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Asteroidea

Description

Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea. Common usage frequently finds these names being also applied to ophiuroids, which are correctly referred to as brittle stars or basket stars. About 1,500 species of starfish occur on the seabed in all the world's oceans, from the tropics to frigid polar waters. They are found from the intertidal zone down to abyssal depths, 6,000 m (20,000 ft) below the surface.


Source Data
SourceIDLink
Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF)214https://www.gbif.org/species/214
PaleoBioDB ID (PBDB)31341https://paleobiodb.org/classic/checkTaxonInfo?taxon_no=31341
Rankclass
Taxonomy (GBIF,PBDB)Life : Animalia : Echinodermata : Asteroidea
Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted
Classification
RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimaliaLinnaeus 1758
TriploblasticaLankester 1877
NephrozoaJondelius et al. 2002
DeuterostomiaGrobben 1908
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermataKlein 1754
subphylumAsterozoavon Zittel 1895
classAsteroideade Blainville 1830
Unranked entries are considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors may disagree about how to rank taxa.
Scientific NameAsteroidea
Status (PBDB)extant
Taxon Size (PBDB)1,002
Extant Size (PBDB)133 (13%)
First Recorded Appearance485 - 472 Ma
Paleozoic
Environmentmarine (based on Echinodermata)
Motilityslow-moving
Visionlimited
Dietcarnivore
Reproductiondispersal=water,planktonic (based on Echinodermata)
Ontogenyaccretion,addition of parts (based on Echinodermata)
Ecospace CommentsECOSPACE CODE: 325.
Taphonomyhigh Mg calcite
Primary Reference (PBDB)H.-M. D. de Blainville. 1830. Zoophytes. Dictionnaire de Sciences Naturelles 60:1-546
Common Name(s) Sea Stars, Starfish, Starfishes, Sea Star
Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteroidea

External Images

Fossil Distribution

Subtaxa

NameStatusCommon Name(s)Fossil OccurrencesOldestYoungest
Brisingida
order
accepted120.4 Ma
Miocene
0 Ma
Extant
Forcipulatida
order
accepted53201 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Notomyotida
order
accepted17165 Ma
Middle Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Paxillosida
order
accepted180237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Peripodida
order
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Spinulosida
order
accepted18201 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Valvatida
order
accepted594237 Ma
Middle Triassic
0 Ma
Extant
Velatida
order
accepted13201 Ma
Early Jurassic
0 Ma
Extant
Calliasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Chinianasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Embolasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Eoactinidae
family
accepted1443 Ma
Silurian
433 Ma
Silurian
Eukrinasteridae
family
accepted4479 Ma
Early Ordovician
472 Ma
Early Ordovician
Fandasteridae
family
accepted2354 Ma
Carboniferous
343 Ma
Carboniferous
Helianthasteridae
family
accepted3409 Ma
Early Devonian
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Hudsonasteridae
family
accepted49470 Ma
Middle Ordovician
361 Ma
Late Devonian
Lepyriactinidae
family
accepted1439 Ma
Silurian
433 Ma
Silurian
Mesopalaeasteridae
family
accepted2443 Ma
Silurian
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Migmasteridae
family
accepted2247 Ma
Early Triassic
242 Ma
Middle Triassic
Monasteridae
family
accepted4299 Ma
Carboniferous
272 Ma
Permian
Omanasteridae
family
accepted1296 Ma
Permian
290 Ma
Permian
Palaeasteridae
family
accepted8453 Ma
Late Ordovician
279 Ma
Permian
Palaeosolasteridae
family
accepted0
Palaeostellidae
family
accepted0
Palasterinidae
family
accepted18466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Palasteriscidae
family
accepted10461 Ma
Middle Ordovician
383 Ma
Late Devonian
Paulasteriidae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Petrasteridae
family
accepted0
Platyasteridae
family
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Plumasteridae
family
accepted0
Promopalaeasteridae
family
accepted3466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
393 Ma
Early Devonian
Protarthrasteridae
family
accepted0
Schoenasteridae
family
accepted1345 Ma
Carboniferous
343 Ma
Carboniferous
Schuchertiidae
family
accepted0
Taeniactinidae
family
accepted3439 Ma
Silurian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Trichasteropsiidae
family
accepted22247 Ma
Early Triassic
235 Ma
Late Triassic
Uranasteridae
family
accepted0
Urasterellidae
family
accepted36472 Ma
Early Ordovician
388 Ma
Middle Devonian
Xenasteridae
family
accepted2409 Ma
Early Devonian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Arisaigaster
genus
accepted1431 Ma
Silurian
427 Ma
Silurian
Carniaster
genus
accepted1232 Ma
Late Triassic
222 Ma
Late Triassic
Eostella
genus
accepted0
Eriaster
genus
accepted1485 Ma
Cambrian
472 Ma
Early Ordovician
Hunsrueckaster
genus
accepted1409 Ma
Early Devonian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Illusioluidia
genus
accepted1306 Ma
Carboniferous
303 Ma
Carboniferous
Lacertasterias
genus
accepted1359 Ma
Late Devonian
354 Ma
Carboniferous
Macroporaster
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Miomaster
genus
accepted0
Palasteriscus
genus
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Pleiadeaster
genus
accepted1365 Ma
Late Devonian
361 Ma
Late Devonian
Protasteracanthion
genus
accepted1409 Ma
Early Devonian
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Schondorfia
genus
accepted1326 Ma
Carboniferous
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Trichotaster
genus
accepted0
Asteropecten marginatus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Cheiropteraster gigantea
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Mista spinosa
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB
Taeniaster maximus
species
acceptedNo associated record in PBDB

