Extant Size (PBDB)449 (17%)
First Recorded Appearance470 - 458 Ma
Middle Ordovician
Environmentmarine (based on Echinodermata)
Motilityactively mobile
Visionlimited
Dietgrazer, deposit feeder
Reproductiondispersal=water,planktonic (based on Echinodermata)
Ontogenyaccretion,addition of parts (based on Echinodermata)
Taphonomyhigh Mg calcite
Primary Reference (PBDB)N. G. Leske. 1778. Jacobi Theodori Klein naturalis dispositio echinodermatum, edita et descriptionibus novisque inventis et synonomis auctorem aucta. Addimenta ad I. T. Klein naturalem dispositionem Echinodermatum, G. E. Beer, Leipzig
Common Name(s) Sea Urchins, Sea-urchins, Sea Urchin, Heart Urchins, Sand Dollars, Urchins
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echinoidea

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Arbacioida
order
accepted198168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Aspidodiadematoida
order
accepted8190 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Camarodonta
order
accepted252247 Ma
Early Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Cassiduloida
order
accepted370145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Cidaroida
order
acceptedPencil Urchin1,338296 Ma
Permian
0 Ma
Extant
Clypeasteroida
order
acceptedSand Dollar1,068101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Diadematoida
order
accepted21235 Ma
Late Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Echinolampadoida
order
accepted19786.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Echinoneoida
order
accepted154140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Echinothurioida
order
accepted18176 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Holasteroida
order
accepted646145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Holectypoida
order
accepted371170 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Micropygoida
order
accepted00 Ma
Extant
Pedinoida
order
accepted116237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Phymosomatoida
order
accepted310172 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Salenioida
order
accepted348183 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Spatangoida
order
acceptedHeart Urchin2,093145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Stomopneustoida
order
accepted77183 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Acrolusiidae
family
accepted0
Archaeocidaridae
family
accepted79427 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Bothriocidaridae
family
accepted14461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
444 Ma
Silurian
Catopygids
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Collyritidae
family
accepted5168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
161 Ma
Jurassic
Cravenechinidae
family
accepted2431 Ma
Silurian
296 Ma
Permian
Desorellidae
family
accepted1172 Ma
Middle Jurassic
168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
Disasteridae
family
accepted71168 Ma
Middle Jurassic
113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Echinocystitidae
family
accepted6421 Ma
Silurian
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Eodiadematidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eothuriidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Galeropygidae
family
accepted0
Gitolampadids
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Glyphopneustidae
family
accepted172.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hemicidaridae
family
accepted186190 Ma
Early Jurassic
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hemicidaroidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyattechinidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hyboclypids
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lenticidaridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lepidesthidae
family
accepted4408 Ma
Early Devonian
296 Ma
Permian
Lepidocentridae
family
accepted98456 Ma
Late Ordovician
304 Ma
Carboniferous
Orthopsidae
family
accepted59201 Ma
Early Jurassic
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Palaechinidae
family
accepted3345 Ma
Carboniferous
296 Ma
Permian
Pedinopsids
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proterocidaridae
family
accepted2247 Ma
