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Magnoliopsida

Description

Magnoliopsida is a valid botanical name for a class of flowering plants. By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae, but its circumscription can otherwise vary, being more inclusive or less inclusive depending upon the classification system being discussed.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)220https://www.gbif.org/species/220
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)55217https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=55217
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF)Life : Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida
Taxonomy (PBDB)Life : Plantae : Spermatophyta : Magnoliopsida
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomPlantaeHaeckel 1866
phylumSpermatophyta
classMagnoliopsidaCronquist et al. 1996
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameMagnoliopsida
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)1,723
Extant Size (PBDB)368 (21%)
First Recorded Appearance433 - 427 Ma
Silurian
Primary Reference (PBDB)P. Kenrick and P.R. Crane. 1997. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: a Cladistic Study
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnoliopsida

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Amborellales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Apiales
order
accepted221145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Aquifoliales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Asterales
order
accepted19986.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Austrobaileyales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Berberidopsidales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Boraginales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brassicales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Bruniales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Buxales
order
accepted83113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
20.4 Ma
Miocene
Canellales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Capparales
order
accepted30.78 Ma
Pleistocene
Caryophyllales
order
accepted11983.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Celastrales
order
accepted118101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Ceratophyllales
order
accepted1145 Ma
Late Jurassic
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Chloranthales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cornales
order
accepted42083.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Crossosomatales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cucurbitales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dilleniales
order
accepted29101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Dipsacales
order
accepted80101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Ericales
order
accepted24599.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Escalloniales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Fabales
order
accepted597101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Fagales
order
accepted2,248145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Garryales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gentianales
order
accepted7066.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Geraniales
order
accepted3056.0 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Gunnerales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Huerteales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Icacinales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lamiales
order
accepted1241.3 Ma
Eocene
0 Ma
Extant
Laurales
order
accepted66112 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Magnoliales
order
accepted1,461145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Malpighiales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Malvales
order
accepted482125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Metteniusales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Myrtales
order
accepted824145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Nepenthales
order
accepted21129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Nymphaeales
order
accepted146129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Oxalidales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paracryphiales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Picramniales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Piperales
order
accepted370.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Proteales
order
accepted1,935433 Ma
Silurian
0 Ma
Extant
Ranunculales
order
accepted480122 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Rosales
order
accepted745129 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Santalales
order
accepted165113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Sapindales
order
accepted1,057101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Saxifragales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Solanales
order
accepted6658.7 Ma
Paleocene
0 Ma
Extant
Trochodendrales
order
accepted1570.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
63.3 Ma
Paleocene
Vahliales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Vitales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Zygophyllales
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Archaefructaceae
family
accepted2164 Ma
Middle Jurassic
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Flacourtiaceae
family
accepted1770.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Globulariaceae
family
accepted0
Haloragidaceae
family
accepted0
Myoporaceae
family
accepted0
Acaciaephyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Aceriphyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Achaenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Acritodromum
genus
accepted0
Ailanthipites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Albertipollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Amphitoa
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anisodromum
genus
accepted0
Aptiana
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Baculamonocolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Berendtia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Brevitricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caloda
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cantia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Carlquistoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Catinipollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Caulinites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chalkoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chaneya
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Clavatricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Colombipollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Costaecarpus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Curvimonocolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Dicotylophyllum
genus
accepted112113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
0 Ma
Extant
Didromophyllum
genus
accepted0
Dillhoffia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Discosemen
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Doryanthites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Duplotriporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echimonocolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Echitetracolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eislebenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoachras
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ericipites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Faureoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Favitricolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Ficophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Forcipites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foveodiporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foveotricolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Foveotriporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gemmatricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Gnafalea
genus
accepted1145 Ma
Late Jurassic
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Haloragacidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Hercynocarpus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Holstia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Jandufouria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Juglandiphyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kachaikenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Kurtziflora
genus
accepted0
Ladakhipollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Laramisemen
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Lesqueria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Malvacipollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Metcalfeoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Microrrhagion
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Momipites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Monocotylophyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Moutonia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Noferinia
genus
accepted185.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Normacarpus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pandaniidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Paraphyllanthoxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Parsonsidites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Periporopollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Periretisyncolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Perseoxylon
genus
accepted0
Phyllites
genus
accepted67242 Ma
Middle Triassic
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Plantaginopsis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plataninium
genus
accepted4113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Poloretitricolpites
genus
accepted148.6 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Polycolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Polyporina
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pseudophragmites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Psilatricolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Quadraplanus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Quadricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Quedlinburgia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Quercinium
genus
accepted159.2 Ma
Paleocene
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Reynoldsiophyllum
genus