Unlinked PBDB sub-entries

NameStatusFossil OccurrencesExtantOldestYoungest
Platyasterida
order
Not linked to GBIF52extinct479 Ma
Early Ordovician
303 Ma
Carboniferous
Hemizonida
order
Not linked to GBIF9extinct439 Ma
Silurian
318 Ma
Carboniferous
Pustulosida
order
Not linked to GBIF17extinct453 Ma
Late Ordovician
279 Ma
Permian
Spinulosacea
superorder
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Phanerozonida
order
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Euasteroidea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF0extant
Cryptozonia
order
Not linked to GBIF1extant345 Ma
Carboniferous
343 Ma
Carboniferous
Ambuloasteroidea
subclass
Not linked to GBIF899extant409 Ma
Early Devonian
0.01 Ma
Pleistocene
Kermasida
order
Not linked to GBIF14extinct345 Ma
Carboniferous
272 Ma
Permian
Euaxosida
order
Not linked to GBIF19extinct466 Ma
Middle Ordovician
403 Ma
Early Devonian
Phanerozoma
order
Not linked to GBIF0extinct

Synonymy List

YearName and Author
1830Asteroidea de Blainville
1895Asteroidea von Zittel
1915Asteroidea Schuchert p. 51
1965Asteroidea Owen p. 559
1966Asteroidea Spencer and Wright p. U42
1989Asteroidea Blake p. 213
YearName and Author
1998Asteroidea Barnes p. 309
2002Asteroidea Sepkoski, Jr.
2005Asteroidea Dean Shackleton p. 91
2013Asteroidea Blake p. 355
2018Asteroidea Blake p. 29