Early Triassic
232 Ma
Late Triassic
Pseudodiadematidae
family
accepted279209 Ma
Late Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Pygasteridae
family
accepted19197 Ma
Early Jurassic
93.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Pygaulidae
family
accepted0
Pygorhytidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pygurids
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tiarechinidae
family
accepted1237 Ma
Middle Triassic
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Tithoniidae
family
accepted4165 Ma
Middle Jurassic
125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Triadotiaridae
family
accepted25251 Ma
Early Triassic
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Atlasaster
genus
accepted0
Besairecidaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bichordites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brangema
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bromidechinus
genus
accepted1461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
450 Ma
Late Ordovician
Cardioichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Crinocidaris
genus
accepted0
Cunidentechinus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Desoricidaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ereipichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Firmacidaris
genus
accepted1152 Ma
Late Jurassic
140 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Galeroclypeus
genus
accepted0
Gnathichnus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kieritiaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mizunamia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Notidisaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Proisaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pronucleolites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pygolampas
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Radiolus
genus
accepted5247 Ma
Early Triassic
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Temnaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thielicidaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Timorocidaris
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Leiotomaster bosei
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mandalacystis dockeryi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parviscutellina kewi
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Echinoida
order
Not linked to GBIF49extant314 Ma
Carboniferous
Oligopygoida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Disasteroida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Cidaroidea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF1,348extant296 Ma
Permian
Diplocidaroida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Acrosalenioida
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Perischoechinoidea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF148extinct470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
228 Ma
Late Triassic
Euechinoidea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF7,550extant247 Ma
Early Triassic
Temnopleuroida
order
Not linked to GBIF23extant70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Gnathostomata
superorder
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Regularia
subclass
Not linked to GBIF1extant5.33 Ma
Miocene
2.59 Ma
Pleistocene
Cassiduloidea
order
Not linked to GBIF8extant56.0 Ma
Paleocene
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Dysaster
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct151 Ma
Late Jurassic
145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Yunnanechinus
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct247 Ma
Early Triassic
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Exocycloidea
superfamily
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Centrechinoida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Exocycloida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1833Cidaris buchii Münster p. 121 figs. Pl 40, figs 5a,b
1841Pleurechinus Agassiz p. 7
1841Cidaris scrobiculata Braun p. 45 figs. Pl 3, fig 21
1841Cidaris dorsata Braun p. 46 figs. Pl 4, fig 1
1841Cidaris biformis Münster p. 43 figs. Pl 3, fig 13