accepted0
Rhoipites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Rousea
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Senipites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Siltaria
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Srivastavapollenites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Striatopollis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Striatricolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Suevioxylon
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Syndemicolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tetracolporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thalassocharis
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thalassotaenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thorhallenia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Thorphyllum
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Tricolpites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Triorites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Verrustephanoporites
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Wardiaphyllum
genus
accepted266.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Wietersdorfia
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Anceptophyllum pulcrum
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Retinovena fluvialis
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Eudicot
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF11,706extant433 Ma
Silurian
Rosidae
subclass
Not linked to GBIF1,047extant145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Caryophyllidae
subclass
Not linked to GBIF178extant83.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Hamamelidae
subclass
Not linked to GBIF827extant101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Dilleniidae
subclass
Not linked to GBIF1,794extant145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Asteridae
subclass
Not linked to GBIF363extant242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Salicales
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Ranales
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Parietales
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Myrtiflorae
order
Not linked to GBIF16872.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Umbelliflorae
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Ebenales
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Contortae
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Campanulatae
order
Not linked to GBIF0
Kenella
genus
Not linked to GBIF2113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
93.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Araliopsoides
genus
Not linked to GBIF4extinct113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Carpestella
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct112 Ma
Early Cretaceous
105 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Austrobaileyales
order
Not linked to GBIF43extant83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Magnoliid
unranked clade
Not linked to GBIF1,584extant145 Ma
Late Jurassic
Metcalfeoxylon
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Paraphyllanthoxylon
genus
Not linked to GBIF11extinct113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Icacinoxylon
genus
Not linked to GBIF5extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Quereuxia
genus
Not linked to GBIF30extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Caloda
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
93.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Celastrophyllum
genus
Not linked to GBIF11extinct145 Ma
Late Jurassic
70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Gemmatricolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF22extinct99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Clavatricolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF19extinct72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Tricolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF553extinct145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Brevitricolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF18extinct58.7 Ma
Paleocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Psilatricolporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF159extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Foveotricolporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF21extinct89.8 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Striatricolporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF46extinct101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Retitricolporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF101extinct145 Ma
Late Jurassic
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Gemmamonocolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF37extinct113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Echimonocolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF13extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Foveotriporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF34extinct55.8 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Ericipites
genus
Not linked to GBIF60extinct72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Rousea
genus
Not linked to GBIF97extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Striatopollis
genus
Not linked to GBIF62extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Scabrastephanocolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF6extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Catinipollis
genus
Not linked to GBIF10extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Tricolporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF107extinct113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
3.60 Ma
Pliocene
Triorites
genus
Not linked to GBIF133extinct113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Haloragacidites
genus
Not linked to GBIF71extinct72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Malvacipollis
genus
Not linked to GBIF72extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.78 Ma
Pleistocene
Verrustephanoporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF20extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Periporopollenites
genus
Not linked to GBIF49extinct101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Parsonsidites
genus
Not linked to GBIF5extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Rhoipites
genus
Not linked to GBIF183extinct99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.78 Ma
Pleistocene
Senipites
genus
Not linked to GBIF26extinct101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
5.33 Ma
Miocene
Srivastavapollenites
genus
Not linked to GBIF2extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Tetracolporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF22extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Forcipites
genus
Not linked to GBIF11extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Quadraplanus
genus
Not linked to GBIF5extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Ulmoideipites
genus
Not linked to GBIF17extinct101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
48.6 Ma
Eocene
Kachaikenia
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Thorphyllum
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Rogersia
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct125 Ma
Early Cretaceous
101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Polycolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF18extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Thorhallenia
genus
Not linked to GBIF4extinct113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
93.9 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Ailanthipites
genus
Not linked to GBIF17extinct72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
11.6 Ma
Miocene
Stephanocolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF35extinct145 Ma
Late Jurassic
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Momipites
genus
Not linked to GBIF73extinct86.3 Ma
Late Cretaceous
13.8 Ma
Miocene
Syndemicolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Albertipollenites
genus
Not linked to GBIF9extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Favitricolporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF36extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Pandaniidites
genus
Not linked to GBIF4extinct101 Ma
Late Cretaceous
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Polyporina
genus
Not linked to GBIF11extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
0.13 Ma
Pleistocene
Quadricolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct122 Ma
Early Cretaceous
99.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Dicotetradites
genus
Not linked to GBIF7extinct58.7 Ma
Paleocene
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Gambierina
genus
Not linked to GBIF17extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
16.0 Ma
Miocene
Basopollis
genus
Not linked to GBIF32extinct83.5 Ma
Late Cretaceous
33.9 Ma
Oligocene
Callistopollenites
genus
Not linked to GBIF4extinct70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
56.0 Ma
Paleocene
Dryoxylon
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous
61.7 Ma
Paleocene
Periretisyncolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF10extinct113 Ma
Early Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Ladakhipollenites
genus
Not linked to GBIF8extinct70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Araliaceoipollenites
genus
Not linked to GBIF9extinct55.8 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Baculamonocolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF6extinct55.8 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Colombipollis
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct58.7 Ma
Paleocene
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Curvimonocolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF6extinct58.7 Ma
Paleocene
55.8 Ma
Eocene
Duplotriporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF3extinct55.8 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Echitetracolpites
genus
Not linked to GBIF19extinct48.6 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Foveodiporites
genus
Not linked to GBIF0extinct
Horniella
genus
Not linked to GBIF11extinct58.7 Ma
Paleocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Jandufouria
genus
Not linked to GBIF7extinct48.6 Ma
Eocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Siltaria
genus
Not linked to GBIF27extinct58.7 Ma
Paleocene
37.2 Ma
Eocene
Lefipania
genus
Not linked to GBIF1extinct70.6 Ma
Late Cretaceous
66.0 Ma
Late Cretaceous