References

de Blainville H.-M. D. Zoophytes, Dictionnaire de Sciences Naturelles 60, 1-546
von Zittel K. A. , Grundzuge der Palaeontologie, 1-971
Schuchert C. (1915) Revision of Paleozoic Stelleroidea with special reference to North American Asteroidea, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 88, 1-311
Spencer W. K., Wright C.W. (1966) Asterozoans, Moore R.C. ed, Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Echinodermata, University of Kansas Press and the Geological Society of America 3 1, U4-U107
Blake D. B. (1989) Asteroidea: functional morphology, classification and phylogeny, In M. Jangoux & J.M. Lawrence (Eds.) Echinoderm studies, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam 3, 179-223
Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, Bulletins of American Paleontology 363, 1-560
Dean Shackleton J. (2005) Skeletal homologies, phylogeny and classification of the earliest asterozoan echinoderms, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 3 1, 29-114
Blake D. B. (2013) Early asterozoan (Echinodermata) diversification: a paleontologic quandary, Journal of Paleontology 87 3, 353-372
Blake D. B. (2018) Toward a History of the Paleozoic Asteroidea (Echinodermata), Bulletins of American Paleontology 394, 1-96
Clark, Ailsa M., and Maureen E. Downey, 1992: null. Starfishes of the Atlantic. xxvi + 794. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca, 2002: null. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936. - via Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS)
Gärdenfors, Ulf, Hall, Ragnar, Hallingbäck, Tomas, Hansson, Hans G. & Hedström, Lars (2003) Djur, svampar och växter i Sverige 2003. Förteckning över antal arter per familj. ArtDatabanken Rapporterar 5, ArtDatabanken, Uppsala. (reviderad excelfil med svenska djurfamiljer). - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Parker, S.P. (ed). (1982). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 2 volumes. - via The Interim Register of Marine and Nonmarine Genera
WoRMS (2013) Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.eu/ - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Hansson, G, Samuelsson, Cedhagen & Strand (2013) Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna. Tagghudingar–svalgsträngsdjur. Echinodermata– Hemichordata. - via Dyntaxa. Svensk taxonomisk databas
Clark, A.M. (1993). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 2: Valvatida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (1993). Echinoderm Studies, 4: pp. 187-366 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Mah, C.L. (2006). A new species of Xyloplax from the Northeast Pacific: comparative morphology and a reassessment of phylogeny. Invertebrate Biology 125 (2): 136-153 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Clark, A.M. (1993). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 2: Valvatida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (1993). Echinoderm Studies, 4: pp. 187-366 - via World Register of Marine Species
Mah, C.L. (2006). A new species of Xyloplax from the Northeast Pacific: comparative morphology and a reassessment of phylogeny. Invertebrate Biology 125 (2): 136-153 - via World Register of Marine Species
Leeuwis, Rob (2002) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Clark, A.M. (1996). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 3. Velatida and Spinulosida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (1996). Echinoderm Studies, 5: pp. 183-250 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Blake, D. B. (1987). A classification and phylogeny of post-Palaeozoic sea stars (Asteroidea: Echinodermata). Journal of Natural History. 21(2): 481-528. - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Clark, A.M. (1996). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 3. Velatida and Spinulosida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (1996). Echinoderm Studies, 5: pp. 183-250 - via World Register of Marine Species
Hansson, H.G. (2001). Echinodermata, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels,. 50: pp. 336-351. - via World Register of Marine Species
Blake, D. B. (1987). A classification and phylogeny of post-Palaeozoic sea stars (Asteroidea: Echinodermata). Journal of Natural History. 21(2): 481-528. - via World Register of Marine Species
Wolff, W.J. (1975) - via Taxa Watermanagement the Netherlands (TWN)
Clark, A.M. (1989). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 1: Paxillosida and Notomyotida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (1989). Echinoderm Studies, 3: pp. 225-347 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Clark, A.M.and Mah, C. (2001). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 4. Forcipulatida and Brisingida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (2001). Echinoderm Studies, 6: pp. 229-347 - via World Register of Introduced Marine Species (WRiMS)
Clark, A.M. (1989). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 1: Paxillosida and Notomyotida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (1989). Echinoderm Studies, 3: pp. 225-347 - via World Register of Marine Species
Clark, A.M.and Mah, C. (2001). An index of names of recent Asteroidea, part 4. Forcipulatida and Brisingida, in: Jangoux, M.; Lawrence, J.M. (Ed.) (2001). Echinoderm Studies, 6: pp. 229-347 - via World Register of Marine Species
Data courtesy of: PBDB: The Paleobiology Database, Creative Commons CC-BY licenced. , GBIF: the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, various licences, iDigBio, various licences, and EOL: The Encyclopedia of Life (Open Data Public Domain). Because fossils are made of minerals too!
 
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