1841Cidaris buchii Münster p. 43 figs. Pl 3, fig 11
1841Cidaris remifera Münster p. 43 figs. Pl 3, fig 12
1841Cidaris cingulata Münster p. 44 figs. Pl 3, fig 17
1841Cidaris trigona Münster p. 44 figs. Pl 3, fig 15
1841Cidaris decorata Münster p. 45 figs. Pl 3, fig 22
1841Cidaris linearis Münster p. 45 figs. Pl 3, fig 19
1841Cidaris semicostata Münster p. 45 figs. Pl 3, fig 20
1841Cidaris hausmanni Wissmann p. 44 figs. Pl 3, fig 14
1841Cidaris roemeri Wissmann p. 47 figs. Pl 4, fig 3
1841Cidaris waechteri Wissmann p. 48 figs. Pl 5, fig 22
1843Cidaris bispinosa Klipstein p. 272 figs. Pl 18, fig 12
1845Cidaris globifera Klipstein p. 271 figs. Pl 18, fig 9
1847Cidaris wissmanni Desor p. 26
1847Cidaris braunii Desor p. 31
1847Cidaris transversa von Meyer p. 576
1855Cidaris tyrolensis Desor p. 20 figs. Pl 2, fig 7
1855Cidaris avena Desor p. 21 figs. Pl 2, fig 25
1855Cidaris perplexa Desor p. 21 figs. Pl 2, fig 15
1855Cidaris similis Desor p. 22 figs. Pl 2, fig 28
1857Cidaris lanceata Stoppani p. 412
1857Cidaris alternata Stoppani p. 413
1857Cidaris spinachristi Stoppani p. 413
1857Cidaris verticillata Stoppani p. 413
1857Hemicidaris gracilis Stoppani p. 413
1857Hemicidaris obliquelineata Stoppani p. 413
1858Cidaris austriaca Desor p. 20 figs. Pl 2, fig 14
1865Cidaris dorsata Laube p. 63 figs. Pl 9, fig 12
1865Cidaris hausmanni Laube p. 64 figs. Pl 9, fig 13
1865Cidaris petersii Laube p. 64 figs. Pl 8b, fig 5
1865Cidaris scrobiculata Laube p. 65 figs. Pl 8b, fig 7
1865Cidaris trigona Laube p. 65 figs. Pl 8b, fig 6
1865Cidaris roemeri Laube p. 67 figs. Pl 10, fig 1
1865Cidaris buchii Laube p. 68 figs. Pl 10, fig 2
1865Cidaris semicostata Laube p. 69 figs. Pl 10, fig 3
1865Cidaris decorata Laube p. 70 figs. Pl 10, fig 5
1865Cidaris fustis Laube p. 70 figs. Pl 10, fig 4
1865Cidaris wissmanni Laube p. 71 figs. Pl 10, fig 8
1865Cidaris biformis Laube p. 72 figs. Pl 10, fig 9
1865Cidaris linearis Laube p. 72 figs. Pl 10, fig 10
1865Cidaris braunii Laube p. 73 figs. Pl 10, fig 6
1865Cidaris triserrata Laube p. 74 figs. Pl 10, fig 11
1865Cidaris alternata Stoppani
1865Cidaris lanceata Stoppani
1865Cidaris spinachristi Stoppani
1865Cidaris verticillata Stoppani
1865Hypodiadema gracilis Stoppani
1865Hypodiadema obliquelineata Stoppani
1865Cidaris caudex Stoppani p. 96 figs. Pl 19, fig 18
1865Cidaris stipes Stoppani p. 97 figs. Pl 19, fig 21
1872Cidaris stoppanii de Loriol p. 3 figs. Pl 1, figs 1-3
1874Ombria Quenstedt p. 298
1875Radiolus complanatus Quenstedt p. 196 figs. Pl 68, fig 87
1875Cidaris undulatus Quenstedt p. 199 figs. Pl 68, fig 98
1889Cidaris braunii von Wöhrmann p. 193 figs. Pl 5, figs 13, 14
1889Cidaris dorsata von Wöhrmann p. 193 figs. Pl 5, fig 12
1889Cidaris buchii von Wöhrmann p. 194 figs. Pl 5, fig 15
1889Cidaris schwageri von Wöhrmann p. 194 figs. Pl 5, figs 16,17
1889Cidaris decoratissima von Wöhrmann p. 196 figs. Pl 5, fig 20
1897Echinopluteus Mortensen p. 5
YearName and Author
1900Plegiocidaris senex Lambert p. 48
1904Echinoidea Clark p. 430
1905Cidaris regnyi Lambert p. 94
1909Radiolus raiblianus Bather p. 216 figs. Pl 13, figs 399-403; pl 16, figs 450,451
1909Radiolus penna Bather p. 218 figs. Pl 13, figs 404-412
1909Radiolus lineola Bather p. 230
1914Gajechinus Lambert and Thiéry p. 242
1915Echinoidea Clark and Twitchell p. 23
1920Dallonia Lambert
1926Cidaris ecki Assmann p. 517 figs. Pl 9, figs 7-10
1929Radiolus lineola Bather p. 230
1929Radiolus segmentatus Bather p. 236 figs. Pl 258(2), figs 27-29
1929Radiolus boletus Bather p. 239 figs. Pl 258, figs 36-38
1929Radiolus culter Bather p. 241 figs. Pl 258, figs 39-41
1929Radiolus festuca Bather p. 244 figs. Pl 258, figs 46-48
1929Radiolus fusus Bather p. 245 figs. Pl 258, fig 49
1930Vernius de Gregorio p. 18
1930Protocidaris de Gregorio p. 20
1936Radiolus adametzi Jekelius p. 49 figs. Pl 2, figs 50,51
1936Radiolus alutensis Jekelius p. 49 figs. Pl 2, fig 46
1936Radiolus racadaui Jekelius p. 49 figs. Pl 2, fig 47
1936Radiolus antipai Jekelius p. 50 figs. Pl 2, fig 48
1936Radiolus herbichi Jekelius p. 50 figs. Pl 2, fig 45
1937Cidaris remifera Assmann p. 23 figs. Pl 5, fig 17
1937Radiolus rostratus Korner p. 163 figs. Pl 11, fig 1
1938Echinoidea Grant and Hertlein p. 4
1950Cidaris zardini Leonardi and Lovo p. 9 figs. Pl 2, figs 21-24,26