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1941Dicotyledones MacGinitie
1976Dicotyledoneae Christophel
1977Dicotyledoneae Hickey
1983Magnoliopsida Hueber p. 272
1989Dicotyledonae Shoshani et al. p. 434
1990Magnoliopsida Upchurch and Dilcher
1993Magnoliopsida McIver and Basinger
YearName and Author
1994Magnoliopsida Upchurch et al.
1995Magnoliopsida McLoughlin et al.
1996Magnoliopsida Cronquist et al.
1997Magnoliopsida Kenrick and Crane
2000Dicotyledoneae Mabberley
2003Dicotyledonae Sims
2011Magnoliopsida Jud

References

Kenrick P., Crane P.R. (1997) , The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: a Cladistic Study
MacGinitie H. D. (1941) A Middle Eocene Flora from the Central Sierra Nevada, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 534, 1-178
Christophel D. C. (1976) Fossil floras of the Smoky Tower locality, Alberta, Canada, Palaeontographica Abteilung B 157 1-4, 1-43
Hickey L. J. (1977) Stratigraphy and paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of western North Dakota, The Geological Society of America Memoir 150, 1-183
Hueber F. M. (1983) Fossil woods and resin-like substances from the Lee Creek Mine, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 53, 269-285
Shoshani J., Fisher D. C., et al (1989) The Shelton Mastodon Site: Multidisciplinary study of a late Pleistocene (Twocreekan) locality in Southeastern Michigan, Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 27 14, 393-436
Upchurch G. R., Dilcher D. L. (1990) Cenomanian Angiosperm Leaf Megafossils, Dakota Formation, Rose Creek Locality, Jefferson County, Southeastern Nebraska, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1915
McIver E. E., Basinger J. F. (1993) Flora of the Ravenscrag Formation (Paleocene), Southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, Palaeontographica Canadiana 10, 1-85
Upchurch G. R., Crane P. R., et al (1994) The Megaflora from the Quantico Locality (Upper Albian), Lower Cretaceous Potomac Group of Virginia, Virginia Museum of Natural History 4, 1-57
McLoughlin S., Drinnan A. N., et al (1995) A Cenomanian Flora from the Winton Formation, Eromanga Basin, Queensland, Australia, Memoirs of the Queensland Museam 38 1, 273-313
Mabberley D.J. (2000) The Plant-Book, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 858 p.
Jud N. A. (2011) Unpublished taxonomic opinions
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via World Register of Marine Species
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Ruggiero M, Gordon D, Bailly N, Kirk P, Nicolson D (2012) The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th April 2012 (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Culham A., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Appeltans W., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Kenrick, P.R. (1997) The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Ruggiero, M. A.; Gordon, D. P.; Orrell, T. M.; Bailly, N.; Bourgoin, T.; Brusca, R. C.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Guiry, M. D.; Kirk, P. M. (2015). A higher level classification of all living organisms. PLOS ONE. 10(4): e0119248. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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