1950Cidaris aculeata Leonardi and Lovo p. 10 figs. Pl 1, fig 8
1950Cidaris pyramidalis Leonardi and Lovo p. 10 figs. Pl 2, fig 25
1966Echinoidea Durham et al. p. U297
1973Cidaris seelandica Zardini p. 16 figs. Pl 11, figs 1-11; pl 21, fig 4
1973Cidaris tetraedrica Zardini p. 16 figs. Pl 7, figs 21-26
1973Cidaris biconica Zardini p. 18 figs. Pl 9, figs 1a-9b; pl 21, fig 5
1973Cidaris forminensis Zardini p. 18 figs. Pl 9, fig 13; pl 17, fig 9; pl 20, fig 35; pl 21, fig 8
1973Cidaris ovata Zardini p. 18 figs. Pl 8, figs 23-26
1973Cidaris costata Zardini p. 19 figs. Pl 10, figs 15,20
1973Cidaris alpina Zardini p. 20 figs. Pl 21, fig 3; pl 7, figs 27,28
1973Cidaris costalarensis Zardini p. 21 figs. Pl 12, figs 4-11c
1973Cidaris costeanensis Zardini p. 21 figs. Pl 10, fig 24; pl 17, figs 22,23; pl 18, fig 37
1973Cidaris plana Zardini p. 22 figs. Pl 12, fig 45; pl 15, fig 20; pl 19, fig 2; pl 22, fig 4
1973Cidaris spongiosa Zardini p. 22 figs. Pl 12, figs 47-50; pl 17, figs 5-8; pl 18, figs 10-13
1973Cidaris sulcata Zardini p. 22 figs. Pl 12, figs 12-17
1973Cidaris trapezoidalis Zardini p. 22 figs. Pl 12, figs 42-44,46
1973Cidaris coralliophila Zardini p. 23 figs. Pl 18, figs 26,27
1973Cidaris glabra Zardini p. 23 figs. Pl 12, figs 37-39; pl 18, fig 33
1973Cidaris milierensis Zardini p. 23 figs. Pl 12, figs 19-21
1973Cidaris verticillata Zardini p. 23 figs. Pl 18, figs 6-9
1973Cidaris quadriserrata Zardini p. 24 figs. Pl 13, figs 1,2,4; pl 22, fig 6
1973Cidaris reticulata Zardini p. 25 figs. Pl 13, figs 9-12
1973Cidaris tenuicostata Zardini p. 25 figs. Pl 13, fig 8; pl 19, fig 4; pl 22, fig 5
1973Cidaris quadrialata Zardini p. 28 figs. Pl 10, fig 27
1973Cidaris valparolae Zardini p. 28 figs. Pl 18, figs 30,31
1977Cidaris aialensis Kier p. 35
1984Echinoidea Squires p. 55
1987Echinoidea Squires p. 72
1998Echinoidea Barnes p. 312
2001Echinoidea Boczarowski p. 86
2002Echinoidea Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Protocidaris Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Vernius Sepkoski, Jr.
2009Echinoidea Webster et al. p. 248
2010Echinoidea Kroh and Smith p. 169
2014Cidaris dorsata Nützel and Kaim p. 426 fig. 11j

References

Leske N. G. , Jacobi Theodori Klein naturalis dispositio echinodermatum, edita et descriptionibus novisque inventis et synonomis auctorem aucta. Addimenta ad I. T. Klein naturalem dispositionem Echinodermatum, G. E. Beer, Leipzig, 1-278
Agassiz L. Préface, Monographies d’échinodermes vivans et fossiles. Anatomie des échinodermes. I. Monographie de anatomie du genre Echinus. L. Agassiz, Neuchâtel, 1-10
Braun C. F. Taxonomic names, in Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 1-152
Braun C. F. Taxonomic names, in Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 1-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Münster G. Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian. II. Beschreibung und Abbildung der in den Kalkmergelschichten von St. Cassian gefunden Versteinerungen, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 25-152
Wissmann H. L. Taxonomic names, in Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 1-152
Wissmann H. L. Taxonomic names, in Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 1-152
Wissmann H. L. Taxonomic names, in Beiträge zur Geognosie und Petrefacten-Kunde des südöstlichen Tirols vorzüglich der Schichten von St. Cassian, Beiträge zur Petrefacten-Kunde 4, 1-152
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Laube G. C. , Die Fauna der Schichten von St. Cassian: Ein Beitrag zur Paläontologie der Alpinen Trias. II. Abtheilung. Spongitarien, Corallen, Echiniden und Crinoiden, 1-76
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Stoppani A. Géologie et paléontologie des couches à Avicula contorta en Lombardie, Paleontologie Lombarde 3, 1-267
Quenstedt F. A. , Petrefactenkunde Deutschlands, Abtheilung 1, Band 3 Echinodermen. Die Echiniden. L. F. Fues, Leipzig, 1-724
von Wöhrmann S. Die Fauna der sogenannten Cardita- und Raibler-Schichten in den Nordtiroler und bayerischen Alpen., Jahrbuch des kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wein 39, 181-258
von Wöhrmann S. Die Fauna der sogenannten Cardita- und Raibler-Schichten in den Nordtiroler und bayerischen Alpen., Jahrbuch des kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wein 39, 181-258
von Wöhrmann S. Die Fauna der sogenannten Cardita- und Raibler-Schichten in den Nordtiroler und bayerischen Alpen., Jahrbuch des kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wein 39, 181-258
von Wöhrmann S. Die Fauna der sogenannten Cardita- und Raibler-Schichten in den Nordtiroler und bayerischen Alpen., Jahrbuch des kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wein 39, 181-258
von Wöhrmann S. Die Fauna der sogenannten Cardita- und Raibler-Schichten in den Nordtiroler und bayerischen Alpen., Jahrbuch des kaiserlich-königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wein 39, 181-258
Lambert J., Thiéry P. (1914) Essai de nomenclature Raisonnée des échinides, L. Ferrière, Chaumont 4, 241-320
Clark W. B., Twitchell M. W. (1915) The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Echinodermata of the United States, United States Geological Survey Bulletin 54, 1-341
de Gregorio A. (1930) Sul Permiano di Sicilia (fossili del calcare con Fusulina di Palazzo Adriano non descritti dal Prof. G. Gemmellaro conservati nel mio privato gabinetto), Annales de Géologie et de Paléontologie 52, 1-67
de Gregorio A. (1930) Sul Permiano di Sicilia (fossili del calcare con Fusulina di Palazzo Adriano non descritti dal Prof. G. Gemmellaro conservati nel mio privato gabinetto), Annales de Géologie et de Paléontologie 52, 1-67
Grant U. S., Hertlein L. G. (1938) The West American Cenozoic Echinoidea, Publications of the University of California at Los Angeles in Mathematical and Physical Sciences 2, 1-225
Kier P. M. (1977) Triassic Echinoids, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 30, 1-88
Squires R. L. (1984) Megapaleontology of the Eocene Llajas Formation, Simi Valley, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 350, 1-76
Squires R. L. (1987) Eocene molluscan paleontology of the Whitaker Peak area, Los Angeles and Ventura counties, California, Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 388, 1-93
Boczarowski A. (2001) Isolated sclerites of Devonian nonpelmatozoan echinoderms, Palaeontologia Polonica 59, 3-220
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Webster G. D., Waters J. A., et al (2009) New Pennsylvanian (Moscovian) echinoderms from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, Palaeoworld 18, 241-250
Kroh A., Smith A. B. (2010) The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 8 2, 147-212 doi:10.1080/14772011003603556
Nützel A., Kaim A. (2014) Diversity, palaeoecology and systematics of a marine fossil assemblage from the Late Triassic Cassian Formation at Settsass Scharte, N Italy, Palaeontologische Zeitschrift 88, 405-431 doi:10.1007/s12542-013-0205-1
Smith, Andrew B., 1984: Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology, vol 27, pt. 3. 431-459. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Hendler, Gordon, John E. Miller, David L. Pawson, and Porter M. Kier, 1995: null. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. xi + 390. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 2002: null. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Marine Species
Kroh, A. & Smith, A.B. (2010): The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8/2: 147-212. - via World Register of Marine Species
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (2002) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Wolff, W.J. (1975) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
WoRMS (2013) Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.eu/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, G, Samuelsson, Cedhagen & Strand (2013) Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna. Tagghudingar–svalgsträngsdjur. Echinodermata– Hemichordata. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Kroh, A. & Smith, A.B. (2010): The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8/2: 147-212. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
矿物 and/or 产地  
版权所有© mindat.org1993年至2020年,除了规定的地方。 Mindat.org全赖于全球数千个以上成员和支持者们的参与。
隐私政策 - 条款和条款细则 - 联络我们 Current server date and time: 2020.2.24 15:01:39
Go to top of page